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Questions tagged [z-transform]

The Z-transform converts a discrete time-domain signal, which is a sequence of real or complex numbers, into a complex frequency-domain representation.

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z-Transform Methods: Definition vs. Integration Rule

The definition of the z-transform is defined as $z = e^{sT}$ where "s" is complex frequency for continuous-time systems and "T" is the sample period. Why are rules such as the forward rectangular ...
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How do I examine if the signal can be z-transformed?

It's given signal $x[n]=\sin(\frac{2 \pi}{N} m n) u[n]$ where $u[n]$ is the unit step function. Can I calculate Z-Transform? $\mathcal{Z}$ transform exists when $$ \sum_{n=-\infty}^{\infty} x[n]z^{...
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calculating step function [on hold]

I have one system with input and output $$y[n]=x[n]x[n-1]$$ where $\sigma$ is the unit step function and $\delta$ is the unit impulse function. I know that $$a[n]=\sum_{k=-\infty}^{\infty}h[k]\...
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Inverse z-transform of a modulus square

Suppose we have the z-transform of $x[n]$ is $X(z)$ and that of $y[n]$ is $Y(z)$. Then we know that the inverse z-transform of $G(z)=X(z)Y(z)$ is $g[n]=x[n]*y[n]$, where $*$ is convolution. What will ...
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Determining asymptotic stability using transfer function?

In an exam task, I am asked to determine the transfer function of the following direct-time system and decide whether it's stable. I think this system is canonical and the amplifiers 'on top' ...
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35 views

Calculating an output of a system (Z- transform question)

I have a following question to answer: An LTI system is described by its impulse response h[n]. For input x[n] it gives output y[n]. $$h[n] = u(n) - u(n-N) $$ $$x[n] = u(n) - u(n-M)$$ I want to ...
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26 views

Trivial and non-trivial zeros

I am new to DSP, and I'm self studying. Could someone please explain to me what do we mean by trivial and non-trivial zeros?
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28 views

LTI system insensitive to vertical shift

I have a biological signal which I want to model with $y_k=\alpha y_{k-1}+\beta u_k$. Here's what the original signal (grey) and the model (red) may look like. Params $\alpha, \beta$ and $y_0$ were ...
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1answer
24 views

Transfer function of a nonhomogeneous difference equation

Consider the following difference equation: $y_k=\alpha y_{k-1}+\beta x_k$ The transfer function for this is given by: $\displaystyle\frac{Y(z)}{X(z)}=\frac{\beta}{1-\alpha z^{-1}} = \frac{\beta}{...
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36 views

partial fractions expansion inverse Z-transform, help

I have the correct solution from teacher's solution guide, but I was slightly confused by some algebra about the partial fractions expansion evidently difference equation is as follows $ y[n] = \...
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solving recurrence relation with Z-transform (LTI and causal)

I just wanted to doublecheck answers for my sanity's sake (exam next week) problem statement recurrence relation, solve it $y[n+1]= 35 + y[n]*0.5$ according to my teacher it will be such that the ...
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inverse Z transform with partial fraction expansion and tables (LTI and causal)

Problem statement develop $H(z)$ as power series representation using partial fraction expansion $H(z) = \frac{4z^2-5z}{2z^2-5z+2} = \sum_{k=0}^{\infty} b_k*z^{-k}$ Based on my reading of "...
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inverse Z transform confused about polynomial long division (LTI and causal)

The question itself doesnt really work that well with the latex-formatting, because it's about polynomial long division this time, so I will provide pictures of my work I had one specific concern ...
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1answer
24 views

How is the ROC of a transform function determined?

Suppose I have $x[n]$ and $y[n]$, and I calculate their respective Z-transforms $X(z)$ and $Y(z)$ as well as their respective ROCs. Calculating $H(z)$ is as simple as calculating the quotient of $\...
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17 views

finding inverse Z transform with usage of tables (LTI and causal sequences)

problem is as follows try to find the inverse Z $Z^{-1} (\frac{3}{z+2}) = ???$ with the usage of z-transform tables Ok, so in order to find something from the table, I thought that we expand with ...
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37 views

BIBO Stability in Z-domain

I'd really appreciate it if someone could please explain to me the condition for a LTI system to be BIBO stable, in z-domain. I have a background in control, and in linear control for example, if we ...
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44 views

Partial Fraction Expansion for Inverse Fourier Transform

In many textbooks, I've seen the application of Partial Fraction Expansion (PFE) to find an inverse Fourier Transform. Let's stick to the discrete time case, and let me give you an example. Let's say ...
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38 views

How can I implement a triangular filter in MatLab, given it's Z-transform representation?

I have to implement an anti-aliasing filter for a certain processing step in MatLab. While searching in literature for inspiration, I came accross a paper in which the authors wrote the following: ...
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44 views

Block diagram for a complex impulse response

I have this question regarding digital systems which might not handle sinusoidal signals in general. So let us say that I have a system with impulse response $h(n) = \{1+j, -1, 2j \}$ with first ...
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How to find the difference equation directly from Direct Form II signal flow graph

I am trying to solve for the difference equation of the following signal flow graph: I am aware that Direct Form II can be converted to Direct Form I, which finding the difference equation directly ...
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Stability of system with poles inside unit circle - conflict with differential equation

I am trying to understand why a system with a single pole inside the unit circle is stable. For example, take a system with one pole at $z=\frac{1}{2}$. The literature says the system is stable. As a ...
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Depending on how a system function is written, will it always have the same zeros and poles?

There are many ways to write a system function. In terms of direct forms, cascade, parallel, transposed. Also the system function depends on if you write the poles and zeros in terms of $1+az^{-1}$ or ...
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Z Transform - Do i always need 2 poles for every “peak”?

I am quite new to digital signal processing (and also Z transforms). I am reading about frequency response modelling and have some questions do we always need a pair of poles for each "peak" in the ...
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83 views

Impulse response of a second order LTI

I have a set of measurement which I want to model with 2nd-order difference equations (first order eqs don't model well enough). The equation is $$y[n] = \alpha_1 y[n-1] + \alpha_2 y[n-2] + \beta_0 ...
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42 views

Steady state value of a complex convolution

I am trying few problems on the introductory part of DSP. One of the problem asks to calculate the steady state response of a system with impulse response $h[n] = (\frac{j}{2})^{n} u[n] $ to an input ...
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39 views

Evaluate the Z Transform

Evaluate the Z transform of $x[n] = n^3$ where the signal is two sided. I have tried using the basic definition of the Z transform ie., $$X(z) \triangleq \sum_\limits{n=-\infty}^{+\infty} x[n] \, z^...
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113 views

Z transform stability

What is the causality & stability status for three cases shown (aso in attached photo) ? $$H(z) = \frac{z(z-1)}{(z+1)(z+\frac{1}{3})} $$ for three possible regions of convergence as: a-) |z| > ...
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37 views

How to determine poles and zeros of the z-transform?

This is a simple question, but I just don't understand how we determine the poles and zeros of a rational system function. For example, for the LTI system described by this constant coefficient ...
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1answer
41 views

How does an IIR system affect magnitude and phase of a sinusoidal signal

Consider an IIR system with impulse response $h[n]=\left( \frac{1}{\sqrt{3}} \right)^n u[n]$. If I apply $x[n]=\cos(n \frac{\pi}{2} + \varphi)$ at the input, how can I determine the change in ...
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Analytical Calculation of the Phase Contribution

I'm willing to analytically calculate the phase contribution of the complex singularities. So far, I'm using $\ b(\Omega) = -arg\{e^{j\Omega}-z_{0,1}\}$ equation for calculating phase contribution, $\...
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Equality of the Number of Poles and Zeros [duplicate]

In which case number of poles and zeros on the z-plane are equal? Some say it is because of causality but for the causal case, it is stated that the number of zeros cannot be greater than the number ...
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Transfer function of resonant filter with 2 poles, peak at $f_0 = 500\text{ Hz}$, and $\Delta f = 32\text{ Hz}$

This a contest question. I'd like some help because I can't find any materials related to this topic. https://www.qconcursos.com/questoes-de-concursos/questao/ecd6c966-51 My english translation: ...
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1answer
51 views

transfer function and 'causal' signal - evaluate transfer function or use z-transform of input?

From my studying difference equations and transfer functions, I understand that when a complex exponential input $x[n]=z_1^n$ is applied to an LTI system with transfer function $H(z)$, determining the ...
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112 views

How to compute impulse and frequency response of Flanger?

I have to the implementation of a Flanger effect on Matlab, buy previously I have to plot its frequency response and impulse response. The difference equation is $y[n]=x[n]+a\cdot x[n-d[n]]$ where $a$...
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1answer
38 views

Poles of the transfer function in Z Transform

Given that: $H(z)$ has 4 poles maximum. $H(z)$ has a pole at $z_1=a+bi$ Given that the impulse response $h[n]$ is: Symmetric: $h[n] = h[-n]$ Real: $\forall$$n$ , $h[n]$$\in$$\mathbb{R}$ How we can ...
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46 views

What happens when the poles of this z-transform function are outside the ROC for a signal?

I am given a z-transform function for a signal $h[n]$. It's $H(z)=\frac{2z^2-0.75z}{(z-0.25)(z-0.5)}$. I am supposed to find $h[n]$ and check the stability of the system for these cases: a)ROC: $|...
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1answer
143 views

How to perform this spectral decomposition in MATLAB?

Given a filter $X(z)$ I want to find $G(z)$ such that it is stable, causal and minimum-phase, and it accomplishes that $$X(z)=K_0G(z)G^*(1/z^*)$$ where $K_0\in\mathbb{R}$. Of course, $G^*(1/z^*)$ ...
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Discrete filter $y[n] = \frac{1}{3} x[n] + \frac{1}{3} x[n-1] + \frac{1}{3} x[n-2]$

Consider the filter which equation can be represented by $y[n] = \frac{1}{3}x[n] + \frac{1}{3}x[n-1] + \frac{1}{3}x[n-2]$, in $x[n]$ and $y[n]$ are sequence of input and output of the system ...
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54 views

Find a stable transfer function $G(z)$ such that $|G(z)| = |H(z)|$

Consider the following causal IIR transfer function: $$ H(z) = \frac{2z^3 - 4z^2 + 9}{(z-3)(z^2+z+0.5)} $$ Is $H(z)$ a stable function? If it is not stable, find a stable transfer function $G(z)...
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257 views

Z-domain transfer function to difference equation

So I have a transfer function $ H(Z) = \frac{Y(z)}{X(z)} = \frac{1 + z^{-1}}{2(1-z^{-1})}$. I need to write the difference equation of this transfer function so I can implement the filter in terms of ...
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159 views

Impulse response of a causal system from transfer function in z-domain

The transfer function is $$H(z)=(z+1)/(z^2+z+0.5)$$ I need to find the impulse response h[n] of a causal system with x[n] as unit impulse. I have tried to find the impulse response by the following ...
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1answer
45 views

Explicit a succession using z inverse transform

Is it possible to explicit $y(n)$ of this mathematical succession in recursive form using z inverse transform?: $ y(0) = 1 \\ y(n+1) = 2y(n) + 3 $ I can't write ...
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Finding Z transform of a signal: Intermediate steps

Find the Z transform of $y(n)=x(n+2)u(n)$ I have solved the problem. I have doubt whether it is correct or not. It would be very helpful if someone could check whether the steps that I have ...
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Sampling and ideal reconstruction of signal

Two time discrete signals $x_1(n)$ and $x_2(n)$ are produced by sampling the continuous signal $$x_a(t) = \cos(2\pi300t) + \cos(2\pi600t) $$ with the sample frequency $F_s = 1000\ \rm Hz$. For the ...
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128 views

Help needed with finding ROC of transfer function

I've been doing some practice with the $\mathcal Z$-transform for an exam, and I'm not sure if my approach is correct to this problem: My approach: I wrote $y[n]$ as follows: $$ y[n] = 2\cdot\...
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150 views

Confusion over impulse invariance, matched z-transform, and bilinear transformation methods

In the DSP course that I am taking in my university as an undergraduate student, three methods are presented for mapping analog filters to digital filters - namely, impulse invariance, matched z-...
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Question regarding ROC of transfer function

I've been trying to understand how to determine the Region of Convergence (ROC) of $H(z)$ given $X(z)$ and $Y(Z)$ for some time, and just can't wrap my head around it. I know that $Y(Z) = X(z)H(z) \...
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How do I convert a two-pole two-zero transfer function from the s-domain to the z-domain?

I'm trying to convert the following IIR transfer function from the s-domain to the z-domain: $$ H(s) = \displaystyle\frac{\frac{s^2}{\omega_z^2} + 2\zeta_z\frac s\omega_z + 1}{\frac{s^2}{\omega_p^2} + ...
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107 views

Design a filter which passes all frequencies except $\omega=\pm\frac{\pi}{2}$ and plot its pole-zero diagram

Also draw its normalized frequency response. What is the ROC? This has to be done in z-plane so there must be two poles at $+i$ and $-i$ since they cannot be included in region of convergence. Is my ...
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2answers
146 views

Autocorrelation of a Shifted Sequence

Suppose I have a sequence $x[k]$ with $\mathcal{Z}$-transform $$ X(z) = x_{0} + x_{1}z^{-1} + x_{2}z^{-2} + \ldots + x_{N-1}z^{N-1}$$ I know that for real-valued $x[k]$ the $\mathcal{Z}$-transform ...