Questions tagged [snr]

Signal-to-noise ratio (often abbreviated SNR or S/N) is a measure used in science and engineering that compares the level of a desired signal to the level of background noise.

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Higher order M-FSK modem implementation

I am looking for the optimum modulation scheme to build a half-duplex modem minimizing the required SNR at the expense of bandwidth efficiency. The key system parameters are described below: Target ...
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Why is Envelope noisy even after filtering and achievement of SNR gain (-6dB SNR to 14dB snr)?

A noisy signal with 500 MHz bandwidth, with negative SNR, when filtered to 6 MHz bandwidth, should attain a theoretical SNR gain of 20 dB. So if the original signal has -6 dB SNR, after filtering we ...
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INL-THD, DNL-SNR Relation

What do the following statements on pages 13 and 15 in this linked document mean? DNL, a static specification, relates to SNR, a dynamic specification. INL is a static specification and relates to ...
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Understanding the following formula of Throughput?

In massive multiple input multiple output (MIMO) case, I came across the following formula of throughput: $\tau_{ij} = \bigl[\displaystyle\sum_{j\in \mathcal{U}}x_{ij}\bigr]^{-1}W_i\text{log}(1+\...
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Calculating estimated ADC Noise Floor from given specifications

As per my current understanding, the ADC datasheets for modern high speed ADCs give the noise level measurements in terms of Noise Spectral Density (NSD) in unit of dBFS/Hz. Now to convert that value ...
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SNR ratio in radar for stationary targets

Is there a mathematical model which provides relationship between the Signal to Noise Ratio in radar measurements and velocity/range of targets. i.e. How SNR varies with the speed of targets? How SNR ...
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Es/N0 calculation on received symbols

What is the proper way to calculate the Es/N0 of demodulated and equalized symbols in simulation for BPSK and QPSK? I have seen various examples that include calculating the standard deviation of the ...
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How to add quantization noise (SQNR) to thermal noise (SNR) in a total value?

How can I add the BAQ (Block Adaptive Quantizer) compression noise to the input SNR? In the end is a quantization noise to be added to a thermal noise. I got the following formulation, but I dont ...
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Order statistics: always applicable tool in wireless communication?

I have seen few papers where generalized order statistics is used to obtain statistics of the instantaneous SNR. "Performance analysis of monostatic multi-tag backscatter systems with general ...
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Understanding mathematical representation of SINR

I am getting confused in SINR for the following received signal expression. $$y(n) = (h+fg)s(n) + w(n) \tag{1}$$ Where $h,f,g$ are zero mean circularly symmetric Complex Gaussian (ZMCSCG) channels. ...
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Question on Signal to noise ratio (SNR)

I am trying to form the SNR expression for the system model but I am getting stucked due to presence of multiple antennas at receiver. System model: It consists of one single antenna Transmitter, $L$ ...
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Relationship between the BER and the data rate?

I want compute data rate I can reach with my design of a nonlinear modulator. Matlab generates a modulated baseband signal (output of the modulator) and I can add a random signal as a noise to create ...
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Estimate SNR using Voice Activity Detection

I´m working on a script written in Python for estimate SNR of speech signals using Voice Activity Detection (VAD). The problem is that the results are inconsistent, for example, a signal that has a ...
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Related to SNR when the channel is in the form of vector and matrix

In my system model there is a sensor (transmitter) with $M$ antennas and receiver with $Q$ antennas. The received signal expression is $y_q(n) = (h_q+\textbf{f}_q\textbf{G}$)$s(n)$+$w_q(n)$----(1) ...
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Eb/N0 on a VLC simulation using OOK modulation

I have been doing a matlab simulation of a VLC (visible light communication) system that uses OOK for the modulator. I have to explain the basic knowledge behing the simulation and I´m having lots of ...
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Understanding $E_b/N_0$ under different coding rates

I'm trying to understand the $\\E_b/N_o$ concept and how different coding rates affect it. I've read a bunch of topics, specifically this and this, but I'm still missing something to have a clear ...
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What is the intuition explaining the Shannon-Hartley theorem?

In the digital domain, the signal to noise ratio (SNR) may be interpreted loosely but usefully as the number of discrete or quantized levels one can transmit reliably. For instance, loosely speaking, ...
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per Eb/No Packet transmission and effective SNR

I am simulating a 5G system where for each Eb/No we have 12000 packets. I also have to calculate effective SNR which is the sum of all SNRs. I am confused whether I should take average of 12000 ...
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Signal to noise ratio for time series audio data

I am writing some software to benchmark an audio noise filtering method using SNR as an evaluation metric. One software component generates noisey audio by taking a clean audio file and a noise source ...
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SNR calculation via autocorrelation

I am given the following task, however, I am lost conceptually, and require some assistance on the procedure. Given raw noisy data where the signal is a single sinusoid and noise is a random content. ...
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How to judge the percentage of white noise and color noise when using typical SDR enviroment?

Per this question,I understand different result when noise occurs in time domain and frequency domain. As to the system,has antenna+upconveter+USRPB210+laptop,...
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How to determine the CRLB for FFT based estimator with MATLAB?

I am trying to determine the CRLB for FFT-based frequency estimation in MATLAB. For this, I am simulating a single sinusoid in white noise with different amplitudes and constant noise power. Here is ...
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SNR estimation from a radar sensor signal

I am using a radar sensor for human activity monitoring which works on 3.18GHz. The received signal by the receiver of the sensor depends on the movements in its area of observation. All the activity ...
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Simulating quantization of ADC using device SNR

Suppose I have ADC microphone with a given SNR in the sense that is related to its quantization. From this tutorial we have the following connection how bit-depth determines SNR, Eq. (9): $$ \mathrm{...
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how to get the number of bits per symbol?

I have a homework question which is: A typical telephone channel has the bandwidth of 3100 Hz can support dial-up modems that can variable speeds depending on the quality of the links on both ends of ...
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How to use a boxcar averager in conjunction with lock-in amplifier

Suppose there exists a temporal voltage signal composed of short pulses, modulated by a sinusoidal envelope. One desires a hardware-based signal processing scheme to maximize signal to noise ratio (...
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1 answer
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Could alternative SNR definition be converted into dB unit?

There is alternative definition for SNR that mention in Signal-to-noise ratio It is: $$SNR = \frac{\mu}{\sigma}$$ i.e. mean per standard deviation, Is it possible to convert this SNR value into dB ...
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Simulating Es/N0 by adding noise to analog signal

I believe I am familiar with simulating $E_s/N_0$ by adding noise to the output of the matched filter, but what would be the correct way to simulate $E_s/N_0$ starting with the analog signal at the ...
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Averaging of a phase flipping signal

Suppose I want to average a signal $s(t)$ which consists of several spectral components without any DC offset. I sample $M$ points in the time domain. I am interested in the power spectrum which I get ...
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SNR of averaging FFT in magnitude

Suppose we record $N$ repetions of a sinusoidal signal with noise (recording $M$ time points). We are interested in the magntiude spectrum. To improve the SNR, I average the signal traces from ...
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How come my Bit Error Rate doesn't change at all when going from an uncoded system to a system using Hamming Codes?

I have the task of investigating the Coding Gain for a (15, 11) Hamming code using hard-decision BPSK modulation in an AWGN channel. From lecture slides, the theoretical BER without coding is: p = 0.5 ...
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Incorrect signal-to-noise ratio estimation

Consider a "pure" sine wave (no visible noise): and let's calculate signal-to-noise ratio of it by (mean to standard deviation): $$SNR=\frac{\mu}{\sigma}$$ here's the code in ...
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Is there a way to measure an image SNR blindly?

Are there known techniques to estimate the SNR of an image in small neighborhoods (say like 11x11) without any knowledge of the clean image, with arbitrary content ? Denoising is not required. Update:...
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3 votes
3 answers
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$\frac{\mathbb{E}[P]}{\mathbb{E}[N]}$ vs. $\mathbb{E}\left[\frac{P}{N}\right]$

This is a very simple question arised from my considerations in here: Log-normal shadowing and mean power. I have understood that SNR is often defined as $$\frac{\mathbb{E}[P]}{\mathbb{E}[N]},$$ but ...
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Adding Noise to a normalized signal

I saw this adding noise to a signal but I still have some questions. I have normalized IQ data of a signal. Lets suppose that I know what the current SNR is (say 8dBm). How can I add noise to the I ...
2 votes
3 answers
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Signal to Quantization Noise ratio concept

I was reading Simon S. Haykin's Digital Communications in order to understand the concept of quantization. However, on SQNR, I got stuck over the point where the author mentioned: With the input $M$ ...
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1 answer
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Measurement resolution for an accelerometer

This may be a trivial question but I don't have a strong background in signal processing and measurements. I have a piezoelectric accelerometer with a sampling frequency of 10 kHz (sensitivity $102 \; ...
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Related to channel power gain

I am having a doubt that why channel power gain is denoted by $|h|^2$. For example, if the signal received is $$y(n) = hx(n)+w(n)$$ where $x(n)$ is transmitted signal with power $P$ , $w(n)$ is AWGN ...
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SNR and "Sampling Error"

I have created some Matlab simulations where I do the following: Generate a delayed sinusoid which begins at time "T". This is a discrete signal I have created with a sampling frequency 1Mhz,...
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Is this a valid way to calculate SNR?

If I calculate 1.) the average power of a signal, $P_s$, in terms of the average energy of the signal, $E_s$ and take it as a constant over a given period of time, $T_s$, as $P_s=E_s/T_s$ where $E_s$ ...
1 vote
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How to calculate the SNR from the data collected by ADC?

I want to design a filter to deal with periodic signals according to the actual collected data. In practice, I would like to use the SNR as the criterion to judge the performance of the filter. ...
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Signal to noise ratio (SNR) of a CW signal

I understand the formula SNR = 6.02N+1.76 for a N-bit ADC which quantizes a modulated tone sampled at twice the BW. I am trying to understand what the same equation would be for a unmodulated CW tones ...
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Estimating the SNR of respiration signal

I'm trying to evaluate the SNR of a respiration signal on MATLAB environment, so the bandwidth considered is [0.04-1Hz]. The problem is that noise is overlapped on the signal, so I can't evaluate the ...
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How can I add complex WGN to a complex damped signal for a specified SNR?

I want to add complex wgn to a signal for a specified SNR. I have been using the following lines: ...
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How does upsampling/interpolation/oversampling help with noise shaping?

That's all, Why does upsampling improve the resolution and signal-to-noise ratio? What makes it so good for noise-shaping
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Understanding SNR effect on signal [duplicate]

I'm studying how SNR is measured, I know is a ratio between the power of signal and noise, and is given in a logarithmic scale but I'm confused about how is interpreted, for example does a SNR of 6 ...
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Why are some Shannon's limit plots exponential rather than logarithmic?

This diagram again. This is clearly not the shape of $\log_2(1+SNR)$ but I very frequently see this instead of this: But this is also a stupid diagram because it doesn't cross at the origin. Also why ...
3 votes
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Clock recovery using Mueller and Muller adds noise affecting EVM or SNR (Two cases - GNU Radio & Python code)

The implementation of the Mueller and Muller clock recovery that I am seeing adds a large amount of 'noise' or degradation to the Error Vector Magnitude (EVM) to the symbols on the constellation. This ...
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Increase SNR by using only the first 200 samples

I am making an experiment using sound source and microphones. I use metronome as the sound source, so I can consider it as impulse sound. I placed the microphones at different places about 1 meter ...
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How to add complex WGN to complex damped exponential and compute SNR?

I am new to the Signal processing domain, So my question might sound basic. I am trying to reproduce the results from the paper Decimative subspace-based parameter estimation techniques by Geert ...
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