Questions tagged [z-transform]

The Z-transform converts a discrete time-domain signal, which is a sequence of real or complex numbers, into a complex frequency-domain representation.

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How do I represent any signal in the form x[n]u[n] and x[n]u[-n-1]?

For eg-: If I have the signal x[n]={1,a,a²...}I can represent it as a^n * u[n]. Similarly if I havethe sequence as x[-1]=-a^-1 x[-2]=-a^-2 Then I can represent it as x[n]=-a^n*u[-n-1].
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DSP: newbie not understanding z transform/complex sinusoidal frequency and phase

Im reading Will Pirkles Designing audio effect plugins book and I'm not sure if I'm understanding the z transform correctly. I got up to differential equations in college, but haven't done math in ...
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Polar Fourier Transform and its similarity to the Z-Transform

The DFT is given by $X_{\mathcal{F}}(k) = \sum_{n=0}^{N-1} x_n e^{-j 2 \pi k n / N}$ Knowing that complex numbers can also be represented using a polar form $A \angle\theta$, I was looking for a ...
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Having trouble interpreting z-transform description of a predictor from a codec paper

I've been looking at the opus paper (https://arxiv.org/pdf/1602.04845.pdf); in particular, in section 4.1, they describe the predictor for the current band energy based on energy from both the current ...
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how to calculate $H_{lp} = z(1- H_{hp}) $ , given coefficients for $H_{hp}$?

Given a high pass transfer fn of the form $H_{hp}=a_{1}*z^0 +a_{2}*z^{-1} + ... a_{n}*z^{-n}$ Is it possible to calculate a causal low pass filter using $H_{lp} = z*(1-H_{hp})$ ? attempting $H_{...
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Mixed - Discrete and Continuous system Laplace domain stability - Effect of Sampler and DAC

I have a system whose the plant transfer function is continuous and the compensation is discrete. I have an ADC which allows to measure the output of the system and a DAC which allows to control the ...
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37 views

Identify out signal from in signal and impulse response

Hi there I am studying a course in signal processing and systems. I was given an excecise which I am having a great deal of trouble solving. I am allowed to solved using matlab, but for top marks I ...
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Zeros and poles from transfer function

I have a transfer function $$ H(z) = \frac{Y(z)}{X(z)} = 1 - 0.5z^{-1} \text{.}$$ I'm interested in zeros and poles. I know I need to adjust the function to $$ H(z) = \frac{\prod_i(z-n_i)}{\prod_i(z-...
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Difference equation to FIR filter coefficients

I have a difference equation $$y[n] = y[n-1] + 0.5x[n] - 0.5x[n-2] \text{.}$$ According to this answer, the filter should have finite impulse response. I just can't figure out how to get the FIR ...
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$Z$-transform of a multilinear function/ consecutive multplication of $k$ signals $y_1(n), \ldots, y_k(n)$

How should one go about calculating the $Z$-transform of a signal that is the multiplication of $k$ signals (i.e. a multilinear function with regards to signals $y_1(n) \ldots y_k(n)$ ? Namely, $\...
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inverse z transform performed on 6th order IIR filter

we are told to find coefficients and impulse response of IIR filter of order of 6. There are 6 zeros and 6 poles in the design. Pole and zero pairs are conjugate and poles are within the unit circle ...
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If we take Z-transform of a signal & find its ROC. How to use this ROC? There are ∞ signals in ROC, suppose we choose any signal what to do with it?

If we take Z-transform of a signal & find its ROC. How to use this ROC? There are infinite signals in ROC, suppose we choose any signal from ROC, what to do with it?
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Suppose a signal is growing exponentially. We take its Z transform & find its ROC. So what are we supposed to do practically with the signals in ROC?

Suppose a signal is growing exponentially. We take its Z transform & find its ROC. So what are we supposed to do practically? Are we supposed to manipulate our O/P by multiplying any signal from ...
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Why does Simulink generate this code for a PID controller?

For the Simulink PID Controller model The Simulink generated code (rewrite for better understanding) is: ...
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I tried two approaches and gained the different conclusions of judging the stability of the transfer function of the system

We want to judge whether the system is stable or not. Given the below transfer function. $$ H\left( z \right) =\frac{\left( 1+2 z^{-1} \right) }{\left( 2+z^{-1} \right) } $$ $$ H\left( z \right) ...
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Filter odd or even harmonics with notch or inverse notch filter

Hi i had the following question. I have a signal containing a 200Hz sine wave and it's odd and even harmonics (no other frequencys or disturbing signals are contained). What i'm looking for is a kind ...
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Let a LTI system be causal and stable with the transfer function being… show that

if the system is an IIR LTI causal and stable one, and the transfer function is \[H(z)=\sum_{n=0}^{\infty}h[n]z{^{n}}= \frac{G}{1 -\sum_{k=1}^{p}a_kz{^{-k}}}\] show that the cepstrum of this system ...
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Where to start with DSP?

I have a DSP exam coming up this summer and I got an abysmal mark on an assignment earlier this year. Obviously, the lecture slides are not enough for me to understand DSP, so I am wondering where can ...
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Power Spectral Density of a Filter

I need to calculate the output power spectral density of the following digital filter My calculations are as follows: $y\left(n\right)\:=\:x\left(n-1\right)+d\left[x\left(n-1\right)+x\left(n\right)\...
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K-Path sampling overall transfer function

I'm trying to derive the overall Z-transform for the K-path sampling system shown below. I numbered some of the equations that I'll reference. I don't think I understand going from equation 3 to ...
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Z-transform of an affine function

What is the transfer function of the system described by the following affine input ($x$)-output ($y$) relationship: $$ y[n] = \alpha x[n] + \beta. $$ Using the Z-transform we find: $$ Y[z] = \alpha X[...
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How to find H(z) from just zeros and poles

I have a system with a DC gain of 8, poles at z = +- j/2 and zeroes at e^+-j5, I need to find the H(z). I have tried this but not sure if it is right. $$ H(z) = G_o * z^{-1} \frac{(z-z_0)(z-z_1)}{(z-...
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Digtial FIR Impulse response & transfer function

I am currently working the figure through below. as it is an FIR Filter i have worked out using convolution that the output is 4,2,4,6,0,0. i am trying to obtain the 'z' domain transfer function of ...
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Filter H(z) manipulation frequency response changes

I'm trying to understand how altering the frequency response of a H(z) low pass filter, will visually alter it's frequency response plot. For example: by doing H(z^2), would the frequency response ...
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understanding echo cancellation model

so, here is a very simple model. The CCDE is given, but I was trying to derive it on my own and now I am stuck. first of all, the reverse y[n] when goes through the delayed system, it turns to y[n-M]....
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Order one FIR Filter with complex coefficient

I am trying to learn about the behavior of the FIR filter however with complex coefficients. The filter I am trying to analyze is the following: $$H(z)=a+jbz^{-1}\quad\text{where the variable}\quad j =...
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What is z equal to in z-transform?

In some places, it is said that z is equal to: $$z = e^s \quad where \quad s = \sigma + j \Omega $$ But in some places, it is said that z is equal to: $$z = e^{sT_s} \quad $$ where Ts is a sampling ...
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Is this system causal or not?

My efforts of solving this question are below. I came to a conclusion that this system is causal, since: $$ \begin{cases} w[k]+5w[k-1]+6w[k-2]=x[k] \\ y[k]=w[k]+2w[k-1]+3w[k-2]+4w[k-3] \end{cases} $$...
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Gradient of transfer function (z-transform) with respect to coefficients/parameters?

my problem is perhaps very simple but I just can not find the answer, even though this is used (though not explained) in several books: What is $\frac{\partial G (z, \theta)}{\partial \theta}$ when $G$...
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How do you reduce $H\left(e^{j\frac{\pi}{2}}\right)$ further according to a textbook solution

I want to know how I could get from the first line to the second. I've been trying to figure it out for a while with no luck. Thank you in advance! \begin{align} H\left(e^{j0.5\pi}\right) &= \frac{...
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Why the transfer function is equal to the output in this case

In this description of transfer functions on the z-plane (image linked), I'm confused by equation 1.49, which says that $H(f)=v_{out}(f)$ when $v_{in}(f)= 1 * e^{j 2 \pi (f/f_s)}$. (For another matter ...
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Recovering DTFT from Z-transform

The relationship between the Z-transform and DTFT can be expressed like: $$ H(e^{j \omega}) = H(z)|_{z = e^{j \omega}}$$ Graphically, evaluating the Z-transform on the unit circle is shown as sweeping ...
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Impulse Response for an Anti Causal Linear Shift Invariant System

I have a system given by $$y[n] - \frac{1}{4} y[n-1] - \frac{1}{8} y[n-2] =3x[n] $$ I'm asked to determine the impulse response of both an anti-causal and a causal Linear Shift Invariant System ...
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How to break a second-order filter into two first-order filter

Let's assume the transfer function of a continuous-domain filter consists of two poles and one zero: $H(s) = \frac{k_c (s-\omega_{z_1})}{(s-\omega_{p_1})(s-\omega_{p_2})}$. Let's consider we do the bi-...
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How to design IIR digital filters

Practical Infinite-Impulse-Response (IIR) filters are usually based upon analogue equivalents (Butterworth, Chebyshev, etc.), using a transformation known as the bilinear transformation which maps the ...
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transfer function of a sampler in the s domain

I would like to modelize my whole system into the S-domain. This is a mixed system, there a numerical part (corrector, ADC, DAC) and an analogic part (plant transfer function, sensors, etc...). I know ...
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How can we show that $|H(e^{j\omega})|=|H(e^{-j\omega})|$?

Let $H(z)$ be the rational system function of an LTI system. How can we show that $|H(e^{j\omega})|=|H(e^{-j\omega})|$?
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Calculating the output of a pole eigen signal in a difference equation

Let an IAR system be defined by the following difference equation: $$y[n]-\frac{1}{4} y[n-2]=x[n]+3x[n-1]$$ and an input signal $x[n]=(-0.5)^n$. The transfer function is defined as $H^z(z)=\frac{1+3z^{...
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confusion related to finding inverse Z-Transform using Complex Integral Method

I am facing problems related to evaluation of inverse Z-Transform using Complex Integral Method; Consider $X(z)=\frac{z}{z-2} $ and $ROC: |z|>2$ then, $$x(n)= \frac{1}{2\pi j}\oint_c X(z) z^{n-1} \...
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Can we choose a sampling frequency to remove unwanted noise at a specific frequency?

I am studying for my exam in signal processing. In one of the old exam papers I am told to find a sampling frequency, which will remove 80 Hz noise. The filter the exam question is based around has an ...
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Why not use the same “standard” exponentials for both continuous and discrete time

In continuous time the standard exponential signal is usually defined as $$ e^{st}, \quad\text{with}\quad s = \sigma+j \omega $$ In discrete time the standard exponential signal is usually defined as ...
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Simple Filter representation in Matlab

Suppose I have an IIR filter in the $z$-domain in the following form: $$ H\left(z\right)=\frac{1}{1-0.2z^{-1}-0.1z^{-2}} $$ How do I represent this in MATLAB? I am pretty sure if I just listed the ...
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Magnitude response of mirrored (with respect to unit circle) poles and zeros

I just want to check that my understanding about the following paragraph from Optical Filter Design and Analysis by Christi K. Madsen, Jian H. Zhao is correct: A filter’s magnitude response is equal ...
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Squared magnitude of the Z-transform

I am basically new to the $z$-transform and there are some points regarding its square magnitude that I do not understand. Basically I do not understand how in slide 4 of PDF, they arrive at the ...
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Uncountable Set of Poles?

It is easy to define an (ideal) LTI system that would have an infinite number of poles - for instance, if the transfer function is $$ H(z)=\frac{1}{\cos(z)-1} $$ However, this would only define a ...
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Why can't this system be adequately represented using a z-domain transfer function?

According to this question and answer the following system cannot be adequately captured by a z-transform transfer function. $$y[n] = y[n-1] + F_{\psi}(y[n-1)) + F_{\phi}(x[n-1])$$ where $F_{\alpha}(z)...
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How can initial conditions be taken into account to calculate a system's terminal value using the final value theorem or some other technique

I wish to calculate the Final Value of the following system given initial conditions not at rest, and assuming the X will not change from its initial condition value. The transfer function is $$H(z) = ...
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Discrete time Final Value Theorem applied to feedback system

I wish to calculate the Final Value of systems in which a high pass filter of the output feeds back into the input. A simple example would be: where is a 1st order high pass filter with transfer ...
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Single-sided Z transform with difference equations and the system function

I am working on this problem: Given an impulse response, find the system function, find the difference equation representation, find pole-zero plot, find output $y[n]$ if the input is $x[n] = 0.25^n *...
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Disjoint ROCs of input and system function

I am trying to understand how the output behaves when the input and the system function do not have a common region of convergence (ROC) for an LSI system. Consider an LSI system with $x[n]$, $h[n]$, $...

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