Questions tagged [transform]

In signal processing, a transform is a mathematical technique to convert data in one domain to another. The most common example is using the Fourier Transform to convert data from the time domain to the frequency domain.

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18
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3answers
3k views

Show others how I hear myself

Sooo .. I've been thinking about this stuff. We all know that we sound different from what we hear of our own voice. It is easy to find out how others hear us by recording oneself and listen to it. ...
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4answers
785 views

applicability of compressed sensing

From what I have heard, compressed sensing can only be utilized for a sparse signal. Is this correct? If that is the case, how can a sparse signal be distinguished from any bandlimited signal? Every ...
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1answer
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What does the normalization step of the Haar wavelet transform represent?

When you perform the Haar wavelet transform, you take the sums and differences, then at each stage, you multiply the entire signal by $\small\sqrt2$. When taking the inverse transform, you multiply ...
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3answers
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Filtering RANSAC Estimated Homographies

I am using RANSAC algorithm for homography estimation between pairs of images taken with cameras which do not have any translation between them (pure rotation and change of scale/zoom). It works well ...
9
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4answers
1k views

DFT-like transform using triangle waves instead of sin waves

We know that DFT (discrete Fourier transform) breaks down a signal into multiple frequencies of sine waves. Does there exist a transform that does the same thing, but for triangle waves? For my ...
9
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2answers
10k views

How do I create a frequency vs time plot?

I'm a chemical engineer, not an EE, so this is a bit difficult. I'm trying to figure out how to take amplitude vs time data and transform it into frequency vs time. My first instinct is to slice my ...
8
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1answer
358 views

Wang Transformation

I'm essentially a math student working on algorithms for a chemistry problem involving rotational spectra, and I keep coming across references to Wang transformations but have been unable to track ...
7
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1answer
11k views

Feature extraction/reduction using DWT

For a given time series which is n timestamps in length, we can take Discrete Wavelet Transform (using 'Haar' wavelets), then we get (for an example, in Python) - ...
7
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1answer
3k views

What is a Kravchuk transform and how is it related to Fourier transforms?

It has been stated here, that the the so-called Kravchuk transform is very important in the field of image processing and possibly in signal processing in general. I can hardly find any description ...
7
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3answers
899 views

What do colored noises look like in the time domain?

I understand that the time domain representation of white noise looks like impulses. How do colored noises like brown, pink etc. look like when we perform an inverse Fourier Transform on them ? What ...
6
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2answers
943 views

Hilbert transform of sinusoid — apparent contradiction

The arrow "$\xrightarrow{\mathcal H}$" denotes a Hilbert transform: $$\cos(\omega t)\xrightarrow{\mathcal H} \sin(\omega t)$$ happiness. But $$\cos(\omega t) = \cos(-\omega t) \xrightarrow{\...
6
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2answers
453 views

Combining two images

I am working with speckle noise reduction in ultrasound images. I have used wavelet transform for removing the noise by eliminating certain frequencies in order to eliminate any existing noise. Since ...
5
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4answers
7k views

Does taking the Hilbert transform extract the envelope of audio signals?

I want to extract the envelope of music signals with a sample rate of 44.1kHz. I used the MATLAB command: abs(hilbert(mysignals)), but the resulting signal is ...
5
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2answers
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Fourier transform 4 times = original function (from Bracewell book)

I was glancing through "The Fourier Transform & Its Applications" by Ronald Bracewell, which is a good intro book on Fourier Transforms. In it, he says that if you take the FT of a function 4 ...
5
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1answer
152 views

$\mathcal{Z}$-transform of $\frac{1}{n^2}$

This is a Question asked in IISC ( Indian Institute of Science,Bangalore,India) interview for MS admission. What is the $\mathcal{Z}$-transform of $\dfrac 1{n^2}$ ?
5
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2answers
16k views

Continuous Wavelet Transform with Scipy.signal: what is parameter “widths” in cwt() function? How do time-frequency?

I search to display a time-frequency signal with an original discrete temporal signal (sampling step = 0.001sec). I use Python and the library Scipy.signal. I use the function ...
5
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1answer
245 views

What are the uses of those three types of wavelet transformations?

In my studies of wavelets, there appear to be 3 different families of them: The Continuous wavelet transform The Discrete wavelet transform The Redundant wavelet transform They are all based on the ...
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2answers
60 views

Finding filaments in high dimensional space

I have unit vectors in a high-dimensional space (~300) that are non-uniformly distributed over this hypersphere. There is physical meaning when the vectors are clustered together, but I'm ...
5
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1answer
1k views

Haar series approximation of a function?

I'm trying to code the Haar wavelet approximation of a function. I'm a complete newbie. Edit Below is a pseudo-code of my algorithm for $f: [0,10] \to \mathbb R$, $f(x)=x$. I picked it here and ...
5
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1answer
2k views

What is the difference between Constant-Q Transform and Wavelet Transform and which is better

i have been seeking for a better Transform than STFT with high overleaping. The Transform should more suitble for the human auditory system. And i learned that there are at least 3 Methods i may use ...
4
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3answers
743 views

IIR Hilbert Transformer

I'm beginning to explore discrete Hilbert transformers - ways to achieve 90°. phase shift across a band of perhaps 6 kHz at a 44.1 kHz sampling rate. I'm trying to stick with IIR filters in order to ...
4
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2answers
336 views

Hilbert transform too large to store (out of core processing)

I have a signal (saved on disk) that I would like to take the Hilbert transform of, but it's too large to fit in memory (all at once). I would like to cut it into blocks and take the transform of each ...
4
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1answer
445 views

Motivation for using gabor transform instead of fourier transform

I am trying to understand the motivation for the above question for signal processing and image processing? Can anyone answer this question, or provide me with resources for this?
4
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1answer
770 views

Conditions for which the Hilbert transform returns a correct phase

I'm quite new to signal analysis, and I'm currently trying to understand under which conditions a Hilbert transform can be used to compute the correct instantaneous phase and enveloppe of a given ...
4
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1answer
1k views

What is the definition of a noiselet?

I am reading about different integral transforms. Fourier transform being a subject I will soon take a class on. Looking at the wavelet transform there is one term that I do not understand, that is ...
4
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3answers
2k views

Gradient Domain Reconstruction - Scaling Problem

I am implementing reconstruction of image from gradient domain. This requires solving the following partial differential equation (a Poisson equation) on a 2D grid: $$\nabla^{2}I=\mathbb{div} G$$ $\...
4
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2answers
636 views

What transformation (or similarity metric) is rotation, shift, and scale invariant?

I have an algorithm to to detect copy-move forgeries in images. I used block matching to detect regions of an image that were forged with copy-move forgery and highlighted the alleged areas. For block ...
4
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1answer
104 views

Expanding piecewise polynomial using Daubechies wavelet

What is the best Daubechies wavelet (i.e. the number of vanishing moment) to expand a signal $\boldsymbol{x} \in \mathbb{R}^n$? $\boldsymbol{x}$ consists of $m$ pieces of polynomial with $d$ degree. ...
3
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3answers
5k views

How condition for existence of Fourier transform is valid?

The condition for Discrete time Fourier transform to exist for function $f(n)$ is given as $$\sum_{-\infty}^\infty |f(n)| < \infty.$$ In case of continuous Fourier transform the difference is ...
3
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2answers
655 views

How to sketch the following discrete-time signal?

How to sketch the following discrete-time signal: \begin{gather*} x[(n-1)^2] \end{gather*} for the signal given below: Any help would be much appreciated.
3
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3answers
361 views

Time domain maximum from frequency domain data?

Is it possible to calculate the maximum value of a time-domain signal from frequency-domain representation without performing an inverse transform?
3
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2answers
116 views

Useful natural “Hilbert-like” $n$-uples and $n$-fold "analytic signals

If $\mathcal{H}$ denotes the Hilbert transform, the analytic signal of a signal $x(t)$ is $$x_a(t) = x(t) +\imath \mathcal{H}(x(t))\,.$$ The real and imaginary parts form Hilbert pairs. Are there ...
3
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1answer
170 views

Fourier transform 4 times = original function (2D and higher)

The Signal Processing SE post linked below shows how the Fourier Transform applied 4 times to a 1D function returns the original function, i.e. F{ F{ F{ F{ g(x) } } } } = g(x) Link to 1D case: ...
3
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1answer
97 views

Principal Component Analysis definition

I have just learned about this method, so I am not very familiar with it. As far as I know, Principal Component Anlysis (aka PCA) is used to transform a vector $x$ that belongs to a space of $d$ ...
3
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1answer
4k views

Discrete wavelet transform; how to interpret approximation and detail coefficients?

I am trying to understand Wavelet transform. So far I have understood the basic theory of it. But I am not able to get my head around how to interpret both coefficients. I am using PyWavelets ...
3
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3answers
436 views

Question about z transform

After studying z transform from different books and literature on internet I want to ask few which makes me confuse. a) From the Discrete Time Fourier Transform we have drive equation for z ...
3
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1answer
247 views

Usefulness of Matrix Notation for Linear Periodically Time Variant Transformations

I am quit puzzled about a notation I found in Gardner's 1986 book titled Introduction to Random Processes. It is in the chapter on Cyclostationary Processes at section 12.4 which pertains to Linear ...
3
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2answers
128 views

Question about harmonic calculations and other functionals for image analysis

I am implementing a method known as trace transform for image analysis. The algorithm extracts a lot of features of an image (in my case features pertained to texture) using a set of transforms on the ...
3
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1answer
130 views

Recursive DCT implementation

I am trying to understand the recursive implementation of the DCT on the input signal (used for LMS filtering) according to the pictures below. The pictures and formulas are taken from the paper: "...
3
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0answers
248 views

Why does the Stationary Wavelet Transform shift this image?

I am running a stationary wavelet transformation on a brain image. I can't understand why it shifts with each level so that the image is no longer centered. You can see that the X component shifts to ...
3
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0answers
125 views

Understanding Walsh coefficients

I am working with Walsh coefficients. I know the intuitive understanding is almost that that they are the degree of connectivity, but it is there a better way of thinking about it? What is the ...
3
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0answers
109 views

Global Transforms besides the DFT?

This is a simple question. Fourier analysis gives us the DFT, which is known as a global transform of a signal. In contrast, the Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) has a plethora of wavelets, all of ...
2
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2answers
125 views

FFT equivalent for generalized unitary transforms

The DFT has the FFT, Hadamard transform has the Fast Hadamard Transform and so do a number of other unitary transforms (operators). Is there or has there been an attempt at creating FFT style ...
2
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2answers
651 views

What does boundary discontinuity in DFT imply?

I have been studying about boundary discontinuity in DFT and why it is not used as transform in image compression. What i understand is that DFT is N periodic and that causes a discontinuity at the ...
2
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1answer
4k views

How to compute Discrete Cosine Transform

Can anyone please help me understand the 2D equation of DCT?I find it hard to understand it in terms of how to apply the equation. For example if I have an 8x8 image and I will apply 2D-DCT to every ...
2
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1answer
39 views

What is the meaning of negative second for a Morlet wavelet?

I kind of familiar with wavelet transform (I just used it in code but do not have a deep understanding about it). I've been reading an article and came across this sentence: where 4Fs is the ...
2
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3answers
161 views

Effects of interchanging sine terms with cosine terms

Suppose we have a real signal $x(t)$. Now, we know that $x(t)$ can be represented as a sum of sines and cosines. w be the angular frequency. If $a(\omega)$ be the coefficients of the cosine terms, ...
2
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2answers
820 views

Can anyone explain how does CZT (Chirp Z Transform) really help in 'spectral zooming'?

I found some explanation alongwith the Matlab Code here: http://prod.sandia.gov/techlib/access-control.cgi/2005/057084.pdf but I can't figure out, without a good example, why would this result in ...
2
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1answer
93 views

Finding Laplace Transform without ROC

While studying Laplace Transform i found that region of convergence (ROC) is important because for some problems we have same Laplace Transform but different ROC helps us to take correct inverse ...
2
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2answers
933 views

2D Haar Transform Computational Complexity

I want to learn the computational complexity of the 2D Discrete Haar (Wavelet) Transform (DHWT). The number of operations (divisions, summations etc.) is the main focus. I think there are many ...