In RBJ's Audio EQ Cookbook, the analog prototype for a low shelf filter is given as such:

$$H(s)=A\cdot\frac{s^2+\left(\frac{\sqrt{A}}{Q}\right)\cdot s + A}{A\cdot s^2 + \left(\frac{\sqrt{A}}{Q}\right)\cdot s + 1}$$

Where does this prototype come from? From what I understand, the lowpass and highpass filters are standard Butterworth filters. But how was this particular transfer function derived? Is it some transformation of a Butterworth filter?

  • 4
    $\begingroup$ If you are lucky, you might get the answer from the man himself ;) $\endgroup$ – jojek Mar 23 at 10:30
  • 1
    $\begingroup$ What did you mean by "the lowpass and highpass filters are standard Butterworth filters"? That a 2nd order is automatically a Butterworth? $\endgroup$ – a concerned citizen Mar 23 at 12:07
  • 4
    $\begingroup$ @RobertBristow-Johnson $\endgroup$ – Dan Boschen Mar 23 at 13:28
  • $\begingroup$ @aconcernedcitizen Correct me if I'm wrong, but it appears that the LPF and HPF analog prototypes in the cookbook are identical to 2nd order Butterworth filters, with an adjustable Q factor. $\endgroup$ – noshwins Mar 23 at 15:01
  • 1
    $\begingroup$ There is no such thing as an "adjustable Butterworth". A Butterworth (2nd order) has a fixed Q=0.7071. Butterworth is not the name of a class of filters, it's a specific type of filter out of many, such as Chebyshev, Papoulis, Bessel, Halpern, etc. What you're dealing with is a generic biquad, a general representation of a 2nd order transfer function. Not a Butterworth, or a Bessel, Cauer/elliptic, Pascal, etc. $\endgroup$ – a concerned citizen Mar 23 at 15:08

If you remove (for the time being) that leading factor $A$ as a constant gain factor:

$$H(s)=\frac{s^2+\left(\frac{\sqrt{A}}{Q}\right)s + A}{As^2 + \left(\frac{\sqrt{A}}{Q}\right)s + 1}$$

what you get then is a symmetric, but otherwise general shelf that could be equally described as "LowShelf" or "HighShelf". In dB, the gain at the low end is the negative of the dB gain at the high end. And, in log gain (dB) vs. log frequency (octaves or decades), the gain function always has odd symmetry about the "resonant frequency" (more accurately described as the "significant frequency" which is the shelf mid-point frequency, a little different from the biquad resonant frequency), which in the normalized case, is $\Omega_0=1$. At that shelf mid-point frequency this general low/high shelf has a gain of $1$ (or 0 dB).

$$\begin{align} \Big|H(s)\Big|^2 &= \left| \frac{s^2+\left(\frac{\sqrt{A}}{Q}\right)s + A}{As^2 + \left(\frac{\sqrt{A}}{Q}\right)s + 1} \right|^2 \\ \\ \Big|H(j\Omega)\Big|^2 &= \left| \frac{(j\Omega)^2+\left(\frac{\sqrt{A}}{Q}\right)(j\Omega) + A}{A(j\Omega)^2 + \left(\frac{\sqrt{A}}{Q}\right)(j\Omega) + 1} \right|^2 \\ \\ &= \left| \frac{A-\Omega^2+j\frac{\sqrt{A}}{Q}\Omega}{1-A\Omega^2+j\frac{\sqrt{A}}{Q}\Omega} \right|^2 \\ \\ &= \frac{\Big|A-\Omega^2+j\frac{\sqrt{A}}{Q}\Omega \Big|^2}{\Big|1-A\Omega^2+j\frac{\sqrt{A}}{Q}\Omega\Big|^2} \\ \\ &= \frac{(A-\Omega^2)^2+\left(\frac{\sqrt{A}}{Q}\Omega\right)^2}{(1-A\Omega^2)^2+\left(\frac{\sqrt{A}}{Q}\Omega\right)^2} \\ \\ &= \frac{ A^2-2A\Omega^2+\Omega^4 + \frac{A}{Q^2} \Omega^2}{1-2A\Omega^2+A^2\Omega^4 + \frac{A}{Q^2} \Omega^2} \\ \\ &= \frac{ A+\frac{1}{A}\Omega^4 - (2 - \frac{1}{Q^2}) \Omega^2}{\frac{1}{A}+A\Omega^4 - (2 -\frac{1}{Q^2}) \Omega^2} \\ \\ &= \frac{ \frac{A}{\Omega^2}+\frac{\Omega^2}{A} - (2 - \frac{1}{Q^2})}{\frac{1}{A\Omega^2}+A\Omega^2 - (2 -\frac{1}{Q^2})} \\ \end{align}$$

Remember that the "significant frequency" is set to one. If you express the normalized frequency in terms of log frequency, then

$$ \Omega \triangleq 2^p $$

where $p$ is the log frequency, in octaves, centered at the "significant frequency".

$$\begin{align} \Big|H(j2^p)\Big|^2 &= \frac{ \frac{A}{2^{2p}}+\frac{2^{2p}}{A} - (2 - \frac{1}{Q^2})}{\frac{1}{A2^{2p}}+A2^{2p} - (2 -\frac{1}{Q^2})} \\ \\ &= \frac{2^{2p-\log_2(A)} + 2^{-2p+\log_2(A)} - (2 - \frac{1}{Q^2})}{2^{2p+\log_2(A)} + 2^{-2p-\log_2(A)} - (2 - \frac{1}{Q^2})} \\ \\ &= \frac{2 \cosh\big(\log(2)(2p-\log_2(A))\big) - (2 - \frac{1}{Q^2})}{2 \cosh\big(\log(2)(2p+\log_2(A))\big) - (2 - \frac{1}{Q^2})} \\ \\ &= \frac{\cosh\big(2\log(2)p-\log(A)\big) - (1 - \frac{1}{2Q^2})}{\cosh\big(2\log(2)p+\log(A)\big) - (1 - \frac{1}{2Q^2})} \\ \end{align}$$

Now if we express this as log amplitude (let's say in dB) vs. log frequency (in octaves w.r.t. the "significant frequency"), this becomes

$$\begin{align} \tfrac{10}{\log(10)} \log \left(\Big|H(j2^p)\Big|^2 \right) &= \tfrac{10}{\log(10)} \log \left(\frac{\cosh\big(2\log(2)p-\log(A)\big) - (1-\frac{1}{2Q^2})}{\cosh\big(2\log(2)p+\log(A)\big) - (1-\frac{1}{2Q^2})}\right) \\ \\ &= \tfrac{10}{\log(10)} \log \left(\cosh\big(2\log(2)p-\log(A)\big) - (1-\tfrac{1}{2Q^2})\right) \\ & \qquad - \tfrac{10}{\log(10)} \log \left(\cosh\big(2\log(2)p+\log(A)\big) - (1-\tfrac{1}{2Q^2})\right) \\ \end{align}$$

Since $\cosh(\cdot)$ is an even-symmetry function, I think you can show that the function above is an odd-symmetry function in $p$. Substitute $-p$ in for $p$ and you will see that the + and - terms swap.

$$\begin{align} \frac{\mathrm{d}}{\mathrm{d}p} \tfrac{10}{\log(10)} \log \left(\Big|H(j2^p)\Big|^2 \right) &= \tfrac{10}{\log(10)} \frac{\mathrm{d}}{\mathrm{d}p} \log \left(\cosh\big(2\log(2)p-\log(A)\big) - (1-\tfrac{1}{2Q^2})\right) \\ & \qquad - \tfrac{10}{\log(10)} \frac{\mathrm{d}}{\mathrm{d}p} \log \left(\cosh\big(2\log(2)p+\log(A)\big) - (1-\tfrac{1}{2Q^2})\right) \\ \\ &= \tfrac{10}{\log(10)} \frac{2\log(2)\sinh\big(2\log(2)p-\log(A)\big)}{ \cosh\big(2\log(2)p-\log(A)\big) - (1-\tfrac{1}{2Q^2})} \\ & \qquad - \tfrac{10}{\log(10)} \frac{2\log(2)\sinh\big(2\log(2)p+\log(A)\big)}{ \cosh\big(2\log(2)p+\log(A)\big) - (1-\tfrac{1}{2Q^2})} \\ \end{align}$$

When $p=0$ (at the midshelf) this shelf slope is:

$$\begin{align} \frac{\mathrm{d}}{\mathrm{d}p} \tfrac{10}{\log(10)} \log \left(\Big|H(j2^p)\Big|^2 \right) \Bigg|_{p=0} &= \tfrac{10}{\log(10)} \frac{2\log(2)\sinh(-\log(A))}{ \cosh(-\log(A)) - (1-\tfrac{1}{2Q^2})} \\ & \qquad - \tfrac{10}{\log(10)} \frac{2\log(2)\sinh(\log(A))}{\cosh(\log(A)) - (1-\tfrac{1}{2Q^2})} \\ \\ &= - \tfrac{10}{\log(10)} \frac{4\log(2)\sinh(\log(A))}{ \cosh(\log(A)) - (1-\tfrac{1}{2Q^2})} \\ \\ &= - \tfrac{10}{\log(10)} \frac{2\log(2) \left(A - \tfrac{1}{A} \right) }{ \tfrac{1}{2} \left(A + \tfrac{1}{A} \right) - (1-\tfrac{1}{2Q^2})} \\ \\ &= - \tfrac{40\log(2)}{\log(10)} \ \frac{A^2 - 1}{A^2 + 1 - 2A(1-\tfrac{1}{2Q^2})} \\ \\ &= - \tfrac{40\log(2)}{\log(10)} \ \frac{A^2 - 1}{A^2 - 2A + 1 + \tfrac{A}{Q^2}} \\ \\ &= - \tfrac{40\log(2)}{\log(10)} \ \frac{(A-1)(A+1)}{(A-1)^2 + \tfrac{A}{Q^2}} \\ \\ &= - \tfrac{40\log(2)}{\log(10)} \ \frac{(A-1)(A+1)}{(A-1)^2 + \tfrac{A}{Q^2}} \\ \end{align} $$

I'm still not done with this. I'm doing this from memory. I can't find my notes from a quarter century ago anywhere.


If you use a parameterization with a (pole or zero) frequency and a Q-factor for numerator and denominator of a biquadratic function you get the following general second-order transfer function


For a low shelving filter we want $H(\infty)=1$, i.e., $G_{\infty}=1$. The DC gain equals


We're free to choose a frequency normalization, i.e., fix either $\omega_p$ or $\omega_z$ and choose the other according to our specified DC gain $A^2$. If we choose $\omega_z=\sqrt{A}$, we obtain $\omega_p=1/\sqrt{A}$. With this normalization, and with $G_{\infty}=1$, Eq. $(1)$ becomes


For symmetry reasons we would like the inverse transfer function $1/H(s)$ to equal the original transfer function with the inverse DC gain. I.e., replacing $A$ by $1/A$ in $(3)$ and equating it with $1/H(s)$ results in the final requirement $Q_z=Q_p=Q$. This yields the final transfer function


Note that the chosen frequency normalization results in


i.e., the gain at $\omega_0=1$ is half the DC gain (in dB).

  • 2
    $\begingroup$ This is another way, and not a bad way of putting it. This prototype came out of my brain but was motivated by Andy Moorer's 1983 AES paper The Manifold Joys of Conformal Mapping: Applications to Digital Filtering in the Studio. Andy set it up only for the $Q=\sqrt{\frac12}$ case, which is the steepest shelf slope with monotonically increasing or decreasing gain vs. frequency. I like looking for commonalities to simplify and generalize things. So I came up with that "shelf slope" $S$ parameter and related it to $Q$. $\endgroup$ – robert bristow-johnson Mar 24 at 17:35
  • 1
    $\begingroup$ For real though, bonus points for that being my favorite title for a piece of academic literature! $\endgroup$ – Dan Szabo Mar 24 at 23:23

Your Answer

By clicking “Post Your Answer”, you agree to our terms of service, privacy policy and cookie policy

Not the answer you're looking for? Browse other questions tagged or ask your own question.