Matched filter is obtained by correlating a known signal, or template, with an unknown signal to detect the presence of the template in the unknown signal.
This process is equivalent to convolving the unknown signal with a conjugated time-reversed version of the template. The matched filter is the optimal linear filter for maximizing the signal to noise ratio (SNR) in the presence of additive stochastic noise. Matched filters are commonly used in radar, in which a known signal is sent out, and the reflected signal is examined for common elements of the out-going signal.
Source: Wikipedia – Matched filter