Questions tagged [window-functions]

In signal processing, a window function is a mathematical function that is zero-valued outside of some chosen interval.

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2k views

How to calculate the power of a discrete signal? / Clarification on PSD estimates

I want to calculate the channel power $ P_\mathrm{x}$ of a given discrete and complex signal $x[n]$ (with a length of N) in a given bandwidth $B$. I'm aware, that I could probably apply a sharp ...
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812 views

segmenting an EEG data

I have an EEG labeled data, which is the data that used for training, And I want to segment those data based on the time of EEG signal (Time-based Epoching) as a preprocessing step, based on the ...
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1answer
167 views

Overlapping power-of-cosine windows with constant weight

I would like to refer you to a relevant question I posed on the Math StackExchange: A generalisation of the Pythagorean trigonometric identity. As can be seen from the question and the answer, what ...
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69 views

Difference between applying a window to a whole signal and frames.

I'm going to do feature extraction using a speech signal. The first step is the windowing of the signal using Hamming window. I'd like to know if I should apply one single window to the whole ...
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1answer
115 views

Why does my plot of the Blackman window not match everyone else's in literature?

I've seen the plot for Blackman window as so in a bunch of books, as on this website: But plotting the same equation on Wolfram Alpha yields a different plot: Why is their graph not centered around ...
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1answer
44 views

Why is the Hamming and Hanning window the most widely used for speech spectograms?

When taking the Short-Time Fourier Transform of the speech signal, windowing is applied to taper away the signal frame at both ends and mitigate introduced artifact at expense of the maximum ...
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1answer
54 views

Cosine window function & signal with nonzero mean

I'm using cosine window function of order $p$: $$ f(t) = \frac{2^p (p!)^2}{(2 p!)} \left(1 + \cos(\pi t)\right)^p $$ for frequency identification in real signals with several frequency components. ...
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2answers
134 views

Conditions for symmetric and unimodal windows in both time and frequency domains

After a lecture on harmonic analysis and time/frequency methods, I reconsidered the Gaussian kernel, defined in continuous time. It is unimodal and symmetric, and its continuous Fourier transform is ...
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52 views

How can I graph the amplitude for a given frequency window over time?

I have simple audio files of single plucked notes from a guitar: I want to graph the amplitude of each partials over time, rather than just have this color-coded "dB" intensity graphing I have here. ...
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1answer
62 views

Can the Hanning Window be represented in the time domain

I know the Hanning window, $w_{Hann}(n) = 1 - \cos \left(2\pi \frac{n}{N} \right)$, is typically applied to discrete Fourier transforms. $N$ being the total number of points in a transient signal that ...
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Window function correction when using frequency domain likelihood

I was wondering if someone could tell me or point to resources which discuss what kind of of windowing corrections factors one should use when using a frequency domain Whittle likelihood for spectral ...
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1answer
66 views

Comparison of results own implementation and python signal.welch

I am trying to replicate the output of Python's signal.welch function to make an estimate of the PSD from an FFT calculation. I don't want to use the built-in function to understand better what is ...
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108 views

Window function for signal with 3-5 sine waves inside

Should I apply some window before FFT if I want to find 5 frequencies in signal? Signal is pure 5 sinusoids + some noise generated during recording on analog cable.
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How exactly does one apply a Hanning Window for a spectral estimate?

PREAMBLE I am a graduate student researching evolutionary ecology. My supervisor and I have been trying to learn how to simulate colored noise, discretely, by the $\frac{1}{f^\alpha}$ power law for $\...
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1answer
161 views

Overlap/add time-domain audio frames: How does normalization/scaling work with overlap greater than 50%?

I am attempting to overlap-add time-domain audio frames in a real-time context (with a continuous stream of data coming-in). Each frames consist of 1024 samples and have been previously "Hann" ...
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3answers
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Librosa stft + istft - Understanding my output (which always seems too perfect) at varying window lengths

I've just started to use Python with Librosa for a DSP project I'll be working on. First thing I've been trying to do is determine my preferred parameters for the FFT window size, and hop-distance. ...
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3answers
51 views

How does a rectangular window affect the signal?

If i am not mistaken a rectangular window of length 10 gives us an array of 10x1: 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 And if we apply this to a signal we are left with exactly ...
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Attenuate frequency bin in FFT array resulting in artifacts [duplicate]

Am trying to remove noise for certain frequency bands by attenuating freqeuncy bins in the FFT array. However this results in artifacts to be formed, where there are clicking sounds in between each ...
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MATLAB : How to filter a data signal

I have a data signal (column vector) with N values taken over at specific sample rate (dx) at a fixed frequency. After taking the Fourrier transform of this signal and representing it in the Fourier ...
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2answers
320 views

Increasing the number of points in the frequency spectrum

I have an image with few pixels in length and height. For this image I calculated the two dimensional Fourier transformation. What I got for the frequency spectrum in one direction was a very ...
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1answer
411 views

Filter, window function and audio signal: how to link them to each other?

I have a question about the implementation of digital filters in CoreAudio. I'm in big trouble because it is a few weeks I'm trying to understand how to implement them. The basic idea is this: while I ...
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136 views

What happens if you apply window after filtering a discrete signal to get it back to its original length?

What happens if you filter a discrete bandpass signal of length $N$ with a bandpass filter(Hann truncated sinc) of length $L$ and apply a window of length $N$ to the filtered signal of length $N+L-1$ ...
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How to relate power spectral density with the number of resource blocks in LTE?

I am running a simulation with 100 Resource blocks for LTE OFDM and I plotted a PSD for it. Now I am able to bring down the out of band emissions when I perform an algorithm on it. Based on the ...
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1answer
122 views

Purpose of multiplying fft output by Hann window?

I'm working with some acoustic propagation models at the moment. A feature I've noticed in 2 of these models is that the output of the model is often multiplied by a Hann window in the frequency ...
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1answer
181 views

Hanning and Hamming Window

I am new in the field of signal processing. What's the different between Hamming and Hanning window? When we use the former and latter?
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Amplitude Estimating Using a Windowed DFT

Let's say we want to estimate the amplitude A of a mono-frequent signal using a windowed DFT. The frequency of the signal is unknown, and the frequency resolution of the DFT is limited, thus it cannot ...
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1answer
35 views

Why does shortening window widen its Fourier Transform?

On page 76 of the book Discrete Time Speech Signal Processing by Thomas F.Quatieri, the author states "shortening the window widens its Fourier Transform". Can anyone explain why?
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Attempting to remove the 60Hz frequency out of a noisy ECG signal

load eeg_plus_noise Fs=200; Fn=Fs/2; b = fir1(64,[59.8 60.2]/Fn,'stop'); figure(3) freqz(b,1,512,Fs); y = filter(b,1,eeg_plus_noise); I am then using the ...
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1answer
42 views

Quantized error in scatter plots for a hamming windowed LTE signal

I have a time domain signal based on LTE standards. Carrier spacing = 15KHz, Symbols per slot = 6, extended Cyclic Prefix = 512 samples FFT size = 2048, No. of sub carriers = 1200, channel BW = 20MHz, ...
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49 views

Windowing in frequency domain. how to cut a spectrum using window function in frequency domain?

I have a set of measurement data of a FMCW radar and trying to estimate the system transfer function. In the frequency spectrum, I can see multiple peaks due to the non-linearity that exist in the ...
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1answer
44 views

I have the scatter plots for a Hamm and Tukey(0.25) windowed data. The complex data plotted from Hamm windowed forms a pattern, why?

The Hamm windowed complex data forms some sort of a quantized pattern whereas in the same code if tukeywin(0.25) is applied normal noise is observed. Any idea why ?
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What version of sinc function to use ? (With additional factor of $\pi$ or not.)

I have an exam tomorrow on Signal Processing and one of the questions can go two ways: Use a Hamming window to design an Nth th order (N+1 tap) band pass FIR filter with a pass-band between $f_0$-$...
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160 views

Zero padding - High amplitude

I have a set of 512 samples that I have collected with a sensor. I'd like to apply zero padding to it, for better frequency bin resolution. However, all the tutorials I see to make this occur center ...
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3answers
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How to calculate resolution of DFT with Hamming/Hann window?

The frequency resolution of a DFT with a rectangular window of size $N$ is given by $f_s/N$. However, when using other window functions like a Hamming or Hanning window the resolution gets worse. How ...
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1answer
32 views

How to window a time domain signal for 6 symbols with cyclic prefix length of 512 samples?

Based on LTE stds. I am running a simulation for 6 symbols (each having 1200 central subcarriers) each in a 2048 FFT/IFFT bin. To these symbols are appended 512 samples as cyclic prefixes. I have to ...
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1answer
27 views

Applying window function to reduce out of band emission for a symbol in LTE simulation?

I have to apply a window to an IFFT'ed signal (based on LTE standards, simulated for 1 symbol - 100 resource blocks - 1200 subcarriers). I have a signal which I have simulated till the IFFT. Now I ...
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3answers
4k views

FFT with asymmetric windowing?

Common non-rectangular window functions all seem to be symmetric. Is there ever a case when one would want to use a non-symmetric window function before an FFT? (Say if the data on one side of the ...
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2answers
245 views

Where do we use windowing?

I have been studying about the box window and am unable to understand one thing, do we first sample a signal and then window it resulting in up-scaling or downscaling, or is windowing a practical case ...
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0answers
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Frequency bins too powerful at the start and at the end of each sample computed DFT data

I've taken the following link http://coding-geek.com/how-shazam-works/#comments as a project to start practising and learning signal processing and python programming for me to get started in speech ...
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1answer
164 views

Modified Periodogram function in MATLAB

Given below is a function written in MATLAB for computing the modified periodogram, taken from Hayes, Statistical Digital Signal Processing and Modeling ...
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Fourier transform artifacts

My starting point in what follows is a radially symmetric random field. Taking the Fourier transform of this (and plotting it in logarithm to highlight the patterns), I obtain the following image in ...
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2answers
186 views

Window length in matplotlib's specgram

In the paper about speaker verification I can read that Two quantities have to be set: the length of the window and the shift between two consecutive windows. For the length of the window, two ...
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3answers
91 views

how could window function really suppress those frequencies that we don't want?

I know we can use window function to decrease leakage phenomenon by making the end of a non-periodic signal to be zero at both end, so that to make it like "continuous and periodic" when doing fft. ...
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1answer
544 views

Seven term Blackman Harris window

I am currently trying to evaluate a high resolution ADC for which I need to window my output data for the FFT. Up until now I have been using the default 4 term Blackman harris window in MATLAB. ...
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2answers
305 views

Linear Convolution in DSP and Hann window

My understanding is that when dealing with discrete finite sequences, convolution done thru FFT is circular. To obtain linear convolution, one would pad the input with zeros up some appropriate length....
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851 views

Is spectral leakage due to windowing 'different' for the DTFT and DFT?

I'm currently trying to improve my foundational understanding of spectral leakage due to windowing. The more I have been reading about it, the more I'm starting to think that 'windowing spectral ...
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Effect of Hanning Window on phase of FFT

I'm calculating the beat of song through the frequency domain. I have 60 seconds of audio sampled at 48000Hz, multiplied by a Hanning window in the time domain. This gives me a resolution in the ...
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1answer
477 views

Probability of False Alarm versus SNR

I'm currently testing the performance of an energy detector using two tests. One test involves finding the optimal threshold to achieve a probability of detection(Pd) of 0.9 and a probability of false ...
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3answers
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Window period(overlap) and FFT

How does changing the window period (i.e the number of points overlap between two frames) affect the FFT results ? Suppose that a time series signal was converted to frequency domain by FFT with ...
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1answer
265 views

Windowing a signal for FFT

I am actually working on a project involving the cross-correlation of two signals. My cross-correlation code is working fine, but I suspect that I should apply a window to my data set in order to ...