# Tag Info

Accepted

### Why can so little digital information be stored on a cassette tape?

I had heard that tape is still the best medium for storing large amounts of data. well, "best" is always a reduction to a single set of optimization parameters (e.g. cost per bit, ...
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### FSK and IQ modulation

There are many ways of demodulating the FSK signal Indeed! What is the advantage of performing the FSK using IQ modulation? Depends. Generally, IQ is the only shape you have your signal in, so ...
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### How to estimate the frequency characteristics of a nonlinear chirp?

How about just using $\dfrac{d\phi}{dt}$ to compute the instantaneous frequency? GNU Octave code (I just made up a sample rate of 2 Msps): ...
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### Positive slope of BER with a greater frequency deviation?

This could happen as discriminator gain is increased with a filter discriminator approach since in many of those approaches the gain would be maximum and linear for small signals only and then the ...

### Why can so little digital information be stored on a cassette tape?

Typical cheap cassette tape recorders and players in the 1970's used audio circuitry that did not have a completely flat frequency response and added a lot of phase distortion (mostly inaudible to ...

### Why can so little digital information be stored on a cassette tape?

You have already selected your answer, but I would like to put a few more lines. First of all, objecting to Marcus, I think that your first assumption is correct! We can store one hour of almost CD ...
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### How does the RaspberryPi radio hack convert digital GPIO signals to an FM signal?

I just skimmed https://github.com/SaucySoliton/PiFmRds/blob/master/src/pi_fm_rds.c#L454 and from what that code looks like, it initializes a clock generator to run at an adjustable clock. Then, it ...

### Impact of modulation index in FM

Assuming an FM modulation of a sine wave of frequency $f_m$. Theoretically, the modulated signal is an infinite sum of cosines at the frequencies $f_c + nf_m$ ($n\in \mathbb{Z}$) which the amplitudes ...

### difference between GMSK (Gaussian Minimum shift keying) and GFSK (Gaussain frequency shift keying)

With GMSK, the frequency modulation index is 0.5. With GFSK, the frequency modulation index is larger than 0.5 (the signaling tones are farther apart). The receiving techniques used for GMSK as an FSK ...
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### Frequency modulation of $m(t)$ in MATLAB

Integration was incorrect. I was integrating it with $dx= 1$. Doing m(j)*1/Fsoperation in the for loop, I have made $dx= 1/Fs$ now. As can be seen, frequency ...

### How to isolate overlapping FM signals?

What if they did all use the same carrier? What you're describing is a single-frequency network (SFN). These are in common use for things that are not stupid FM broadcast. The whole truth is that ...
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### How to convert sampled real audio signal to it's IQ components for IQ modulation?

I’ll answer the question I think you’re asking here: If you have a real valued signal that came right out of an A/D and you’d like to recover signal phase, you can use the Hilbert transform to ...

### Homodyne and heterodyne detection

I'll assume AM DSB modulation for simplicity, but the same idea applies to quadrature modulation. I'll assume that the received signal has been properly bandpass filtered. I'll also ignore noise and ...

### How is frequency related to data rate?

There's simply no inherent relation between carrier frequency and data rate. I assume a classical comms engineering education here, but since that most often introduces the concept of equivalent ...
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### IQ signal FM descrimination using phase derivative

I simply use unwrapped atan2(IQ(i)) - atan2(IQ(i-1)) to estimate a discrete derivative, then low pass filter to below 15 kHz. Although with a shallow slope, the 1st order approximation to atan() ...

### Why do we integrate the modulating function in FM?

Frequency by definition is the derivative of phase with respect to time (a change in phase divided by the change in time is frequency). You see this with the radian expression for frequency given by \$...