# All Questions

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63k views

### “River” detection in text

Over on the TeX stackexchange, we have been discussing how to detect "rivers" in paragraphs in this question. In this context, rivers are bands of white space that result from accidental alignment ...
143k views

### Why is the Fourier transform so important?

Everyone discusses the Fourier transform when discussing signal processing. Why is it so important to signal processing and what does it tell us about the signal? Does it only apply to digital signal ...
69k views

### What does frequency domain denote in case of images?

I was just learning about the frequency domain in images. I can understand the frequency spectrum in case of waves. It denotes what frequencies are present in a wave. If we draw the frequency ...
75k views

### What is the physical significance of negative frequencies?

This has been one of the holes in my cheddar cheese block of understanding DSP, so what is the physical interpretation of having a negative frequency? If you have a physical tone at some frequency ...
25k views

### Why is it a bad idea to filter by zeroing out FFT bins?

It's very easy to filter a signal by performing an FFT on it, zeroing out some of the bins, and then performing an IFFT. For instance: ...
154k views

### Why should I zero-pad a signal before taking the Fourier transform?

In an answer to a previous question, it was stated that one should zero-pad the input signals (add zeros to the end so that at least half of the wave is "blank") What's the reason for this?
64k views

### What is the difference between a Fourier transform and a cosine transform?

In speech recognition, the front end generally does signal processing to allow feature extraction from the audio stream. A discrete Fourier transform (DFT) is applied twice in this process. The first ...
199k views

### What is meant by a system's “impulse response” and “frequency response?”

Can anyone state the difference between frequency response and impulse response in simple English?
53k views

### What are some free alternatives to SIFT/ SURF that can be used in commercial applications?

As far as I understand, both SURF and SIFT are patent protected. Are there any alternative methods that can be used in a commercial application freely? For more info on the patent check out: http://...
83k views

### Why do we use the HSV colour space so often in vision and image processing?

I see the HSV colour space used all over the place: for tracking, human detection, etc... I'm wondering, why? What is it about this colour space that makes it better than using RGB?
100k views

### How do I implement cross-correlation to prove two audio files are similar?

I have to do cross correlation of two audio file to prove they are similar. I have taken the FFT of the two audio files and have their power spectrum values in separate arrays. How should I proceed ...
27k views

### If humans can only hear up to 20 kHz frequency sound, why is music audio sampled at 44.1 kHz?

I read in some places that music is mostly sampled at 44.1 kHz whereas we can only hear up to 20 kHz. Why is it?
19k views

### Why is TV static noise always black and white?

Most modern day Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) televisions manufactured after the 1960s (after the introduction of NTSC and PAL standards) supported the circuit-based decoding of colored signals. It is well ...
29k views

### Why so many methods of computing PSD?

Welch's method has been my go-to algorithm for computing power spectral density (PSD) of evenly-sampled timeseries. I noticed that there are many other methods for computing PSD. For example, in ...
19k views

### What Is the Relationship Between a Kalman Filter and Polynomial Regression?

What is the relationship, if any, between Kalman filtering and (repeated, if necessary) least squares polynomial regression?
7k views

### What are some good signal and image processing blogs worth following?

Are there some good sites or blogs where I can keep myself updated on the latest news and papers about image and signal processing research, or I should just check out "classical" providers like IEEE ...
18k views

### Is deep learning killing image processing/computer vision?

I'm looking forward to enroll in an MSc in Signal and Image processing, or maybe Computer Vision (I have not decided yet), and this question emerged. My concern is, since deep learning doesn't need ...
150k views

### What is the physical meaning of the convolution of two signals?

If we convolve 2 signals we get a third signal. What does this third signal represent in relation to the input signals?
36k views

### Algorithm(s) to mix audio signals without clipping

I'd like to mix two or more PCM audio channels (eg recorded samples) digitally in an acoustically-faithful manner, preferably in near-real-time (meaning little or no peek-ahead). The physically "...
24k views

### Analogous Library to OpenCV for Audio Processing / Analysis

I understand OpenCV is the de facto library for programming image processing in C/C++; I'm wondering if there is a C or C++ library like that for audio processing. I basically want to filter raw waves ...
50k views

### What is the distinction between ergodic and stationary?

I have trouble distinguishing between these two concepts. This is my understanding so far. A stationary process is a stochastic process whose statistical properties do not change with time. For a ...
21k views

### Best way of segmenting veins in leaves?

I have done a lot of research and found out methods like adaptive thresholding , watershed etc that can be used of detecting veins in leaves . However thresholding isn't good as it introduces a lot of ...
44k views

### What is the difference between convolution and cross-correlation?

I've found on multiple sites that convolution and cross-correlation are similar (including the tag wiki for convolution), but I didn't find anywhere how they differ. What is the difference between ...
18k views

### What is the sparse Fourier transform?

MIT has been making a bit of noise lately about a new algorithm that is touted as a faster Fourier transform that works on particular kinds of signals, for instance: "Faster fourier transform named ...
14k views

### What is the least JPG-compressible pattern? (camera shooting piece of cloth, scale/angle/lighting may vary)

I am trying to design a cloth that, from the point of view of a camera, is very difficult to compress with JPG, resulting in big-size files (or leading to low image quality if file size is fixed). It ...
9k views

### Point Pattern Recognition

Having two different size of sets of points (2D for simplicity) dispersed within two different size squares the question are that: 1- how to find any occurrence of the the small one through the ...
20k views

### What algorithm does Google use for its “Search By Image” site?

What is your best guess how Google Image Search works? I can upload a photo and can search for similar images. What algorithm does it use to identify similar images?
60k views

### What is the difference between phase delay and group delay?

I'm studying some DSP and I'm having trouble understanding the difference between phase delay and group delay. It seems to me that they both measure the delay time of sinusoids passed through a ...
47k views

### Simplest way of detecting where audio envelopes start and stop

Below is a signal which represents a recording of someone talking. I would like to create a series of smaller audio signals based on this. The idea being to detect when 'important' sound starts and ...
45k views

### Meaning of Hilbert Transform

I understand the Fourier Transform which is a mathematical operation that lets you see the frequency content of a given signal. But now, in my comm. course, the professor introduced the Hilbert ...
20k views

### What Resources Are Recommended for an Introduction to Signal Processing (DSP)?

What are some recommended resources (books, tutorials, lectures, etc.) on digital signal processing, and how to begin working with it on a technical level?
14k views

### How to flatten the image of a label on a food jar?

I'd like to take pictures of labels on a jar of food, and be able to transform them so the label is flat, with the right and left side resized to be even with the center of the image. Ideally, I'd ...
5k views

### What Properties Make Certain Wavelets “Better” Than Others In Image Compression?

I am trying to teach myself more about image compression using the wavelet transform method. My question is: What is it about certain wavelets that make them preferable when compressing images? Are ...
67k views

### Why is the FFT “mirrored”?

If you do an FFT plot of a simple signal, like: t = 0:0.01:1 ; N = max(size(t)); x = 1 + sin( 2*pi*t ) ; y = abs( fft( x ) ) ; stem( N*t, y ) 1Hz sinusoid + DC ...
46k views

### What are the most common algorithms for adaptive thresholding?

Adaptive thresholding has been discussed in a few questions earlier: Adaptive Thresholding for liver segmentation using Matlab What are the best algorithms for document image thresholding in this ...
55k views

### The difference between convolution and cross-correlation from a signal-analysis point of view

I am trying to understand the difference between convolution to cross-correlation. I have read an understood This answer. I also understand the picture below. But, in terms of signal processing, (a ...
17k views

### What's the difference between the Hough and Radon transforms?

I'm familiar with the Radon transform from learning about CT scans, but not the Hough transform. Wikipedia says The (r,Î¸) plane is sometimes referred to as Hough space for the set of straight ...
34k views

### Determining the mean and standard deviation in real time

What would be the ideal way to find the mean and standard deviation of a signal for a real time application. I'd like to be able to trigger a controller when a signal was more than 3 standard ...
13k views

### Is there an algorithm for finding a frequency without DFT or FFT?

I was looking in the Android app store for a guitar tuner. I found a tuner app that claimed it was faster than other apps. It claimed it could find the frequency without using the DFT (I wish I still ...
8k views

### Does the autocorrelation function completely describe a stochastic process?

Is a stochastic process completely described by its autocorrelation function? If not, which additional properties would be needed?
20k views

### Finding squares in Image

I need to find the squares in an image using OpenCV (no problem in matlab or any other, generally what i expect are some ideas). Consider the test image below : I need to find those coloured squares ...
4k views

### What factors should I consider in choosing an edge detection algorithm?

I've learned about a number of edge detection algorithms, including algorithms like Sobel, Laplacian, and Canny methods. It seems to me the most popular edge detector is a Canny edge detector, but is ...
56k views

### Understanding the Matched Filter

I have a question about matched filtering. Does the matched filter maximise the SNR at the moment of decision only? As far as I understand, if you put, say, NRZ through a matched filter, the SNR ...
5k views

### What is the most lucid, intuitive explanation for the various FTs - CFT, DFT, DTFT and the Fourier Series?

Even after having studied these for quite sometime, I tend to forget (if I'm out of touch for a while) how they are related to each other and what each stands for (since they have such similar ...
38k views

### Why are Gaussian filters used as low pass filters in image processing?

In 1d signal processing, many types of low pass filters are used. Gaussian filters are almost never used, though. Why are they so popular in image processing applications? Are these filters a result ...
11k views

### What are good ways to detect signal clipping in a recording?

Given a recording I need to detect whether any clipping has occurred. Can I safely conclude there was clipping if any (one) sample reaches the maximum sample value, or should I look for a series of ...
32k views

### What is the advantage of MATLAB's filtfilt

MATLAB's filtfilt does a forward-backward filtering, i.e., filter, reverse the signal, filter again and then reverse again. Apparently this done to reduce phase ...
30k views

### What is the true meaning of a minimum phase system?

What is the true meaning of a minimum phase system? Reading the Wikipedia article and Oppenheim is some help, in that, we understand that for an LTI system, minimum phase means the inverse is causal ...
20k views

### What are the best algorithms for document image thresholding in this example?

I'm trying to implement various binarization algorithms to the image shown: Here's the code: clc; clear; x=imread('n2.jpg'); %load original image % Now ...