# Questions tagged [transform]

In signal processing, a transform is a mathematical technique to convert data in one domain to another. The most common example is using the Fourier Transform to convert data from the time domain to the frequency domain.

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### Fourier transform 4 times = original function (from Bracewell book)

I was glancing through "The Fourier Transform & Its Applications" by Ronald Bracewell, which is a good intro book on Fourier Transforms. In it, he says that if you take the FT of a function 4 ...
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### Discreteness and periodicity in Fourier transform

Why discreteness in time / frequency domain dictates periodicity in the other frequency / time domian? For example the DTFT is perodic in frequency? Why it doesn't contain all the frequencies? Why ...
101 views

### What is the correct order of operations for a 2D Haar wavelet decomposition?

The source code of iqdb contains a 2D Haar transform implementation. The author claims to have implemented it according to the paper "Fast Multiresolution Image Querying", which is freely available ...
160 views

### $\mathcal{Z}$-transform of $\frac{1}{n^2}$

This is a Question asked in IISC ( Indian Institute of Science,Bangalore,India) interview for MS admission. What is the $\mathcal{Z}$-transform of $\dfrac 1{n^2}$ ?
348 views

### Hilbert transform too large to store (out of core processing)

I have a signal (saved on disk) that I would like to take the Hilbert transform of, but it's too large to fit in memory (all at once). I would like to cut it into blocks and take the transform of each ...
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### How condition for existence of Fourier transform is valid?

The condition for Discrete time Fourier transform to exist for function $f(n)$ is given as $$\sum_{-\infty}^\infty |f(n)| < \infty.$$ In case of continuous Fourier transform the difference is ...
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### STFT multiplied with Gaussian window vs STFT multiplied by rectangular window

I am currently analysing my signal by looking at its spectrogram to determine the sinusoidal frequency content at the local sections of my signal overtime. I can do my spectrogram in 2 ways: Directly ...
214 views

### Laplace Transform of $-e^{-at}u(-t)$

I have found a problem in applying Laplace Transform to $-e^{-at}u(-t)$ I am doing these steps: $$= - \int_{-\infty}^{+\infty} e^{-at}u(-t) e^{-st}dt$$ $$= - \int_{-\infty}^{0} e^{-at} e^{-st}dt$$...
841 views

### Implementing Continuous Wavelet Transform

I need to implement the discretized continuous wavelet transform from scratch. Could someone please point me to useful papers and references available online for this?
279 views

### Mathematical advantages of the ZT, DTFT and DT?

I apologize if this question is too general to answer concretely, but I was hoping more to perhaps be pointed towards some resources that could help more extensively. Essentially, I have a Discrete-...
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### Feature extraction/reduction using DWT

For a given time series which is n timestamps in length, we can take Discrete Wavelet Transform (using 'Haar' wavelets), then we get (for an example, in Python) - ...
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### What does the normalization step of the Haar wavelet transform represent?

When you perform the Haar wavelet transform, you take the sums and differences, then at each stage, you multiply the entire signal by $\small\sqrt2$. When taking the inverse transform, you multiply ...
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### DFT-like transform using triangle waves instead of sin waves

We know that DFT (discrete Fourier transform) breaks down a signal into multiple frequencies of sine waves. Does there exist a transform that does the same thing, but for triangle waves? For my ...
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### Power Spectral Density computation and units

I want to make some calculs of power spectral densité of signal. For example a real voltage signal (physical unit : $V$) in time $g(t)$, its fourier transform $G(f)$ and $S_g(f)$. As far as I know,...
508 views

### Shifting of Shift-Invariant Wavelet Transforms

Main Question: Why would iterative wavelet/inverse-wavelet transforms cause a shift along the x-axis for undecimated (shift-invariant) wavelet transforms? I am attempting to remove backgrounds from ...
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### Ground plane estimation from a single image (was: confusion about homography and calibration camera parameters)

I'm new to this multiple view geometry issues and I'm a little bit lost, and some concept are not clear at all. I have a calibrated camera ( = I have distortion coefficents, field of view, and with ...
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### Inverse z transform - contour integration

Here is my task: Find inverse z transform of $X(z)=\frac{1}{2-3z}$, if $|z|>\frac{2}{3}$ I need to find it using definition formula, $x(n)=\frac{1}{2\pi j}\oint_{C}^{ } X(z)z^{n-1}dz$. How can I ...
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### Confusion in basics of Laplace Transform

I have few confusions while starting Laplace Transform. So far I have studied, Fourier series and Fourier Transform. The basic difference which I found from different books is Fourier Transform is ...
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### Does taking the Hilbert transform extract the envelope of audio signals?

I want to extract the envelope of music signals with a sample rate of 44.1kHz. I used the MATLAB command: abs(hilbert(mysignals)), but the resulting signal is ...
190 views

### Fourier transform 4 times = original function (2D and higher)

The Signal Processing SE post linked below shows how the Fourier Transform applied 4 times to a 1D function returns the original function, i.e. F{ F{ F{ F{ g(x) } } } } = g(x) Link to 1D case: ...
984 views

### 2D Haar Transform Computational Complexity

I want to learn the computational complexity of the 2D Discrete Haar (Wavelet) Transform (DHWT). The number of operations (divisions, summations etc.) is the main focus. I think there are many ...
362 views

### Wavelet transform: How to compute the initial coefficients when only samples are available?

In standard MRA we have that the space of functions at scale J can be expressed as $$V_j = V_0\oplus \left(\bigoplus_{j=0}^{J} W_j\right)$$ where $V_0$ is spanned by the orthonormal system of the ...
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### How to find out if a transform matrix is separable?

In image processing, when we have a series of basis images, how could we know if the transformation is separable or not? For example, I know that following bases are separable and transformation can ...
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### Computing narrowband spectrograms using MATLAB [closed]

I'm having an assignment of computing narrowband spectrograms using MATLAB. And I totally have no idea about the code. Can someone help me writing the code and explaining what's going on to me. Lots ...
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### Computational burden of EMD/Huang-Hilbert vs wavelet

I am working on an online application of signal processing and pattern recognition. It involves sampling the signal at 2 MS/s, extracting features and classifying. My classifier has pretty good ...
The mathematical formula of the Laplace and Z transforms are same with just one difference. I.e. in the first we use $t$ for continuous-time signal and in the latter uses $n$ for discrete-time signal....