# Questions tagged [z-transform]

The Z-transform converts a discrete time-domain signal, which is a sequence of real or complex numbers, into a complex frequency-domain representation.

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### Inverting a sampled system

I'm doing some self-study for an upcoming exam and came across the following question: My first idea to solve it was using the bilinear transform to get some approximation of $H(Z)$ (or just using ...
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### Why is Fourier space not adequate for (theoretical or digital) filters?

As far as I have seen, almost all theoretical filter design occurs in Laplace or Z-space. Also, there is a pervasive connection to real life analog filters in the design. If one is just thinking in a ...
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### How to find inverse z transform

Suppose $$Y(z) = \frac{\frac 12 z + 1}{z+\frac 12} \cdot \frac{z}{z-\frac12}\text.$$ According to Wolfram Alpha the inverse transform is, $2^{-n - 2} \cdot(5 - 3 \cdot (-1)^n)$. However, I cannot show ...
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### finding power spectral density from a vector

I have been given a vector: \begin{equation} v= \:\begin{pmatrix}\frac{1}{\sqrt{2}}&\frac{1}{\sqrt{2}}\end{pmatrix} \end{equation} my job is to find the power spectral density from this vector \...
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### Stability of $x(n) = A x(n-1)+b$

I am looking at the following system: $x(n) = A x(n-1) + b$ where x and b are vectors and A is a matrix. How can I derive the stability and causality conditions for such a system using Z transform? If ...
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### Names of system functions in frequency domain

I was just trying to refresh my systems theory known from long ago, and I realized that I had forgetten the name of the basic functions. Specifically, what are the names of these functions ...
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### Determine causality and stability from given filter structure

I have the diagram above. I found the transfer function below from it; The question asks me to find out if the system is causal and stable, but didn't it have to indicate whether it was left-sided or ...
296 views

### Is there a simpler way to calculate the amplitude response of the following filter

I would like to calculate the amplitude response $|H(z)|$, $z=e^{j\omega}$, of the following filter: $$H(z)=\frac{\frac{b}{2}+z^{-2}}{2+bz^{-2}}$$ and I would like to avoid using Euler's formula and ...
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### Convolution that outputs a unit impulse

Im thinking whether any convolutional operation can output a unit impulse, an example to further explain: where a convolution between system $h[n]$ and unknown system $g[n]$ would output $\delta[n]$. ...
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### Z-transform of a cosine without a unit step [duplicate]

What is the $\mathcal Z$-transform of a cosine without a unit step, i.e. $x[n] = \cos(\omega_0 n)$ and not $x[n] = \cos(\omega_0n)u[n]$?
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### Z transform of finite signals

I was trying to solve the Z-transform for u[n] - u[n-N], where u[n] means discrete unit step function, and N is some finite integer. I solved this using 2 methods. ...
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### Frequency response of filter <-> signal mix

This might be a weird question but here's the setup: I have a few biquads that filter a signal $x[n]$ and output the filtered signal $y[n]$. I can calculate the frequency response of those biquads ...
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### Determine the Z-Transform for the following sequence: $|n|(\frac{1}{2})^{|n|}$

Determine the Z-Transform for the following sequence: $$|n|(\frac{1}{2})^{|n|}$$ I have tried to solve the above problem. However, the answer that I got is the negative of what is given in the ...
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### Finding inverse Z Transform

Find the inverse Z transform: I have done the solution but my answer does not match with the one given in the textbook. What I may have done wrong?
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### How to determine whether a filter is high/low or band pass from the Z transform?

How to solve questions of these kind? I have tried by replacing $z=re^{jw}$ and taking the limits from $0$ to $\infty$. But I am not sure what $e^{j\infty}$ is.
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### Average image over $N$ frames with one frame buffer

Can you give some filter that is averaging an image over $N$ samples in a recursive way that only needs one frame buffer? $\frac{1}{N} \sum_{k=1}^{N} y_{k}(m,n)$ I can only imagine filters that need ...
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### Unilateral Z transform

I tried to calculate the unilateral Z transform of x[n-2], is it right?
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### On the stability and causality of a discrete system

On MIT's open course a simple exercise with two questions is given. On the first part, they question about the properties of the following discrete system: $$y[n]=x[n]+0.5y[n−1]−2y[n−2]$$ The ...
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### How to find H(z) and H(k) from a given causal function

Consider the causal function, $y[k] = 2x[k] - 40x[k - 1] + 10y[k - 1]$ 􀀀 $16y[k - 2]$; where $y[k]$ is the output and $x[k]$ is the input. Assume that the system is initially at rest. Please someone ...
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### How can I plot the frequency response on a bode diagram with Fast Fourier Transform?

Assume that we have an unknow dynamical system and we only want to estimate its parameters. The system can be discribed as: Continous time: $$G(s) = \frac{3s + 5} {5s^2 + 3s + 2}$$ Discrete time ...
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### Z-Transform vs. Fourier Transform convergence

Are there signals for which the Fourier transform is known to exist (perhaps including singularities) and for which the z-transform does not converge?
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### Transfer Function Block Diagram Confirmation

Can someone confirm if this is the correct block diagram for the following transfer function? The original equation provided was: y[n+1] = y[n] + 0.01x[n] Which I rearranged into H(z) = Y(z)/X(z) = ...
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### When to use Fourier, Laplace and Z transforms?

If we have an LTI system, with an input signal $x(t)$, impulse response $h(t)$ and output $y(t)$, I was under the assumption that if the input and impulse response were continuous in time, then you ...
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### In z-transform, if z means “delay”, why do we talk about the value of z?

I've been watching MIT's signals course and trying to understand $z$-transform. The course introduces $z^{-1}$ as an operator that delays the signal by $1$ time unit (which works very well with the ...
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### Factored form vs partial fraction form?

I have already understood partial fraction and here is link for my relevant DSP SE question Finding inverse z transform for two sided ROC? But now i want to know, is there any difference between ...
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### Is $\cos(\pi \sqrt n)u[n]$ stable?

I took a z transform and got a double pole at $z=1$, but I don't know if that's correct. I'm lost because I don't know if $\cos(\theta)$ converges or diverges or what that means for $h[n]$ being ...
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### Necessary Conditions for stability in z domain?

What are the necessary(must) conditions for stability in z domain? I am sure about one(ROC must include unit circle) Is there any other such condition which states that there shouldn't be any poles in ...
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### Finding inverse z transform for two sided ROC?

I have a z transform $Y(z)=(z^2-z) /(z^2+1.3z+0.3)$ In this case i have two poles ,one at -0.3 and one at -1.0 I want to find inverse z transform of Y(z) Following is my matlab code: ...
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### Z transform getting different answer for transform of rational function

Why am i getting different answers and which one is correct?? In this also
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### Determing inverse Z-transform using impulse response?

In Matlab there is a command iztrans for finding inverse Z-transform. But how can we find inverse Z-transform using impulse response? The Matlab command ...
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### Book request for Z-Transform

I am at the moment self studying Z-Transform. I need some references on this subject with some applications ( electrical circuits or else). What are good references on this subject. Thanks in advance.
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### Causality of z-transform $a^nu[n+1]$

To preface, this is not a homework related question but purely for self-study purposes. I'm try to do the analyse of z-transform of $a^nu[n+1]$. It is clearly a non-causal signal, I try to explain it ...
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### Derive the Forward Euler substitution for transfer function

In the book "The control handbook. Volume 1 " by Levine, the author shows that the transfer function: can be aproximated and discretized in the transfer function: using the forwar euler ...
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### Proof of Forward Euler for discretizing a transfer function

In Levine book "The control handbook" it is shown that, for discretizing a transfer function $\frac{1}{s}$ using Forward Euler i simply have to replace s with $\frac{z-1}{T}$. How can extend the ...
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### Forward Euler Discretization

I don't understand why the substitution $s=\frac{z-1}{T}$ allows us to discretize a transfer function from laplace to z-transform through Forward Euler Discretization. Can you explain to me ?
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### Non-polynomial Z-transform

My prof said that when a transfer function described by a z-transform is not polynomial, then i can't perform the anti-transformation. But, what does it means to be not polynomial ? Can you explain to ...
Find the z-transform and sketch pole-zero plot and ROC for $$x(n)=|n|\left(\frac{1}{2}\right)^{|n|}$$ Right now, i can get the following, x(n)=\begin{cases} n(\frac{1}{2})^n, & n \geq 0 \\ -n(...