Questions tagged [window]

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8
votes
3answers
20k views

Moving average vs. Moving median

I have read in many places that Moving median is a bit better than Moving average for some applications, because it is less sensitive to outliers. I wanted to test this assertion on real data, but I ...
5
votes
1answer
263 views

Use of Tukey window and its effect on a graph

I am trying to minimise the noise in a spectrum of a variable. I am trying to to divide the time history in equal parts, to do the FFT of this time history parts and to do an average between these fft....
4
votes
3answers
5k views

Understanding overlapping in STFT

I understand the concept of the STFT. In order to avoid spectral leakage, you use a Hann window that overlaps by 50%. However, the problem that I have, is that the example code online does not account ...
4
votes
3answers
2k views

Correct method for processing FFT in realtime

I am attempting to build a 'live' FFT for continuous analysis of an audio signal. I am relatively new to this, but have attempted the full thing, and then updating the graph at 20Hz refresh rate. My ...
4
votes
1answer
219 views

What is the LOW frequency resolution rule analogous to Nyquist?

If I'm analyzing a signal in the frequency domain, I know about the well known Nyquist criteria that the sample frequency must be > 2x of the highest component present in the signal. However, there ...
3
votes
2answers
7k views

Why is each window/frame overlapping?

I am currently reading up on some speech recognition theory. As it speech signals usually are non stationary, but if a speech is seen in a very small time frame can it be deemed stationary, as would ...
3
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4answers
150 views

What is Frequency Resolution?

Im trying to tackle the following problem while still not having a firm idea on what "frequency resolution" means : Suppose we sample a continuous time signal with sampling period Ts = 1/2000, and ...
3
votes
2answers
182 views

Zero padding - High amplitude

I have a set of 512 samples that I have collected with a sensor. I'd like to apply zero padding to it, for better frequency bin resolution. However, all the tutorials I see to make this occur center ...
2
votes
1answer
68 views

What is the proper way to filter out unwanted noise from accelerometers?

I'm a beginner in signal processing and have a hard time to filter out environmental noise from the floor vibration data collected using accelerometers. I have tried using butterworth filter (IIR) ...
2
votes
1answer
2k views

Hanning and Hamming Window

I am new in the field of signal processing. What's the different between Hamming and Hanning window? When we use the former and latter?
2
votes
2answers
132 views

Fundamental misunderstanding of windowing

I believe I have a fundamental misunderstanding of windowing. I thought that windowing is applied to a signal with pointwise multiplication, then some sort of filtering is then done to it (say using ...
2
votes
2answers
910 views

Hilbert transform with a sliding window

I have a input voltage signal which has disturbances present in it. I am actually discretizing the input signal into say $1300$ samples and taking Hilbert transform of the signal by taking $N$ samples ...
2
votes
1answer
2k views

How is a signal multiplied with the window functions?

How the input signal get multiplied with the window functions like Hamming, Hanning, Blackman, etc? I have tried to multiply the input signal of $10\textrm{ MHz}$ sampled at $100\textrm{ MHz}$ using ...
2
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0answers
56 views

Separating out a sequence of DFTs with overlapping windows

Suppose I have a time series partitioned into $N$ equally-sized sections. Choosing some $k<N$, for each of the sections $i \in[0, N-k]$, I concatenate that section with the $k-1$ sections to the ...
2
votes
1answer
175 views

How to Calculate the Hann Low Pass Filter / Kernel for Image Processing

I'm currently studying for an exam in image processing and stumbled upon a exercise which i could not answer and my professor will not be available before the exam anymore. The exercise goes as ...
1
vote
4answers
465 views

What do I lose when I set overlap rate to a really high value in STFT

If I don't care about computational cost, is there any cons when I put overlap rate really high in STFT?
1
vote
3answers
7k views

Window period(overlap) and FFT

How does changing the window period (i.e the number of points overlap between two frames) affect the FFT results ? Suppose that a time series signal was converted to frequency domain by FFT with ...
1
vote
2answers
320 views

Non-symmetrical DFT of real valued signal

I have a homework assignment to take the $64$ DFT of $\cos((5\pi/32)n)$ and $\cos((5\pi/64)n)$. However, for the second case I obtained DFT spectrum such that I have that famous symmetry in real part ...
1
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1answer
889 views

Gaussian window and standard deviation

I am trying to figure out how to use the matlab gausswin function which constructs a Gaussian window for $N$ samples with a given standard deviation $\sigma$. The function is defined by ...
1
vote
1answer
596 views

Is an FIR filters 'transition width' frequency dependent?

I was recently brushing up on some FIR filter design and was browsing the Wikipedia page. A claim in the article caught my attention: The main disadvantage of FIR filters is that considerably more ...
1
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1answer
273 views

Design a FIR filter with a Kaiser window

Here is the exercise I am working on. Use the window design method with the Kaiser window to design a linear phase high pass FIR filter of minimum order that meets the following specification: $\...
1
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1answer
154 views

Non-separable, higher-order generalized cosine windows in 2D for images

Higher-order generalized cosine windows define a useful parametric family of windows functions, embedding Hamming, Hann, Blackman, Nutall, etc.: $$w(n) = \sum_{k = 0}^{K} a_k\; \cos\left( \frac{2 \pi ...
1
vote
1answer
58 views

Should zero element be considered to calculate mean when smoothing spectrogram by window?

My (mass spectrometry) spectrogram does not measure the intensity constantly. I obtain the spectrogram, for example, ...
1
vote
1answer
121 views

Why does my plot of the Blackman window not match everyone else's in literature?

I've seen the plot for Blackman window as so in a bunch of books, as on this website: But plotting the same equation on Wolfram Alpha yields a different plot: Why is their graph not centered around ...
1
vote
1answer
364 views

How is the ends of a bandpass filtered signal reliable after applying the cosine taper?

A taper function decaying to zero at ends such as a cosine window is routinely applied to the signal before bandpass filtering to reduce end effects. Obviously the window alters the waveform. So, as ...
1
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2answers
425 views

Instantaneous magnitude

I was reading this thread: How to get Instantaneous Magnitude for a Instantaneous Frequency From FFT? I have basically the same question, but I'm curious about more detail about the Hann window ...
1
vote
1answer
881 views

Additional prefix and suffix required when windowing an OFDM symbol?

To reduce out of band energy, it is common to apply a Raised Cosine filter to the front and back of an OFDM symbol. It is also common to overlap the windowed portions of adjacent symbols to eliminate ...
1
vote
1answer
32 views

Why coherence function calculation needs averaging of different segments of the signal?

I am trying to understand coherence function calculation. I am working with a non-linear system without any noise. Coherence function is defined as: I understand that coherence is 1 for N=1, but I ...
1
vote
2answers
195 views

Multi Resolution STFT for audio

I am looking at trying to achieve a multi resolution STFT analysis on a log sine sweep audio measurement. I have an impulse, and I would like to perform two different windowed length FFTs on the ...
1
vote
1answer
2k views

Inverse the Hanning Window [closed]

I am using the following formula to calculate the Hann values for a set of points: $$ w(n)=0.5\left(1-\cos\left(2\pi \frac nN\right)\right) $$ To implement this in java, I am using the following code:...
1
vote
1answer
193 views

Why do we not use square filters without windows? [duplicate]

This question may sound like "why do we use window functions", but it's not. So here it's: What we currently do: If we have a function $g(t)$ and its Fourier transform $G(f)$, and a window $W(f)$ and ...
1
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1answer
1k views

How to Combine FFT Overlap Results?

We currently have C/C++ FFT code with Hann Window function support. For a large data (over 10,000) we want to split this into 1024 samples with 50% overlap. For each 1024 sample, we window and fft. ...
1
vote
1answer
30 views

Is it okay to interpolate between overlapping areas obtained using a sliding window?

I am using a 50x50 pixel sliding window which moves left to right every pixel so that it covers a whole binary image which is about 2000x2000 pixels. In the window, the ratio value of black to white ...
1
vote
3answers
112 views

Rectangular vs Hann windowing

I'm trying to create a basic digital signal processing pipeline, to manipulate a WAV file. Nothing fancy, I'm just looking to apply some filtering. My first attempt was to divide the input signal to ...
1
vote
0answers
41 views

Is there a window with both a lower side lobe level and higher side lobe roll of rate than Blackman

Is there a window with both a lower side lobe level and higher side lobe roll of rate than the Blackman window - even if it is poor or useless for some other reason?
1
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2answers
127 views

Multiple different length Windows for high resolution realtime FFT

I am looking at trying to achieve a 'realtime' (as quick as possible to acquire, process and present data) FFT application to analyse audio. I have setup my app to acquire a set of samples, apply a ...
1
vote
1answer
792 views

How to design a lowpass filter using Hamming window and sinc function

I have these three equations and have a noisy voice signal. I have to design a low pass filter of length N=1000 using hamming window technique. I have selected its cutoff frequecny 0.25 (normalized). \...
1
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0answers
197 views

Windowing a signal by using Hanning / Hamming or… zero padding?

My question is about the use of Hanning or Hamming windows versus "square" windows. In my understanding, I will use a Hanning or Hamming window to limit the spectral leakage. But, on the second hand, ...
1
vote
2answers
468 views

Short length windowed sinc filter

I have a 50-60Hz signal being sampled at a frequency of 25 kHz & I'm trying to filter all frequencies beyond 70 Hz with a reasonable steep transition band (approx 4 Hz) & good attenuation (~40+...
1
vote
1answer
362 views

Is information lost due to Hanning window perturbations?

I apologize for the obscure phrasing of the title of the post...My question is quite simple... Let us imagine an audio signal (any song will do). We want to apply the Short Time Fourier Transform ...
1
vote
0answers
29 views

Where can I find more information about this formula relating a window's time and frequency size?

I remember having seen a formula of the form $C=\frac{B}{L}$ that relates a duration $L$(s) of a window to its width $C$(Hz) in the spectrum (defined at -3dB or so). The constant $B$ would be ...
0
votes
2answers
764 views

Why are window functions used when calculating spectral estimates, really?

Having just read the rather long article on Wikipedia about window functions, I still do not see the mathematical point in using window functions when calculating spectral estimates (using e.g. Welch'...
0
votes
2answers
751 views

What is a “square window function”?

When I read previous studies it mentioned a method of "square windowing function". I searched but I did not find anything talking about it. Can someone help to explain what is "square windowing ...
0
votes
1answer
48 views

What does the 'B' parameter represent in Wikipedia's page on window functions?

I was trying to learn some more window functions and was referencing the Wikipedia article on the subject. I've noticed on a lot of the plots, there appears to be a capitalized and italicized letter B....
0
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2answers
355 views

Interpolated FIR filter group delay

I'm trying to design a digital low pass filter with a narrow transition band. My sampling rate is 25 kHz, the cut off frequency is 60 Hz & the transition band width is 4 Hz. I'm looking for about ...
0
votes
1answer
1k views

Overlap and windowing a signal for signal processing

I’d like to digitally signal process an audio data. Therefore my idea was to: Split the audio data into individual blocks of 16 samples each. Each block has an overlap of 50% (8 samples are shared ...
0
votes
1answer
514 views

MRI reconstruction using windowing based apodization

I am trying to apply windowing to do MRI reconstruction. I have a 256 point one dimensional k-space samples which look as follows: Here, the real part(green) is flat around 0 and the blue curve is ...
0
votes
1answer
772 views

Why does the Hamming window attenuate the FFT?

I am working on a very simple voice recognition system using the msp430. In my research I've read that for real life audio signals its necessary to apply a window to the FFT data because the audio ...
0
votes
1answer
38 views

Energy using Hanning window

I am a newbie in signal processing. I am testing the Hanning window on a signal. Obviously doing this window also means cut some energy of the signal, and when I do the DFT, the 0 frequency is not ...
0
votes
1answer
71 views

When can a windowed cosine be considered band-limited signal?

I have an exam in the following days and i have no clue of what is the response to this question in the exam: given this signal: $$g(t) = H\left(t+\frac{T}{3}\right) f(t) - H\left(t-\frac{2T}{...