Questions tagged [snr]

Signal-to-noise ratio (often abbreviated SNR or S/N) is a measure used in science and engineering that compares the level of a desired signal to the level of background noise.

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Instantaneous SNR

A relay system with 3 nodes: S (power node), R (relay node), and D (destination node). S transmit the signal x to R, received signal at R: $$y_R=\sqrt{P_sd_1^{-\beta}} h_{SR}\,x + n_r$$ with: $...
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29 views

What is the effect of sampling time, sampling frequency and SNR on latency? [closed]

I believe that if we have two or more external sound cards, hence clock would vary for each device. How will this affect the latency? Will it increase or decrease? How will the factors like sampling ...
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43 views

Speech SNR estimation

I'm trying to estimate SNR level in db to use it as a switch for an speech enhancement method that i'm working on. The noise level is not known and can be estimated using a posterior SNR algorithm. ...
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17 views

How to plot BER Vs SNR of a received signal

I am using USRP to transmit and received MIMO frames similar to Wi-Fi standard that I created on my own. After receiving the signal, it is processed as described in the standard. While I plot the ...
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How to measure SNR of an image with banding noise (high and low spatial frequency noise)?

I have a thermal image of an object, for example, a lamp. Initially, the lamp is off at ambient temperature. The resulting thermal image should look highly uniform (a), but it contains expected ...
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18 views

Calculate SINR and Array-Gain for acoustic Beamforming in Matlab

I'm struggling to understand the equation and the reasons for this equation from Matlab's acoustic beamforming example. Here is the link: https://se.mathworks.com/help/phased/examples/acoustic-...
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55 views

How to find out the noise level of a signal

Is it possible to find the amount of noise or SNR of a signal from its time series output? For example; let x = randn(100,1) and ...
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32 views

The use of FDM for a single message signal

Suppose I have a single message signal, m(t), that is subjected to AWGN upon transmission. Is there any way that FDM (or any multiplexing strategy) can be used to ultimately improve the SNR of the ...
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49 views

Comparing the performance of a digital communication sim against a reference

I have a complex baseband simulation of binary FSK modulation and demodulation. The modulated signal $s[k]$ is computed as $$ s[k] = e^{-j2\pi f_ik/f_s} , i \in [0,1] $$ where the sampling rate is $...
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39 views

Dependence of correlation peak height on GPS C/A signal's SNR, noise floor level (dBFS), correlation period length and ADC resolution

Assuming correlation at 2X the chip rate (2046 chips per period) and 500 Hz frequency search bins. There are probably additional variables here that I'm missing and I'm not sure how to quantify a ...
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29 views

Variance of circular vector correlation

Say I have two zero-mean vectors, with a size of N and the translation between them is k. Say the image signal std is $\sigma_s$ and the noise std is given by $\sigma_n$. What is the variance of the ...
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81 views

Difference between formula of SNR and SQNR?

Is there any difference between formula/expressionsof SNR and SQNR? where SNR is Signal to noise ratio and SQNR is signal to quantization noise . The following DSP SE question shows both SNR and SQNR ...
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145 views

Ouput SNR of an integrator

Say I have an integrator with transfer function $\dfrac{\mathrm{F_s}}{s}$. This integrator has an initial condition zero and integrates from $t=0$ to $t=\dfrac{1}{Fs}$. If I apply a constant $V_{...
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How to calculate SNR of dead-band quantizer?

Suppose we have a dead-band quantizer with $\ N = 5 \ quantizing \ levels $ which uses $\ b = 3 \ bits $ for each produced symbol. The quantizer gets as input a uniformly distributed signal $\ X $ ...
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72 views

SNR Signal to noise ratio of Pseudo random bit sequence (PRBS)

How should I estimate the Signal to noise ratio of a 20 Gbps NRZ PRBS pattern from power spectral density--where should I take the noise floor if I can assume well the noise is AWGN? I know roughly ...
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Coverage in terms of bitrate and MSC vs SNR in 5g

I'm working at a 5G coverage project and I need to define the relationship between the SNR - or SNIR - value and the MSC (modulation and coding scheme) as well as the transmission capacity. Can ...
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81 views

How to generate rayleigh fading coefficients in matlab

I want to calculate received SNR for each cellular user CUs, so i want the corresponding transmission power P of base station BS to each user, the noise, and the channel gain coefficient of the ...
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Mixing signal with noise in frequency space (STFT)

I am working on a preprocessing function which is supposed to mix two audio signals clean and noise in the context of neural ...
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44 views

SNR estimation prior to demodulation?

What are the standard ways to measure SNR, particularly before demodulation/synchronization?
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39 views

Adding Poisson noise to a time series signal

I'm working on a radiation detection problem. I have simulated some measurement count data and want to add an amount of Poisson background noise to achieve a certain SNR. Radiation count measurement (...
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38 views

Sample & Hold: Estimate jitter delay of an ADC

I've got a question regarding the effects of sample and hold. My input signal is $x$, and my output signal $x_{SH}$. The error between the signals is $e_{SH} = x_{SH}-x$. The sampling frequency is ...
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14 views

simulating directional interference to evaluate model performance

I have a model for audio processing. The model receives as input, a source, convolved with a room impulse response (RIR). I would like to test the performance of the model against inputs containing ...
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89 views

Measuring the SNR at output of matched filter

If I input a noisy signal with a calculated value of SNR, into a matched filter, then I get a matched filtered output, which should be a sinc function. I want to calculate the matched filtering gain ...
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Calculate SNR from packet error rate on micro-controller unit

I have the problem of calculating the Signal to Noise Ratio for a packeted transmission using FSK or BPSK modulation with convolutional coding on a micro controller unit which communicates with an RF ...
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Compute SNR for a noisy signal in Python [duplicate]

I have a discrete signal represented by an array in Python: $x \in R^N$. Now I add Gaussian noise to x: $x = x + np.random.normal(l=0, s=1, size=x.shape)$. How can I compute the signal-to-noise ratio ...
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What's wrong with my M-ary ASK modulation demodulation MATLAB code?

My MATLAB code linked below implements ASK modulation of an M-ary signal, impresses it on a carrier, adds AWG noise of various SNRs. Then, for each SNR, demodulates the signal and calculates the ...
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93 views

Doppler effect in underwater acoustic channel

I got my BER vs SNR graph as shown. I was trying to show the difference in BER with OFDM signal transmission under Doppler effect and without Doppler effect. However, based on my understanding, the ...
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167 views

When calculating SNR, is noise included in signal?

Given a signal $x(t) = s(t) + n(t)$ where $s(t)$ is the desired signal voltage and $n(t)$ is the noise, should the signal to noise ratio of this signal be 20log(xrms/nrms) or 20log(srms/nrms)? i.e., ...
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How to calculate relative SNR (or similar) in a set of noisy audio samples with underlying identical signal

I have a set of audio samples that were recorded at the same time of a single source. Each sample has a different amount of noise so I don't have a clean sample of the underlying signal. Ideally, I'd ...
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39 views

Measure How Much Pattern Is Present In Signal

I have some pattern signal. This pattern signal will be played in noisy room. Then it will be recorded and processed. I need to show that my processing algorithm improves the signal. My idea is to ...
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112 views

Signal Averaging

Note I also asked this in math stackexchange I was reading a wiki page about signal averaging specifically in the section Signal power for sampled signals. At least at first glance the information ...
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1answer
33 views

Simulate BER curves for OFDM with convolutional coding

I am tasked with generating performance curves for an OFDM transmitter/receiver, and I am unsure how to calculate the appropriate AWGN power, and where exactly the apply it. The transmitted packets ...
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60 views

Frequency Domain Signal to Noise Ratio

I am doing some research on low-cost air pollution sensors. I'm measuring the "ground truth" with a single low-noise sensor, and I'm trying to use it to calibrate a low-cost sensor that has high noise....
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493 views

channel gain calculation

I want to calculate the SINR term in an up-link of wireless communication system but there is different models for simulation. I want to know what is the exact meaning of $|h|^2$ in this formula: $\...
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43 views

Capacity achieving codes for BPSK at low SNR

I don't know a lot about comm system design. I have an AWGN channel and low SNR (-3dB). Bandwidth is constrained to some maximum, B. I would like to know good choices of modulation and coding to ...
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37 views

LOW SIGNAL NOISE RATIO FFT

I am processing an audio signal with CS4244 codec at 24 bits and 48kHz. Every 2048 samples the FFT is calculated and its amplitude. Without input signal I get FFT values ​​close to 30dB. With maximum ...
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142 views

SNR and Correlation

Signal to Noise ratio is essentially the ratio of the signal power to the average noise power. Correlation is the similarity of two signals. Assuming a signal travels through a channel or medium, and ...
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26 views

Should PSD be smoothed for SNR computation in frequency domain?

When taking the Power Spectral Density of a short duration signal (say 1 second, sampled at 4096 Hz), should it be smoothed to compute SNR? I want to computed the matched filter SNR, perfectly knowing ...
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547 views

Generate signals with a particular variance and SNR

Consider a system model of the form: $y_n = ax_n + v_n$ where $x_n$ is the input that is corrupted by $v_n$ which is an Additive White Gaussian Noise of zero-mean and variance 1 for $n = 1,2,...,N$ ...
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261 views

SNR computation in frequency domain with scipy.fftpack.fft

I have a noisy time series (gaussian coloured noise) to which I add a signal. I call the sum of noise+signal a segment. In the picture you can see an instance: I want to compute the signal-to-noise ...
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132 views

On generalizing Gabor-Heisenberg uncertainty in a noisy environment

The Gabor-Heisenberg uncertainty represents the fundamental limit of time and frequency resolution one can extract from a signal. $\sigma_t \sigma_f \geq \frac{1}{4\pi}$ My question is: what happen ...
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52 views

How to calculate Eb/N0 for a digital BPSK modulated multicarrier waveform

Suppose that I have a BPSK modulated multicarrier carrier waveform $L$ samples long at a sampling rate of $f_{s}$: $$ x_{tx}[l] = \sum\limits_{n=0}^{N-1} A \cdot \cos\left(2 \pi \frac{f_{n}}{f_{s}} ...
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490 views

How to measure SINAD of an audio signal?

I tried to measure the SINAD and SNR of a recorded audio signal using MATLAB. The following is the process I did to measure the 2 parameters: Firstly, I generated an FM modulated signal(1 kHz audio ...
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164 views

Combining SNR Measurements [closed]

If I have two SNR measurements (i.e SNR1 = 15, SNR2 = 20), how do I calculate a combined SNR? In my example, would this be SNR_Total = 35?
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98 views

How to calculate SNR with sample noise and noisy signal only

I want to calculate the SNR for a speech signal recorded within a noisy environment. I also sampled purely the noise within the environment. The SNR is based on the ratio of power of clean signal ...
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73 views

Find a simple sine wave buried within noise, FFT or cross-correlation?

My recorded signal x = s + v, where s = A*sin(ωt) and v = noise. SNR < 1 or ~ 1. So the sine wave is buried under a lot of noise. I need to compare the relative amplitudes of s for each recording ...
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Optimal amplitude of an $m$-bit sinusoid

A continuous-time sinusoid of zero-to-peak real amplitude $A \le 2^{m-1}-0.5$ (e.g., for $m=16$, $A \le 32767.5$) is quantized to $m$-bit resolution by rounding it to the nearest integer (Fig. 1). ...
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Can the j be equal to k in the first formula ?In MISO system

In this system model,the received signal available for RF EH at each RX_k is given by However,its SINR formula is given by We can find that author said the j can't be equal to k,but their range are ...
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256 views

GnuRadio's SNR estimators usage

I'm trying to calculate the SNR of a satellite signal using GRC, but all of the 4 offered estimators either have a lot of -NaN values or are ~35dB throughout the entire recording. (I just connected ...
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Advances in Blind SNR estimation beyond $M_2M_4$

In Pauluzzi and Beaulieu, various SNR estimation methods are compared. Among the blind methods considered, the $M_2M_4$ estimator seemed to be unambiguously the best. However, it has been shown that ...