Questions tagged [window]

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Proof that the rectangular window has the best resolution

The resolution of a window is typically defined by the width of its spectral mainlobe (3dB-width or null-to-null width). It is often stated that the rectangular window has the best resolution among ...
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2 votes
1 answer
89 views

Window with optimal sidelobes for a given ENBW / frequency-resolution

Is there a family of windows which is "optimal" in terms of energy above/below a boundary, but with controllable ENBW/bandwidth? By optimal, I mean maximising energy concentration inside ...
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  • 155
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1 answer
360 views

Do we guess the cut off frequency when passband edge frequency and stop band edge frequency are given? FIR Filter design-LOW PASS FILTER

Say passband edge frequency=0.25 $\pi$ Stopband edge frequency=0.35 $\pi$ What is the cut off frequency? Do we average these 2 frequencies and write the answer or what is the procedure to find cut off ...
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0 votes
0 answers
42 views

What is the effect on the cross-correlation of two windowed signals?

I've been trying to determine the effect of performing the cross-correlation operator on two windows signals. For example: suppose we have two Sinc functions. The Sinc function is defined as $\frac{...
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2 votes
1 answer
108 views

Biorthogonal Windows

I am starting to study about the concept of biorthogonal windows and the relation to (Discrete) Fourier transform and short-time Fourier transform (STFT). I have not found an introductionary review of ...
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0 votes
1 answer
41 views

Confusion understanding phase shift/delay?

I am reading proakis, as shown highlighted in attached snap shot,there is '-'sign along with j,but still it is written (underlined red) implies shift in positive n direction,why and how positive?when ...
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1 vote
0 answers
16 views

Apply window taper for selected window or to full data block in algebraic problem with known frequencies?

First, I'd like to introduce a problem. I try to solve a set of linear equations in LS (Least Squares) sense, i.e. Ax=y (LS) => A^TA x = A^T y. x is a vector I'm looking for, but y is a measured ...
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5 votes
3 answers
244 views

Can I use more than one Window on an FFT?

I was wondering if it is possible to take a signal and run it through an FFT multiple times with a range of different windows, and then combine/average the results to get a more accurate Signal ...
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0 votes
2 answers
239 views

Windowing of signal before FFT

I am facing an interesting problem: I have a signal in the time domain. In order to avoid discontinuities at the edges of the signal --- which would lead to artifacts when calculating the FFT --- I ...
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0 votes
0 answers
61 views

Blackman window magnitude attenuation

I am trying to compute the fundamental phasor using sliding window DFT. I have employed a Blackman window in conjunction i.e $$ \sum_{k=0}^{L_{DFT}-1}x(k) w(k) e^{-j2\pi k/N} $$ where $x(k)$ is the ...
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1 vote
1 answer
70 views

minimal signal window size (length)

In order to detect a frequency component of 1 Hz with a DFT - do I need a signal window (signal in time domain) of at least 1 second length (in order to have at least 1 cycle of the desired minimal ...
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2 answers
115 views

why is the signal divided into epochs in EEG classification?

I'm new in EEG signal classification. Studying the literature on this topic, I wonder why the EEG signals are divided in epochs, so, instead of classifying the whole signal all at once, we usually ...
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0 votes
1 answer
83 views

Discrete Signal Windowing

How do we apply windowing of 50% (4 samples) to a discrete signal with the odd number of values as 1234567? Is it done as: ...
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1 vote
2 answers
1k views

Find the Equivalent Noise Bandwidth

I have already asked (in another thread) how to quantify (specify) the window function I have created. One figure I need it seems is the Equivalent Noise Bandwidth (ENBW) Or Noise Equivalent Bandwidth....
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0 answers
26 views

How to specify a window?

I have developed my own window function for pre-processing signals prior to a DFT (FFT). How do I measure the performance of the window so that I can specify how good (or bad) it is? Maybe other ...
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  • 61
1 vote
2 answers
65 views

Frequency Support of Window Functions

All window functions, which go from zero amplitude, up, then back to zero amplitude, are all base-band signals. Why is this? Are all functions that have this behavior always band-band aka low-pass?
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  • 580
1 vote
1 answer
74 views

Is it okay to interpolate between overlapping areas obtained using a sliding window?

I am using a 50x50 pixel sliding window which moves left to right every pixel so that it covers a whole binary image which is about 2000x2000 pixels. In the window, the ratio value of black to white ...
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1 vote
1 answer
178 views

Why coherence function calculation needs averaging of different segments of the signal?

I am trying to understand coherence function calculation. I am working with a non-linear system without any noise. Coherence function is defined as: I understand that coherence is 1 for N=1, but I ...
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0 votes
1 answer
366 views

RMS from calculation from PSD using Welch's method [duplicate]

I've used Welche's method on a vibration signal to get the averaged FFT which I want to used to calculate the PSD from which I can calculate the RMS. Within the Welche method i've use Hann window ...
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1 vote
3 answers
490 views

Rectangular vs Hann windowing

I'm trying to create a basic digital signal processing pipeline, to manipulate a WAV file. Nothing fancy, I'm just looking to apply some filtering. My first attempt was to divide the input signal to ...
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0 votes
1 answer
218 views

Energy using Hanning window

I am a newbie in signal processing. I am testing the Hanning window on a signal. Obviously doing this window also means cut some energy of the signal, and when I do the DFT, the 0 frequency is not ...
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2 votes
1 answer
1k views

Use of Tukey window and its effect on a graph

I am trying to minimize the noise in a spectrum of a variable. I am trying to to divide the time history in equal parts, to do the FFT of this time history parts and to do an average between these FFT....
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0 votes
1 answer
191 views

When can a windowed cosine be considered band-limited signal?

I have an exam in the following days and i have no clue of what is the response to this question in the exam: given this signal: $$g(t) = H\left(t+\frac{T}{3}\right) f(t) - H\left(t-\frac{2T}{...
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0 votes
1 answer
73 views

Peak to Average Power Ratio of an exponentially increasing signal

I am having an exponentially increasing sinusoidal signal. After sampling, I am dividing the signal into frames of length 128 and doing windowing operation with a hanning window of length 128. Then ...
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-1 votes
1 answer
141 views

DTFT of window function applied to input signal

$$x[n] = \cos(\omega_1n) + \cos(\omega_2n)$$ $w[n] = 1/N$ for $0 \leq n < N, 0$ for everything else Find the DTFT of $y[n]=x[n]w[n]$ expressed by the DTFT of $w[n]$, $W(\omega)$ I was thinking ...
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1 vote
2 answers
517 views

Multi Resolution STFT for audio

I am looking at trying to achieve a multi resolution STFT analysis on a log sine sweep audio measurement. I have an impulse, and I would like to perform two different windowed length FFTs on the ...
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0 votes
1 answer
111 views

Yet another fft question - a vocoder

Lets assume a pipeline X: ...
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0 votes
2 answers
468 views

Half Window Functions and Formulas

I am looking at implementing different window functions in an application I am making. I have found the formulas for all major symmetrical windows, however I would like to implement half windows. ...
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  • 149
2 votes
1 answer
88 views

What is the proper way to filter out unwanted noise from accelerometers?

I'm a beginner in signal processing and have a hard time to filter out environmental noise from the floor vibration data collected using accelerometers. I have tried using butterworth filter (IIR) ...
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0 votes
1 answer
264 views

How to deal with overlap in STFT when considering the highest energy among multiple channels

I have a 4 channels audio file. As a pre-processing step, it goes through an STFT with $T$ frames and $M$ frequencies. The output is divided into magnitude and phase per channel, so for $C$ channels, ...
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  • 621
3 votes
1 answer
5k views

Hanning and Hamming Window

I am new in the field of signal processing. What's the different between Hamming and Hanning window? When we use the former and latter?
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1 vote
0 answers
62 views

Is there a window with both a lower side lobe level and higher side lobe roll of rate than Blackman

Is there a window with both a lower side lobe level and higher side lobe roll of rate than the Blackman window - even if it is poor or useless for some other reason?
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  • 61
0 votes
3 answers
280 views

Multiple different length Windows for high resolution realtime FFT

I am looking at trying to achieve a 'realtime' (as quick as possible to acquire, process and present data) FFT application to analyse audio. I have setup my app to acquire a set of samples, apply a ...
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  • 149
8 votes
4 answers
5k views

What is Frequency Resolution?

Im trying to tackle the following problem while still not having a firm idea on what "frequency resolution" means : Suppose we sample a continuous time signal with sampling period Ts = 1/2000, and ...
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0 votes
0 answers
131 views

How to know the time of my window to calculate the STFT with python knowing only the length?

I am trying to implement a work presented in an IEEE paper where they have mentioned that the STFT was performed on the signal measurements to obtain a spectrogram with no overlap window of 3 min : I ...
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0 votes
1 answer
32 views

identify equilibrium region after large transient

I am looking at data from a mechanical system under an unsteady load. I'm trying to find the simplest way to identify the portion of the signal once the system reaches its new equilibrium. Here's a ...
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2 votes
2 answers
188 views

Fundamental misunderstanding of windowing

I believe I have a fundamental misunderstanding of windowing. I thought that windowing is applied to a signal with pointwise multiplication, then some sort of filtering is then done to it (say using ...
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1 vote
2 answers
1k views

How to design a lowpass filter using Hamming window and sinc function

I have these three equations and have a noisy voice signal. I have to design a low pass filter of length N=1000 using hamming window technique. I have selected its cutoff frequecny 0.25 (normalized). \...
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4 votes
3 answers
3k views

Correct method for processing FFT in realtime

I am attempting to build a 'live' FFT for continuous analysis of an audio signal. I am relatively new to this, but have attempted the full thing, and then updating the graph at 20Hz refresh rate. My ...
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1 vote
2 answers
576 views

Interpolated FIR filter group delay

I'm trying to design a digital low pass filter with a narrow transition band. My sampling rate is 25 kHz, the cut off frequency is 60 Hz & the transition band width is 4 Hz. I'm looking for about ...
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1 vote
0 answers
286 views

Windowing a signal by using Hanning / Hamming or... zero padding?

My question is about the use of Hanning or Hamming windows versus "square" windows. In my understanding, I will use a Hanning or Hamming window to limit the spectral leakage. But, on the second hand, ...
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1 vote
2 answers
705 views

Short length windowed sinc filter

I have a 50-60Hz signal being sampled at a frequency of 25 kHz & I'm trying to filter all frequencies beyond 70 Hz with a reasonable steep transition band (approx 4 Hz) & good attenuation (~40+...
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1 vote
1 answer
1k views

Gaussian window and standard deviation

I am trying to figure out how to use the matlab gausswin function which constructs a Gaussian window for $N$ samples with a given standard deviation $\sigma$. The function is defined by ...
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  • 280
1 vote
3 answers
13k views

Window period(overlap) and FFT

How does changing the window period (i.e the number of points overlap between two frames) affect the FFT results ? Suppose that a time series signal was converted to frequency domain by FFT with ...
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  • 121
0 votes
1 answer
452 views

fft - spectral leakage from noise into target frequency?

I have an acoustic setup. A sender, emitting a clean sine signal. The receiver is far away. In the time domain, the sine is hardly visible because the noise is nearly as big as the signal. In the ...
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-1 votes
1 answer
550 views

Should I use window or any filtering to average my data?

I have 80 seconds of data and I have to score my data by taking the average or median (or some other method) every 10 seconds. What's the best way to do this ? Should I just use a regular rectangular ...
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  • 1
-1 votes
1 answer
167 views

On-Chip DFT Engine vs Software DFT

I'm new to signal processing. I'm trying to build a network analyzer. So far I was only considering getting the output signal through a 16-bit ADC and then do its corresponding windowing and DFT to ...
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  • 5
2 votes
2 answers
1k views

Hilbert transform with a sliding window

I have a input voltage signal which has disturbances present in it. I am actually discretizing the input signal into say $1300$ samples and taking Hilbert transform of the signal by taking $N$ samples ...
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  • 21
1 vote
1 answer
86 views

Should zero element be considered to calculate mean when smoothing spectrogram by window?

My (mass spectrometry) spectrogram does not measure the intensity constantly. I obtain the spectrogram, for example, ...
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  • 189
1 vote
4 answers
804 views

What do I lose when I set overlap rate to a really high value in STFT

If I don't care about computational cost, is there any cons when I put overlap rate really high in STFT?
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