# Questions tagged [frequency-spectrum]

The frequency spectrum of a time-domain signal is a representation of that signal in the frequency domain.

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8 views

### Does zero-padding distort the spectrum?

It's said to "sample the DTFT", revealing what "DFT fails to see". And I fail to see how this sampling isn't distortion. The "spectrum" aims to provide the sinusoidal ...
96 views

### Can digital filters actually separate signals?

I've come to realize what appears to be a hard limit in convolution theorem: to avoid time-domain aliasing, we must pad the signal/filter, but the padding distorts the spectrum. Consider a ...
39 views

### What is meant by “information encoded in time domain”?

Author on pg 292 claims the windowed-sinc "is not a filter for signals with information encoded in time domain", because its "step response has overshoot and ringing". That phrase, ...
56 views

### When I double bit rate I do not see a difference in I_spectrum and Q_spectrum, but why?

I wanted to compare two different I-Q spectrum plots of a basic transmitter, one in which I doubled the bit rate. I expected a different result, that of possibly a higher/faster graph. It looks sort ...
134 views

### DFT coefficients meaning?

What "are" they? What's a sensible way to interpret the coefficients (and what isn't)? To pose specifics: DFT coefficients describe the frequencies present in a signal They describe the ...
24 views

### Using Neural Network for locating shifting resonant frequencies

I have multiple FFT's taken from a sample at different pressures, through different analysis I can see that the resonant frequencies are shifting in the spectrum for each FFT at a different pressure. ...
33 views

### Using MATLAB's Spectrogram Function for Analysis

In the documentation - sepctrogram(). Question 1)s = spectrogram(signal) and ...
29 views

### How to increase the resolution of the fft plot: Rule of thumb for generating good spectrograms

Is there a rule of thumb to generate a good resolution spectrogram ? I am currently blindly playing around with the parameters such as length of the signal N, ...
42 views

### How to calculate PSD if i have power vs freq spectrum?

i have a signal something like this how to calculate PSD? i have freq from 191000200 to 196500000 time gap or delta t = 1 or 2 sec, (what i mean is [tn] - [tn-1]) i will be computing in python any ...
70 views

### how to plot fft with imaginary and real part in 3d or calculate the degree of rotation

I would like to make a plot like 1 and see the real and imaginary part in a 3d space. I dont want to make exactly the same plot. for me it is okay if i see the peak for both signals shifted. it is ...
43 views

### What is the best way of filtering EEG signal for the specific frequency band?

I have an EEG data with a sampling rate is 500 Hz. Actually, there are too many ways to filter EEG signals. However, the abundance of options is not valid for me. I have to use a causal, linear-phase ...
50 views

### Frequency Support of Window Functions

All window functions, which go from zero amplitude, up, then back to zero amplitude, are all base-band signals. Why is this? Are all functions that have this behavior always band-band aka low-pass?
24 views

### Find the frequencies present when a non-sinusoidal wave is reconstructed

A 1.6kHz periodic (not sinusoidal) signal contains all its harmonics, both even and odd. The signal is sampled at 3.6kHz and ideally reconstructed. What frequencies are present in the output? I know ...
15 views

### How do I set window length and shift length for computing STFT on Scipy?

Does nperseg=32, noverlap=16 mean the window length is 32mS with a shift of 16mS? Refer here for more details
21 views

### Using discrete chebyshev transform for spectrum analysis

From what I gather Discrete Chebyshev transform is used mostly in image processing. I was windering about speech recognition. I reviewed some papers regarding this point. Also, the Discrete Chebyshev ...
29 views

### BW of a modulated signal

I come across different types of bandwidth. In digital modulation should it be null to null always? when do we use 3 db bandwidth?
66 views

### How to do Frequency Scaling on an Audio File

Please excuse me if my terminology is wrong. I'm from a music production background and have no experience in signal processing. I was wondering if it was possible to stretch out the overtones (...
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### FFT result of windowed cosine function

The frequency spectrum of cosine function is as below. While adopting a square window function to the cosine function, it is same as implementing convolution of their frequency spectrum as below. The ...
67 views

### How would I spectrally rotate/invert an audio signal (Matlab or Python)?

So I have a 4.5 minute wav audio clip. I want to spectrally rotate the frequencies such that the spatio-temporal characteristics of natural speech are retained, while having the new audio be ...
72 views

### How to calculate power of a signal at one specific frequency?

Given a signal, $s(t)$, sampled at frequency $f_s$, how does one calculate the power of the signal at one specific frequency $f_q$? Since I am only interested in the power at $f_q$, computing the FFT ...
22 views

### Failed to reproduce the smoothed spectrum plot from a time series

I tried to reproduce Watson's spectrum plot from these set of slides (PDF p. 30, p.29 of the slides), that came from this data of housing building permits. Watson achieves a very smooth spectrum cruve ...
35 views

### Finding causal impulse response given the imaginary part of the frequency response

I understand that I would need to calculate inverse Discrete Time Fourier Transform (iDTFT) to find $h(n)$. Since $h(n)$ is real, iDTFT of the imaginary part of $H(e^{j\omega})$ gives the odd part of ...
42 views

### Comparing similarity of two simultaneously recorded EEGs in freq domain

I have two EEG signals that are simultaneously recorded during the night (sleep). Imagine one device recorded from channel F4 and the other from Fp2. Now I would like to check the similarity of these ...
20 views

### In FMCW RADAR, how to use signal difference to calculate the position of a new object entered a clutter

Radar setup: FMCW radar with 1 TX and 2 RX both have IQ channel. So a single (stationary) object's range and angle can be calculated. Problem: If two objects are at about same distance but different ...
31 views

### Power Spectrum analysis arbitrary length signals

I have signals belonging to diseased and healthy samples recorded from multiple electrodes. These signals are taken monthly and are of arbitrary length (say 4-5 mins). I am planning to do a power ...
89 views

### Why Cramér spectral representation and not DTFT for stochastic process

In a lot of time-series analysis references I find (written by mathematicians or statisticians rather than engineers), I find the following signal decomposition for a stochastic process, termed the &...
34 views

### Can largest-triangle-three-buckets downsampling method used with fourier transformed signal?

I've been reading on the largest-triangle-three-buckets downsampling method for downsampling. Though it was originally published in the thesis "Downsampling Time Series for Visual Representation&...
79 views

### Spectral Inversion in Zero IF Receivers

Is spectral inversion possible in zero IF receivers? If yes, then can somebody explain with an example how that happens and what can be done to correct it. The following problem can be taken as ...
138 views

### A-weighted Digital Filter for 1/3rd Octave Band Analysis

I want to do a 1/3rd Octave band analysis on a noise signal. But the sound pressure levels should be in dB(A), i.e., and it should be A-weighted. For this, I am using the A-weight function from this ...
86 views

### Generating spectrum of a spectrum / identifying frequencies of ripples present in a spectrum

I have a spectrum as shown. The x-axis is frequency in GHz. The spectrum shows ripples that we can visually quantify as ~50 MHz ripples. I am looking for a method to calculate the frequency of these ...
35 views

### Match an Equalizer Curve

Iāve passed a sine sweep wave file into an equalizer plugin I have, now I want to model it in matlab so that I can ācopyā the equalizer setting sound. Iāve both in.wav and out.wav audio files and ...
56 views

### Why use PSD to analyze a signal instead of its Fourier Transform?

Let's imagine I have a perfectly known signal $s(t)$ and I want to analyze its frequency components. I noticed that mostly everyone would use the PSD of $s(t)$ to do that, instead of simply use the ...
52 views

### Steady state variance of a stochastic differential equation - relation between the frequency and time domains

Consider a stochastic differential equation: $$dx(t) = a x(t)dt + b y(t)dt \quad (1)$$ where $y(t)$ is a stochastic process satisfying $\langle y(t)y(t')\rangle = \delta(t-t')$. We will assume that ...
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### What is the “Energy” equivalent of the Magnitude Spectrum

I have a semantic issue regarding the discrete spectrum $X[k]$ of a time domain signal with limited length $x[n]$, so we're talking about the FFT. Now, when I what to compare the bandwidth and ...
81 views

### Auto Tune Shifting

So i have an algorithm that gets the fundamental frequency of windows, and can shift the pitch of each window as well (by a factor of x). For example. if x is 2 and the f0 is 440, the resulting f0 ...
25 views

As we know that Zadoff-Chu matrix is similar to Walsh-Hadamard matrix where every columns in those matrices is orthogonal with the any other column. For Walsh-Hadmard matrix, the orthogonality is ...
23 views

### PSD Accelerometer and Gyroscope

I used Xsens IMU and collected 1 Hour static data for accelerometer and gyroscope. I used the pwelch analysis in matlab to calculate the onsided PSD. The plots looks the following: How do I ...
47 views

### Why does the frequency in fft plot of the baseband modulated signal isn't changing at the receiver

I have designed a transceiver system for cellular frequencies(800MHz). On the receiver side, I have converted the band signal to baseband signal through digital mixing. I have added the Inphase and Q ...
57 views

### log spectral distance interpretation

I am using the log spectral distance (LSD) as a metric to evaluate signals. I have 2 completely different signals pairs I compared. Pair (A,B) : signal A as pretty similar to B. There are only very ...
57 views

### Pitch shifting with bins creating large feedback

I am attempting to create a pitch correction algorithm. I started by performing a test. The test goes as such: Get WAV file Split it into bins of size n (512 in my case) Shift each bin by 2 semitones ...
25 views

### bandwidth vs. bandwidth range

As known, Bandwidth is the difference between the upper and lower frequencies in a continuous band of frequencies. OK, what means when saying that bandwidth range is 15 ~ 20 KHz ? Does that mean that ...
47 views

### Smoothing PSD plot

I am currently working with a signal, and I am interested in plotting its spectra. I have used python, I have computed the signal values, and I have an array that has the time-series values of the ...
31 views

### How to determine number of observations based on measurement frequency?

So I'm working on a problem where I'm measuring a signal with two different instruments -- one is a low frequency measurement system (1 Hz), and the other is a high frequency measurement system (200 ...
25 views

### RF Downconversion using Heterodyne Principle

after a RF down-conversion using heterodyning principle, will there be an information loss? If we translate to a fixed IF frequency, is there is an intuitive way of explain that the information can be ...
52 views

### How to take the inverse FFT of Welch's power spectral density in Python?

I have calculated the power spectral density of a weakly-stationary signal using Welch's method (as implemented by scipy.signal.welch in Python), and am looking to take the inverse Fourier transform ...
57 views

### Carrier frequency offset estimation for QPSK and asymmetrical spectrum

I am working on estimation of carrier frequency offset for QPSK data from a satellite. From my understanding, there are two main approaches: either remove data from the carrier (by taking the fourth ...
35 views

### Digital filtering based on frequency component amplitude… why not?

I've got a very general question. I've just implemented a filter working in frequency domain that simply cuts every frequency component whose modulus amplitude falls below a certain threshold value. ...
10 views

### What is role of BW and frequency in internet speeds?

First the bandwidth (BW): It is the amount of data that can be transferred simultaneously.just like more no. of highway lanes so that many cars can travel side by side simultaneously. Frequency It ...
56 views

### Blackman-Tukey Autopower equation

I am looking over Blackman-Tukey method for Autopower. It uses the DFT after a window is applied on a autocorrelation.  Power Spectrum = \frac1{2\pi} \ \sum_{(k=-(N-1))}^{N-1} w[k] R[k] e^{-i\...