Questions tagged [zero-padding]

Zero padding consists of extending a signal (or spectrum) with zeros to extend its time (or frequency band) limits.

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6answers
138k views

Why should I zero-pad a signal before taking the Fourier transform?

In an answer to a previous question, it was stated that one should zero-pad the input signals (add zeros to the end so that at least half of the wave is "blank") What's the reason for this?
18
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2answers
4k views

Frequency-domain zero padding - special treatment of X[N/2]

Suppose we wish to interpolate a periodic signal with an even number of samples (e.g. N=8) by zero-padding in the frequency domain. Let the DFT X=[A,B,C,D,E,F,G,H] ...
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2answers
11k views

Why do we say that “zero-padding doesn't really increase frequency resolution”

Here is a sinusoid of frequency f = 236.4 Hz (it is 10 milliseconds long; it has N=441 points at sampling rate ...
7
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2answers
967 views

Sense of zeropadding in a time domain

I have the task related to Radon transform which contains a subtask which uses resampling by means of DFT. Let's consider the non-periodical discretized signal (Fig.1) (for example the string of ...
5
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3answers
4k views

Zero Padding in FFT

whats is the effect of pading zeroes to a sequence in FFT? for eg: x[n]=[2 3 4 5] corresponds to X[K]=[14 -2+2i -2 -2-2i] while x[n]=[2 3 4 5 0 0 0 0] corresponds to X[K]=[14 0.58-9.65i -2+2i -3.414+...
5
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3answers
7k views

Advantages/disadvantage of zero padding

I would like to know what are the advantages/disadvantage of zero padding with respect to frequency measurement and amplitude measurement
5
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1answer
4k views

How does zero-padding affect the magnitude of the DFT?

Let's simulate sinusoids of two frequencies using the following Matlab code: ...
5
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3answers
1k views

FFT: Removed padded zeroes?

I have an application where I do this: DFT->Filter->IDFT on a range For computational performance I'm zero-padding my FFT to a power of two, but when I ...
4
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1answer
3k views

What happens when N increases in N-point DFT [duplicate]

I am curious about DFT, and I wrote a simple MATLAB code to test what happens when $N$ increases. I took a rectangular signal with length $L=15$, an then found th DFT of 16, 32 and 64 points. I looked ...
4
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2answers
9k views

How to remove the boundary effects arising due to zero padding in scipy/numpy fft?

I have made a python code to smoothen a given signal using the Weierstrass transform, which is basically the convolution of a normalised gaussian with a signal. The code is as follows: ...
4
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1answer
217 views

Zero padding effect on a FFT of gaussian noise

I have a gaussian noise $\nu(t)$ with variance $\sigma^2$. After a FFT I get $X(\omega)$. If now I do the IFFT on the $X(\omega)$ can I say that the result is still a gaussian noise of variance $\...
4
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1answer
605 views

How Exactly Does MATLAB Zero Pad Signal?

I am doing some massive number crunching in MATLAB which involves millions of PSD estimations. Each data segment has length 41. So I have been using the multi-taper method with ...
3
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1answer
639 views

Zero-Padding seems to CHANGE FFT of signal!

I am having trouble with zero-padding. As I understand it, in theory, zero-padding in the time-domain should 'sinc-interpolate' the FFT of the signal in the frequency domain. This would mean, that 1)...
3
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1answer
1k views

Padding Images To Solve Inverse Filtering Problem?

Let's say that the point spread function, h, is known for a blurred image B. If we want to apply an inverse filtering method (eg. Direct Inverse Filtering for noiseless images, Wiener Filter, ...
3
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3answers
296 views

How Much Zero Padding Do We Need to Perform Filtering in the Fourier Domain?

Consider an $M\times N$ image $f$ and an $G \times K$ filter $h$. Given that convolution in the spatial domain corresponds to multiplication in the Fourier domain, then we can perform a convolution of ...
3
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2answers
161 views

Zero padding - High amplitude

I have a set of 512 samples that I have collected with a sensor. I'd like to apply zero padding to it, for better frequency bin resolution. However, all the tutorials I see to make this occur center ...
3
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1answer
385 views

remove zero padding effect crosscorrealation

I am trying to make the cross correlation on the frequency domain and I use the fft function which takes power of 2 input data so I must pad with zero my incoming sample signal and localy generated ...
2
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3answers
11k views

FFT Zero Padding - Amplitude Change

I'm just learning about Fourier Transforms and as an input I'm using a WAV file (Matlab) and taking one channel of it and performing a quick Fourier transform. I've zero padded the input, as I've been ...
2
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1answer
61 views

Frequency estimation of circularly shifted single tone signal

I have a discrete signal $y[n] = <e^{j ~ 2 \pi f ~ n}>_J + ~w[n]$ with $n \in [0, N[$ and $w[n]$ AWGN, $<x[n]>_K$ denotes the signal $x[n]$ circularly shifted by $K$ samples. Let's define $...
2
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2answers
112 views

Is there a rule of thumb for zero padding in image processing?

I see there are a lot of answers on why zero padding is necessary and how it avoids wrapping around the sides of images. However is there a rule of thumb on how much padding will be good for the image ...
2
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2answers
480 views

Zero-padding a spectrum, how to split the middle bin?

When a complex digital signal is converted to its spectrum through an FFT, the result will contain a series op positive and negative frequencies. That is, when the spectrum has N bins. Bin 0 will be ...
2
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1answer
3k views

Is digital up and down sampling linear/causal/time-invariant?

So I am trying to determine whether the process of up sampling (zero padding) and downsampling are linear, causal and/or time-invariant. Based on some resources I found online, I am under the ...
2
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1answer
520 views

Why is the magnitude of the second component of my FFT spectrum always the largest one?

While working with FFT, I have a strange case with a current experimental setup. I am working with beat frequencies (intermediate frequency output) and using a standard FFT algorithm (complex to ...
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3answers
340 views

Spectral window when FFT is not a power of 2

I am trying to better understand zero padding and the FFT. To do so, I am attempting to plot the spectrum of the Hann window function, i.e. $$ w(n) = \frac{1}{2}\left(1-\cos\left(\frac{2\pi (n+1/2)}{...
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2answers
6k views

Relationship between z-transform and DFT

I'm studying for a Signals Processing exam and came across an exercise that I'm finding pretty difficult to solve. It says: Asume there is a signal $x[n]$ of length $N$. Its $\mathcal{Z}$-Transform ...
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1answer
46 views

DFT zero-padding of signals starting before n=0

If a signal starts before n=0, what part of the signal should be used to compute DFT after zero-padding? For example, x(n) = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5}, where x(-2) = 1 and x(0) = 3. If this signal is zero-...
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1answer
369 views

Does Zero Padding Work as Advertised?

I have trouble accepting the merits of zero padding in the frequency domain to give more points in FFT. Wonder if anyone else has similar thoughts. The mathematical 'proof'for the validity of zero ...
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2answers
2k views

FFT, padding, IFFT and plot in time domain

I performed an FFT with some zero padding and would like to transform it back to time domain. When I plot the signal it looks wrong. Is it because of the padding used in the FFT? How can I make it ...
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2answers
433 views

When I ask Matlab for a zero-padded FFT, does it (or FFTW) ever explicitly create a zero-padded input vector?

If I have a length $N$ signal and ask Matlab for an $M$-point FFT, $M \gg N$, of course the computer has to allocate memory for $M$ output samples, but my question is if it ever has to allocate memory ...
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1answer
354 views

FFT peak estimation: Zero-padding vs signal repetitioon

I am working on obtaining the vortex shedding frequencies behind a 2D square using CFD. Time-varying data is being extracted from a specific cell behind the square. I've written a little python script ...
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1answer
2k views

Difference Between `fft(signal, nfft)` and `fft(signal)`

I want to know the difference between these following commands (matlab) and why I get two different outputs? fft(signal); fft(signal, nfft); I found that ...
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1answer
376 views

correct way for Zero padding

I am doing simulation of FMCW radar. I am applying signal processing chain on raw radar data. Here in the code below, I am taking fft of data and plotting it. ...
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1answer
155 views

zero padding shifting signal peak?

I am trying to find the fundamental frequency of a low-frequency signal. I need an estimate that is precise to .01 Hz based on only a few cycles, so I'm trying to code up a fft in Python. The signal ...
1
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3answers
590 views

How do I calculate peak amplitude of the signal components after zero padding and FFT?

I am learning about DFT and trying to apply it to some audio processing. I am new to DSP but experienced in programming and have some background in math and physics. The FFT algorithm I use (lomontFFT)...
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0answers
127 views

Windowing a signal by using Hanning / Hamming or… zero padding?

My question is about the use of Hanning or Hamming windows versus "square" windows. In my understanding, I will use a Hanning or Hamming window to limit the spectral leakage. But, on the second hand, ...
1
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2answers
946 views

How to increase the spectral resolution?

My question is about the spectral resolution of a discrete signal. Each sample of my signal is made up with 2^n frames sampled at 44.1 kHz. So, when I want to know the spectral resolution, I ...
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0answers
107 views

When Is a Power of 2 FFT Slower than Smaller Sized Non Power of 2 FFT in MATLAB

Knowing that computing an FFT is faster if the amount of samples is a power of 2 I have always tried to pad the inputs to Matlab's FFT with zeros until the next power of 2 is achieved. Matlab's ...
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0answers
527 views

Estimating The Time-delay using the Phase of the Cross- Correlation function

I am relatively new to time delay estimation. I am working on a project where I am estimating the time-delay from the phase of the cross-correlation function (CCF), since it is more reliable in ...
0
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2answers
395 views

change FFT bins position

I'm sampling a signal at 44100kHz, and I have 1024 samples on which I perform an FFT. My bin resolution is therefore around 43 hz/bin, so the frequencies I get energy for are multiples of 43hz: 43Hz,...
0
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1answer
28 views

DFT of sum of sinusoids with random zeroed samples

I have a noisy signal consists of sum of sinusoids, I had a situation where some of the time domain samples are zeroed randomly. The following figure shows the DFT before and after zeroing, the number ...
0
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1answer
353 views

Zeropadding and amplitude scaling

Could somebody tell me what is the DFT scaling of a $N$-length signal which is padded with $M$ zeros ? Is it $1/(M+N)$ or $1/N$, i.e. $$ Y_k=\frac{1}{N}\sum_{n=0}^{N-1}y(n)e^{\frac{2\pi nk}{(M+N)}} \...
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2answers
1k views

How to perform a time domain shift in the frequency domain without zero padding

Apologies in advance if my question doesn't make sense. I'm not the most fluent person in signal processing. I have an array of time domain values that I would like to apply a time delay to by ...
0
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2answers
204 views

Zero-padding, energy conservation

When calculating the FT of a signal, and the FT of that same signal but after having applied zero-padding to it, should't the amplitudes of the FT of the zero-padded signal decrease with respect to ...
0
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1answer
263 views

What does it mean when you zero pad data and why does one do it? [duplicate]

I am struggling to understand what effect zero padding data would have on EMG data. How does it improve the signals? Any help in simple terms that's not too mathematical would be greatly appreciated!
0
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2answers
498 views

What proportion of a padded FFT should be actual values

For a given signal, I've been told that you can pad the vector with $0$s at the end to get a larger DFT, and as a result get more precision in frequency bins. What are the limits to this approach? ...
0
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1answer
542 views

How can I increase image size by zero padding?

For increasing the image size from 8X8 to 32X32, I tried to do zero padding. The simplest concept of zero padding in Java for me seems to be the code as shown below in Java such that I can shift each ...
0
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1answer
74 views

Frequency Domain Interpolation: Convolution with Sinc Function

I am reading a paper, and I came across the following definition of sinc interpolation. Warning. I don't have a strong background in signal processing. Also, I have no clue what that bar on $\bar{F}$ ...
0
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1answer
102 views

Is image padding really necessary while using a filter?

I do know that we must pad an image while using a filter. But what I am suggesting is that is it really necessary? Can't we just calculate at run time if the current cell/pixel is an edge cell/pixel ...
0
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1answer
402 views

Frequency response and impulse response of black box

I am trying to find out the transfer function of a real life continuous-time black box. First thought is of course to input a delta and get the impulse response as the books have taught us but I ...
0
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2answers
116 views

Use Zero Padding to find hidden peaks

I know adding zeros will not increase the frequency resolution. I have couple of waveforms in time domain measured over months. I take the fft of the waveforms to find frequency components. The ...