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Signal-to-noise ratio (often abbreviated SNR or S/N) is a measure used in science and engineering that compares the level of a desired signal to the level of background noise.

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The computation procedure problem of calculating the BER

Here is the processing of calculating the BER average \begin{align} P_e &=\int^\infty_0Q(\sqrt{2uSNR})e^{-u}du \\ & =\frac{1}{\sqrt{2\pi}}\int^{\infty}_0\int^\infty_{\sqrt{2uSNR}}e^{-\frac{t^...
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1answer
132 views

Calculating SNR from Frequency Domain

As I am newbie to signals, I have collected an appliance signal in frequency domain as follows: (PSD- Power Spectral Density). So, I need to calculate the SNR (Signal to Noise Ratio) and BER (Bit ...
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2answers
58 views

Mean delay for a M tap harmonically weighted filter

I am trying to derive the mean delay for $M$ filter taps harmonically weighted: $$y[n] = \frac{M\,x[n] + (M-1)x[n−1]... + 1 \cdot x[n−M+1]}{\tfrac12 M (M + 1)}$$. For a uniformly weighted filter, I ...
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1answer
27 views

Best digital noise reduction in optical spectra measurement

I am using an optical spectrometer to measure the reflectance of some surfaces; the output is essentially a set of photodiodes' signals: for each photodiode I have a discrete time signal every $T$. ...
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0answers
26 views

minimum usable 5G cellphone signal level?

I'm a programmer (not and EE) working on a project to simulate coverage and capacity for 5G cellphone signals at 26 GHz. But I've done enough path loss calculations for terrestrial and satcom radio ...
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1answer
378 views

Calculating the SNR of Audio Signal (Recommended Libraries)

Are there any open source packages or libraries available which can be useful in calculating the SNR(signal to noise ratio) of an audio signal. The input will be just an audio signal and I have to ...
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44 views

SNR from noise and 0dB reference only

I'm using the following Octave script: ...
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1answer
48 views

Correct SNIR computation units

I would like to know the correct units to make a SNIR computation. I am using the following formula: $$ \text{SNIR} = \frac{1}{\frac{1}{\text{SNR}} + \frac{1}{\text{CIR}}} $$ I have SNR in dB and ...
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3answers
189 views

Reducing noise from the same frequency band as signal

Sorry for the vague question (as I'm not even quite sure what I want to do is possible), just asking for some general direction to take my research. For a brief description, my signal resembles ...
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0answers
135 views

Radar Pulse Compression Gain (PCR)

Assume a monostatic radar is transmitting a pulsed waveform. The pulse has been modulated by a Barker code with$\ N$ chips or bits. The waveform chip rate is $\tau_c $, the radar receiver's detection ...
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0answers
214 views

Correct Radar Range Equation for SNR at Detection

Assuming you'd like to estimate the probability of detection of a target for a monostatic radar. For estimating detection SNR of a monostatic radar for given target rcs signature, do you use the ...
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1answer
44 views

Does receiver always know about the noise level in real world application?

In many research articles, the effect of measurement noise on estimation performance is often reported. But it is not clear to me what is the proper way of using the signal to noise ratio (SNR). For ...
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38 views

How to compare float32 image to uint8 image using PSNR

Assuming I have gray-scale images. By doing image super resolution, the output image won't have unint8 values but values with fraction. I'll use here float32 type. in this case I'll always have ...
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1answer
612 views

Conversion between Eb/N0 and SNR in spread-spectrum modulation like LoRa CSS?

This question is somewhat related to the one asked here: How is multiplexing achieved in spread-spectrum modulations like CSS? I am looking at the bit error rate (BER) performance of communication ...
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1answer
177 views

The error probability of 16QAM

The signal constellation for a communication system with 16 equiprobable symbols is shown as below. The channel is AWGN with noise power spectral density of $N_ 0/2.$Using the union bound, find a bound ...
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0answers
36 views

How can i calculate the SNR of a single receiving cognitive radio?

I am doing my final year master's project on cooperative spectrum sensing based on energy detection using soft combination scheme(maximum ratio combining). I will consider single primary transmitter ...
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0answers
14 views

Applicable Range for SNR

What is the acceptable range for SNR to test and simulate detector for wireless communication channel? Otherwise , what is the playing range to judge our detection approach
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1answer
77 views

Would the ratio of Autocorrelation value and autocorrelation of noise for different data types be different? in Matlab

Considering a model of the form: $y[n] = x[n] + noise[n]$ and $y[n] = u[n] + noise[n]$ where the term noise represents Additive White Gaussian Noise of ...
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0answers
124 views

Why does BLE require twice the bandwidth of Bluetooth Classic?

Bluetooth Classic Basic Rate sends data at a rate of 1 Mbps using GFSK modulation in 1 MHz-wide data channels. Bluetooth Low Energy also transmits at that same data rate and modulation, however, it ...
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1answer
49 views

Signal recovery from multiple noisy sensors

I'm working on detecting signals buried under the sensor noise using a multiple sensor system and using some technique (correlation?) to take what is common to all the sensors and cancel out the ...
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1answer
235 views

How is WSNR (weighted signal to noise ratio) defined?

I'm studying about comparison between images to determine quality. I've learned about MSE, SNR and PSNR, and now I'm trying to understand WSNR, which I assume is similar to SNR but with weights. I ...
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1answer
87 views

How is a signal with SNR less than unity demodulated?

The title pretty much says it all. What technique can be used to demodulate a signal with SNR less than 1?
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1answer
100 views

How to detect continuous noise in audio call?

We want to detect bad audio quality in audio call. Should we extract this information from amplitude or frequency spectrum ? Is there any technique/transform/filter available for this ? Example: I ...
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1answer
161 views

Direct Correlation (DC) time delay estimation: variance keeps decreasing for increasing SNR?

I'm trying to reproduce the results from this paper "Discrete time techniques for Time Delay Estimation" doi:10.1109/78.193195, for both the correlation and Least Squares. I've generated a random (...
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1answer
255 views

Correct way to add AWGN to a signal

I have a signal, S whose bandwidth is bw Hertz and is sampled at fs Hertz. To contaminate it with a noise corresponding to SNR <...
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1answer
98 views

Noise variance calculation for 16APSK Demodulator

I need to use approximate LLR algorithm for 16APSK demodulation. For that, I need to calculate noise variance which is given as $Noise\;variance = \frac {Signal\;power\;\times\;Symbol\;time}{Sample\;...
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1answer
316 views

Matlab : Adding noise with regard to signal-to-noise ratio or EbNo?

A signal x takes values from an alphabet set. My objective is to estimate the channel parameters hest using adaptive methods and ...
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1answer
691 views

Compute SQNR (Signal to Quantization Noise Ratio)

I'm studying the quantization of an audio signal and in particular the SQNR (Signal to Quantization Noise Ratio). The book on which the study says that: where: N is the number of bits in the ...
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0answers
280 views

Converting $E_b /N_0$ to SNR

I want to know the procedure of converting $E_n/N_0$ (energy per bit over noise power spectral density) and SNR (signal to noise ratio). I have found the following equation in MATLAB manual (also in ...
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195 views

calculating SNR from dbfs (using spectrograms)

I've the spectrogram of both noise and signal (both 5 seconds). Below image shows an example of the signal spectrogram: The colour of the spectrogram shows the intensity in dbfs (from 0 dbfs to -120 ...
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3answers
722 views

SNR calculation

i have two audacity files, one includes noise data and the other includes signal data. how do I calculate noise to signal ratio between the data in these two files? thank you
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1answer
2k views

Gaussian noise generation for a given SNR ?

I am trying to add a Gaussian noise, normal distributed to a signal I have simulated (sig_noiseFree), to get a noisy signal (sig_noisy). lease see the code. I wrote the function my self according to ...
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0answers
96 views

AWGN Build vs Randn noise do not match

I am generating noise in two different cases with the same SNR once using AWGN command which is a built in command and second time using randn function with the correct scaling however I am getting ...
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0answers
85 views

Correct scaling for AWGN noise in OFDM system after adding Preambles

I have a two-part question: Question 1 I wonder if anyone can explain about the scaling factor that is used for AWGN noise in OFDM system. For example I know about the scaling factor for normal OFDM ...
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3answers
371 views

Help in understanding the formula of Signal-to-Noise-Ratio (SNR) - Part 1

Question 1: Consider an Autoregressive model : \begin{align} y[n] &= y[n-1] + x[n]\\ z[n] &= y[n] + w[n] \end{align} where $y$ is the output observation, $x$ is a random input and $w$ is ...
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78 views

SNR for channel after equalization

Suppose I have a channel described by $h[n]$ or $H(z)$ over which I send a simple PAM2 signal. After the channel AWGN is added. What is the best possible SNR with equalization? As suggested in the ...
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1answer
78 views

Creating a noise model with a fixed PSNR

My goal is to create a noise model so that the PSNR of the noisy image compared to the original is some pre-defined constant $\alpha$. This means the mean squared-error will also be a constant. My ...
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3answers
221 views

Calculating penalty to SNR for non-matched filter

If a matched filter is optimal for detecting a known pulse in an AWGN channel, any other filter must have a degraded SNR. Given a discrete pulse shape and an arbitrary non-matched filter, is it ...
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2answers
291 views

SNR of a 16-bit DSP with 12-bit ADC, 40-bit accumulator

According to the 6dB-per-bit rule, a 16-bit DSP would provide 96 dB of dynamic range, approximately. If the ADC and DAC are both 12-bit long, the DSP is still considered to have 96 dB, or the ...
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1answer
78 views

Standard deviation is varying with change in amplitude of DC signal

I am trying to make sense of the below code. I am taking a large sample so that I get good estimates for standard deviation. ...
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0answers
137 views

SNR calculation time domain data

I have QA400 audio analyzer. I can export spectrum data to .csv and read it into Excel. However, the frequency scale of the data is linear. Meaning the values are every 2.9Hz and not a logarithmic ...
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1answer
598 views

Signal to Quantization Noise Ratio (SQNR)

I have this problem in my homework (following picture). How do find the signal to quantization noise ratio at the output? I don't want the solution. I just want to know a better approach to tackle ...
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0answers
153 views

Signal to noise ratio from waveform

I am trying to get the SNR from a PPG signal. I am getting the waveform Y and I have filtered it using the smooth() function on ...
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1answer
99 views

Unable to understand SNR equation in Matlab

Can someone please help me understand this equation of SNR given in MATLAB: SNR_dB = 1:0.1:7 SNR = 10.^(SNR_dB/10)
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1answer
154 views

MAD and RMS SNR relation

Recently I've found a formula relating mean average deviation (MAD) SNR to root mean square (RMS) SNR: $$\text{SNR}_\text{MAD} = \sqrt{\frac{2}{\pi}} \text{SNR}_\text{RMS} $$ which assumes Gaussian ...
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1answer
264 views

PSK Bandwidth for SNR

I'm conducting experiments on several n-ary Psk signals of differing symbol rates. I'm comparing detection levels of different signal detection approaches on sets of PSK signals. I'm using a cosine-...
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1answer
293 views

Value of power spectral density $N_0$ or effect of scaling bandwidth to SNR

I want to compare performance over AWGN channel of two systems that are exactly identical but their bandwidth. I will talk only about baseband system for sake of simplicity. For more details about ...
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1answer
733 views

Radar SNR for a LFM Waveform

How do you estimate the detection SNR for a radar transmitting an LFM (chirp) waveform? I'm looking for an SNR equation that is a function of chirp bandwidth and compressed (or uncompressed) ...
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1answer
436 views

Time delay estimation in low SNR

So I am interested in finding delay between two noisy narrowband signals,for example, two arterial pulse waveform. I can easily get a correct estimate of delay using cross-correlation method, but it ...
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0answers
47 views

Identifying & Measuring a Signal in Noise

I am searching for the signal circled in green in the 2.4GHz range. The sampling rate in this image is 800kHz, my setup is this power meter hooked up to an oscilloscope. The three troughs are always ...