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Here's an attempt at an answer, by comparing your equations with the more commonly used ones. We can write the "pulse rate" or the "signaling rate" $R_p$, measured in baud, or equivalently in pulses per second or symbols per second, as: $$R_p = \frac{1}{k} R_b,$$ where $R_b$ is the bit rate, and $k$ is the number of bits carried by a pulse. To elaborate: a ...


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First (i) I know that analog signals are continuous and digital signals are discrete. Analog signal are represented by a continuous time-varying quantity like voltage. How are digital signals represented in actual practice? I mean to ask how are the 0s & 1s actually represented/transmitted over a transmission medium? Are they represented ...


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