A tag is a keyword or label that categorizes your question with other, similar questions. Using the right tags makes it easier for others to find and answer your question.

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a wave-like oscillation with an amplitude that starts out at zero, increases, and then decreases back to zero.
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A memoryless non-linear system whose input-output relation, written for example as out(t) = f(in(t)), is fully characterized by a non-linear function f(x).
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a mathematical function that is zero-valued outside of some chosen interval.
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Zero padding consists of extending a signal (or spectrum) with zeros to extend its time (or frequency band) limits.
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a linear time-invariant (LTI) model of the piecewise constant output of a digital-to-analog converter (DAC).
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The Z-transform converts a discrete time-domain signal, which is a sequence of real or complex numbers, into a complex frequency-domain representation.