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17 votes
4 answers
10k views

Intuitive explanation of tracking with Kalman filters

I would much appreciate an intuitive explanation for (visual) tracking with Kalman filters. what I know: Prediction step: Dynamic system state $\mathbf x_t$: target location at time $t$ Measurement $...
matlabit's user avatar
  • 887
14 votes
1 answer
43k views

Kalman filter - understanding the noise covariance matrix

What is the significance of the noise covariance matrices in the Kalman Filter framework? I am referring to: process noise covariance matrix Q, and measurement noise covariance matrix R at any ...
Raaj's user avatar
  • 295
9 votes
1 answer
13k views

3D Position estimation using 2D camera

I have a camera (iPhone), I have a 3D control object in the image that I know its properties very well. (My control object). There is also a secondary object in motion. The ultimate goal is to ...
Ktuncer's user avatar
  • 816
8 votes
4 answers
1k views

Preprocessing to improve Harris corner tracking between video frames?

In our unmanned aerial vehicle grayscale video image stabilization application, we're having difficulty finding the "good" Harris corners in frame N+1 selected from frame N. The source of the ...
David Pointer's user avatar
7 votes
1 answer
2k views

Estimate and Track the Amplitude, Frequency and Phase of a Sine Signal Using a Kalman Filter

There is sinusoidally controlled signal, which other than being noisy, can change values for amplitude, frequency, phase and offset. At every new sample a new sine is fitted for the last N samples. ...
user3761419's user avatar
7 votes
1 answer
2k views

Is it possible to do single vehicle tracking using Fourier transform?

I am working on a project in image processing which is based on importance of phase only reconstruction of a signal obtained using Fourier transform.For more information about phase only ...
sagar's user avatar
  • 549
6 votes
2 answers
9k views

Using the Kalman filter given acceleration to estimate position and velocity

I am reading data from an accelerometer. I want to use this data to estimate velocity and position. Originally, I performed a double integration of acceleration to read this data, and as confirmed by ...
angryip's user avatar
  • 283
5 votes
2 answers
555 views

Kalman Filter Motion model with moving sensors

Suppose I have an object that I am tracking with moving sensors using a basic Kalman Filter (for example, think of a ship being tracked by satellites). In the simplest case where the sensors are ...
bark's user avatar
  • 51
5 votes
2 answers
429 views

How Are Unmeasured Properties (Velocity and Covariance of Velocity) Handled with a Kalman Filter?

I'm trying to understand how I can update a Kalman filter with a state variable for position and velocity when I only measure position. I have a covariance matrix of the position measurements. But ...
Jim's user avatar
  • 265
4 votes
2 answers
4k views

Kalman Filter for estimating position with nonconstant velocity & acceleration

I am trying to estimate the position & head direction of a rodent going through a 2D environment (a circular surface of 1m radius). Above his head is an overhead camera which records 4 LEDs ...
DankMasterDan's user avatar
4 votes
1 answer
170 views

IMU Speed Tracking Through Known Path

I am new to signal processing and Kalman Filtering here. Thanks for your help. I working with an IMU for a tracking project where the IMU moves throw a known path but at an unknown speed (within ...
JJMalvik's user avatar
3 votes
2 answers
171 views

object level sensor fusion for multiobject tracking

I want to fuse objects coming from several sensors, with different (sometimes overlapping!) fields of view. Having object lists, how can I determine whether some objects observed by different sensors ...
josh130's user avatar
  • 161
3 votes
2 answers
2k views

How to reliably detect the state (opened or closed) of sliding doors from a statically-positioned video stream

I have a mounted (static) camera that has a view of a set of sliding doors. Since doors are rectangular in nature, and they don't have many degrees of freedom, this seems like a problem that should ...
Jim's user avatar
  • 131
3 votes
1 answer
96 views

Find the Mid Point of a Worm / Chain Like Object

I have a video of worm-like objects which move. They can move in a straight line, they can rotate in circles, they can move in a serpentine/winding/sinuous way. I need to track them. I already have ...
JalfredP's user avatar
  • 135
3 votes
0 answers
93 views

State estimation in HyperSonic Missiles

I'm curious, what would be the correct approach for state estimation for hypersonic Missiles? Would it be exclusively GPS and IMU? Historically these are what was used, but I have also seen ground ...
FourierFlux's user avatar
2 votes
2 answers
313 views

Situations where complexity is too big to exceed linearity and gaussianity

I'm studing about Kalman Filter and Particle Filter in multiple target tracking in computer vision (tracking pedestrians). Reading sientific papers I'm colliding with a lot of sentences like: The ...
nkint's user avatar
  • 924
2 votes
1 answer
379 views

Transfer function of a PLL Loop Filter that can support a linearly increasing (chirping) frequency

What is a transfer function for a the loop filter of a PLL that can track a sinusoid of the form: \begin{equation} x(t)=\cos\left(2\pi\left(\frac{1}{2}c_0t^2 + f_0t + \phi_0\right)\right) \end{...
MrMas's user avatar
  • 125
2 votes
2 answers
259 views

How to choose the "best" measurment (from a given set) as input for a kalman filter?

Problem: For an object tracking scenario with multiple objects and multiple tracks, I want to choose the "best" assignment object<->track. Therefore, I need a parameter indicating how suitable an ...
user6522399's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
3k views

What does "kernel based" mean?

In my thesis I try to explain what kernel based methods are, especially the meaning for object detection. I know kernel based methods like Mean- and CamShift and I know how to use them. I understand ...
Viatorus's user avatar
  • 123
2 votes
1 answer
187 views

Detecting & tracking an arbitrary object in a video

I have a video from a fixed (stationary) camera. Sometimes there are slight movements in the frames (e.g. tree moving a bit in the wind). Other times, some might walk into the view of the camera, a ...
pookie's user avatar
  • 121
2 votes
1 answer
425 views

GPS signal tracking

I have a complex input signal of 300 ms at baseband. I have already performed acquisition on this signal and acquired four GPS satellites and have the code phase and Doppler frequency of each of them. ...
Priyanka.P's user avatar
2 votes
2 answers
2k views

Structuring Kalman filter for tracking problem where only position is known

I'm new to Kalman filters and my extensive web search about them has helped me understand the majority of it (or so I think). However I still need some light shed on my problem formulation. I have a ...
DNuno's user avatar
  • 21
2 votes
1 answer
185 views

Histogram operation for improving visual object tracking

I'm developping a people tracking with nearest neighbour data association technique and kalman filter for smoothing/predicting. The tracker works quite good but sometimes it mismatch objects if they ...
nkint's user avatar
  • 924
2 votes
1 answer
1k views

How to get more accurate results with OpenCV

I would like to ask about this function in OpenCV: cvTermCriteria( CV_TERMCRIT_ITER | CV_TERMCRIT_EPS, 20, .3 ) How do I get more accurate results - do I need ...
seereen's user avatar
  • 43
2 votes
0 answers
229 views

How Do Particle Filters Get Velocity When Tracking with Pos Measurements

I am new to particle filtering. I can see when particle filters are used with Ensemble Kalman's, the velocity of the states are taken care of by the Kalman. When tracking using particle filters ...
jschoe's user avatar
  • 21
2 votes
0 answers
115 views

Understanding the performance of Lucas Kanade Iterative Image Registration Technique

I am reading the paper: Lucas, B. D., & Kanade, T. (1981). An iterative image registration technique with an application to stereo vision. I am having some trouble understanding section 4.3 ...
skr's user avatar
  • 283
2 votes
0 answers
405 views

How does a Costas Loop lock to one of multiple BPSK signals

I've been looking into how GPS receivers work in terms of signal processing. When a GPS receiver tracks the received signal, it often uses a Costas loop to synchronize the carrier. How that works ...
Tobias's user avatar
  • 29
2 votes
0 answers
563 views

Extended Kalman Filter - how do I get transition functions

I am measuring position and velocity, both have some noise in them. Velocity is defined as derivative of position. The system is apparently non-linear so I need to use EKF. Model: \begin{align} X&...
c0dehunter's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
53 views

Friendly target identification in radar

How do radar systems identify friendly targets to avoid AA locks during combat scenarios? Do friendly planes broadcast a known signal or is something else going on?
FourierFlux's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
85 views

Taylor series expansion in mean shift tracking

I am trying to understand the first order Taylor series expansion when deriving the math behind mean shift tracking. Given the Battacharya coefficient between the target descriptor and candidate ...
calveeen's user avatar
  • 283
1 vote
1 answer
152 views

What is the name for a constant-heading Kalman filter model for vehicle tracking?

When applying Kalman filtering to estimate the position of a car, there are several different vehicle dynamics models that you could use. One of the simplest is "constant velocity" or CV, ...
Kerrick Staley's user avatar
1 vote
2 answers
102 views

Tracking unknown number of signals/coordinates

I have a time series data. Where for every time step I have a varying number of object coordinates. I want to track these over time. There might also be some missing coordinates for a few frames. ...
Yakku's user avatar
  • 56
1 vote
1 answer
85 views

Tracking a Predefined Curve in a Series of Images

I have a series of images. I want to be able to draw a curve on the image and track the curve in the series. For example, in the figure below, the left image illustrates the original image at time <...
shashashamti2008's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
77 views

What's the best way of modeling 3d target motion with only 2d angle observations?

A maneuvering target is flying in 3d cartesian space, but a sensor (passive infrared or mic array, etc.) can only observe it in polar coordinate with 2d orientations (azimuth, elevation). For ...
Steven Ding's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
62 views

Object Tracking with Improved Detector of Objects Similar to Target

I read this paper and need your help to understand it. Object Tracking with Improved Detector of Objects Similar to Target In paper, particle at the frame $t$ is represented by: $$c^{(i)}_t(i=1,\...
ehsan rakhshani's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
37 views

Fastest way to track dominant eigenvector of recursively updated correlation matrix

Consider a real vector time series: $\mathbf{x}_k\in{\mathbb{R}}^{N \times 1}$ where $k$ is the sample index. An associated correlation matrix is updated recursively as: $${\bf R}_k = \alpha {\bf R}_{...
rhz's user avatar
  • 457
1 vote
0 answers
227 views

What is the order of the output of HoughCircles in OpenCV, when having several circles on a frame?

So I am trying to use stereo vision to calculate the depth of several red balls. With the function HoughCircles, I get an output at one frame from one of the cameras like for example: ...
Faiza Ali's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
46 views

KLT tracker, reject tracked occluded points

I want to use KLT tracker for a visual odometry application. Thus, I only want to track object features. Currently I'm using OpenCV's implementation ...
L_vis Root's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
188 views

pre-processing to improve feature detector before tracking

I am trying to make tracking for soccer player, I need to detect features from this player and then estimate the distance difference of these pixels over number of frames. first I have to detect the ...
H.H's user avatar
  • 161
1 vote
0 answers
39 views

Tracking Acquisition for Directed Scan

My problem: create a device that can take a scan of a target via a camera and a shooting rig (that I am building). The camera is connected to a motor that rotates the camera, and this is connected to ...
Exegesis's user avatar
  • 111
0 votes
1 answer
121 views

Queries on Kalman Filter

I am trying to apply kalman filter for video processing , i am studying about it from different sources but it take me towards question that if i don't know that where my object come in frame mean i ...
ARG's user avatar
  • 601
0 votes
1 answer
2k views

Tracking object that is missing in some frames

I am trying to track small object in videos using LK but the problem is, some time the object does not appear in the frames ! How can I track an object that does not appear in few frames ?? how ...
seereen's user avatar
  • 43
0 votes
1 answer
94 views

SAR and ISAR sampling time

This is a repost of a question that I've previously asked in the EE section of SE. Unfortunately, I've not solved my problem. I'm seeking insight into the typical values of sampling times or refresh ...
matteogost's user avatar
0 votes
2 answers
165 views

GPS | Retain Signal Tracking after Noise Bound

I have an IF data, 2 seconds signal sample from only one GPS satellite, I know the PRN number of the satellite. ...
Faruk UNAL's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
93 views

How is a Particle Filter used to Estimate Parameters of a State Transition Function?

In the tutorials on particle filters that I have seen, it seems that the state transition function is already known. This example from Matlab, for example, states the the Plant or State Transition ...
Jim's user avatar
  • 265
0 votes
1 answer
155 views

Why is beamforming needed in 5G?

With the advent of 5G Era, base station density increases, the cell radius decreases, and LOS propagation gets more dominant. So, why do we need for beamforming in 5G NR, although we have smaller ...
ozi2020's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
351 views

Frequent update of the Kalman Filter covariance matrices

I have inherited some code that does vehicle localisation based on two main inputs: sensor input from the vehicle odometry and map localisation based on matching camera images to road features. Both ...
Ken Y-N's user avatar
  • 103
0 votes
2 answers
4k views

Object detection in binary image

This task comes from tracking object on a steady background. So far I was able to remove the background and obtain binary masks like this: I need to get bounding rectangle of the toy without the ...
Lupus's user avatar
  • 21
0 votes
1 answer
148 views

How to tune PID parameters to track a family of reference signals?

I have a system that is controlled by a PID controller. I tune the controller to track a reference signal that is a unit step function. Is there a way to extend the obtained results to be able to ...
Karlo's user avatar
  • 145
0 votes
0 answers
46 views

PLL Phase Error Detectors for non-bandpass-communication type signals

I'm quite familiar with PLLs for bandpass signals (e.g., GPS) which operate on IF or complex baseband signals. However, I now have a phase tracking problem where the signal is not necessarily ...
rhz's user avatar
  • 457