# Tag Info

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### Is $y[k] = y[k-1] + x[k]$ an integrator?

The system $$y[n]=y[n-1]+x[n]\tag{1}$$ is an ideal accumulator, i.e., it computes the cumulative sum of the input samples: $$y[n]=\sum_{k=-\infty}^nx[k]\tag{2}$$ It is in a way analogous to a ...
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### Real time numerical differentiation of signals

Your original differentiator, which should be $x(n)-x(n-1)$, is called a "first difference" differentiator. That differentiator amplifies high-frequency noise. As a next step I suggest you try what's ...

### Is $y[k] = y[k-1] + x[k]$ an integrator?

Your simple integrator is called a "Rectangular Rule" integrator. There are more complicated (and more accurate) integrators called "Trapazoidal Rule", "Simpson's Rule", and "Tick's Rule" integrators.

### How can I experimentally find the bandwidth of my PLL?

A step response test is an easy way to determine the bandwidth. Sum a small step into the control voltage of your oscillator (VCO or NCO), and measure the 90% to 10% fall time of the corrected ...

### Real time numerical differentiation of signals

In a 2003 paper in French, "Estimation par maximum de vraisemblance de la dérivée d’un signal bruité. Application à la caractérisation de vérins pneumatiques" (Maximum likelihood estimation of the ...

### How to set parameters of the PI controller inside the PLL?

Two suggestions to move forward: Reduce $K_i$ to the point of an acceptable overshoot (this will provide the bottom line answer for comparison to the computations. Do system identification (Bode ...
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### How to design a Controller that would adjust the steady-state error of a system?

I'm not gonna give you a complete answer but I can help you. Your open-loop transfer function has 2 poles at $-1 ±j \sqrt(3)$ Good news, they are stable. However, they are not damped and they are ...

### What is the difference between a controller and a compensator?

As the book's title is control theory; a controller is the general broad name given to any piece of hardware (or sowftware) that aims to control some processes, in your aerodynamics field probably the ...