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Questions tagged [signal-power]

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Distance estimation for a given signal based on a given signal strength range or value . Find a range based on signal strength

Any hint, direction or guide to find a distance for a given signal within certain strength range
amed svensson's user avatar
3 votes
5 answers
250 views

Energy and Power: Power Spectral Density is units of Energy

To help focus answers: The following is specific to “Energy” and “Power” as used for signal processing, not physical units of energy and power (then to ask can units of “Watts” and “Joules” be used, ...
Dan Boschen's user avatar
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17 views

Related to dimension of wireless channel , transmitted signal and received signal

I am working on wireless research project and I had query in understanding dimensions. Consider a MIMO system, where a base station with $N$ antennas transmits signal $x$ to receiver with $M$ antennas....
Pranu's user avatar
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1 answer
33 views

Signal attenuation and time delay

I want to investigate the attenuation in signal due to various environmental factors such as rain. Is it sensible to try to investigate some function that relates the time delay due to those ...
user7341333's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
39 views

Implementing signal processing techniques for consistent RSSI signal reception

I've tried to optimize the LoRa setup using Arduino IDE libraries to ensure accurate or acceptable RSSI measurements and for distance estimation between multiple nodes and a master in an outdoor ...
Ausen's user avatar
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2 answers
61 views

Output of time-continuous linear system with a phase shifter as impulse response

I stumbled upon a false/true statement which goes: A time-continuous linear system, whose impulse response $c(t) = \frac{1}{\pi t}$ has a pole at the origin, always produces an output signal $y(t)$ ...
Yevtee's user avatar
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0 votes
1 answer
71 views

Calculate power of a signal

The task is to calculate power of signal below: $$ x(t)=\sum^{\infty }_{k=-\infty }(t-k)[u(t-k)-u(t-k-1)]$$ The answer is 0.33 but I don't know how to calculate this even though I applied the formula, ...
nicole's user avatar
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1 vote
2 answers
31 views

What is the difference of calculating signal power that using these two methods: using moving average filter and using forgetting factor?

The conventional signal power calculation can be: $$ P(n) = \frac{1}{N}\sum_{i=0}^{N-1}x^2(n-i) $$ $x(n)$ is the signal. However, I have seen another method: $$ P(n) = \lambda P(n-1) + (1-\lambda) x^2(...
zero's user avatar
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0 answers
15 views

How to impose power constraint on an encoder's output while training a deep NN?

A deep encoder which takes in a 4 bit input gives out an 8-dimensional vector. If I want the power of this 8-D vector constrained to be 1, then I should multiply all the elements by A/B? Where A is ...
Sudharsan Senthil's user avatar
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0 answers
40 views

EIRP for JWST HGA

I am attempting to compute the EIRP for transmissions from the James Webb Space Telescope using the high-gain antenna. I found the following reference... https://www.ioag.org/Public%20Documents/2019-...
Steve J.'s user avatar
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0 answers
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Computing Channel Power from file containing RMS measurements from tri-axial spectrum analyzer

I have some files from a spectrum analyzer in RMS mode equipped with a tri-axial antenna. I am supposed to compute the channel power evolution for two distinct LTE channels. I have files containing ...
marco890's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
91 views

Energy and power of time-continous signal $x(t)=t$?

Preparing for my exams, I stumbled upon this particular problem. I tried to calculate it using following formulae: $$ E = \int_{-\infty}^{\infty}|t|^2dt $$ Dividing it into two cases because of the ...
kesetovic's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
331 views

Can the total energy of a signal diverge while its average power converges to zero?

If the integral used to calculate the total energy for a continuous time real signal converges, its average power is equal to zero. But could the average power still equal zero if the total energy ...
keska_learning's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
83 views

Why a windowed signal is considered to evaluate the Power Spectral Density?

Let's consider a real function of time $x(t)$ being a Fourier-transformable signal. The synthesis equation states that: $$x(t)=∫_{-∞}^{+∞}X(f)⋅e^{2πjft} df $$ Meaning: $x(t)$ can be seen as the sum of ...
Kinka-Byo's user avatar
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0 answers
58 views

Sinus Pattern analysis

i have 1000 data which range between 50 and 180 ( heart BPM data in a day) how can i measure its similarity to a Sinus pattern? for example, for 20th recorded data (for example it is 60BPM), evaluate ...
Hamidreza Abdollahi's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
80 views

Why is power level area under the autocorrelation function of the white-noise signal?

A paper I am reading (Linear and Nonlinear Encoding Properties of an Identified Mechanoreceptor on the Fly Wing Measured with Mechanical Noise Stimuli) defines power level for a white-noise signal as ...
chinmayeelm's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
41 views

Average time-domain signal power from correlated Fourier transforms

Suppose I have real-valued continuous-time sequences $x_1(t), x_2(t), x_3(t)$ with Fourier transforms $X_1(\omega), X_2(\omega), X_3(\omega)$. I know that $X_3(\omega)=H(\omega)( aX_1(\omega)+bX_2(\...
Halleff's user avatar
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1 vote
0 answers
56 views

Incorrect Power Calculation in MATLAB Convolution

I have been working on a MATLAB code to perform convolution and calculate the power of the resulting signal. However, I have encountered an issue with the power calculation in my code. I am convolving ...
Marcus's user avatar
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2 votes
3 answers
660 views

Power / energy of complex signals - physical interpretation

I am wondering about physical interpretation of energy / power for complex signals. E.g. for signal energy definition: \begin{equation} E=\int\limits_{-\infty}^{\infty}|x(t)|^2 \, \mathrm{d}t \end{...
Steven's user avatar
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2 votes
1 answer
529 views

How is the PSD the Fourier Transform of the Autocorrelation function?

I am getting very confused with the textbook I am reading through: Modern Digital and Analogue Communication Systems: 3.8.1 Parseval's Theorem says that: The total power in a power signal is its time ...
SS1's user avatar
  • 33
0 votes
1 answer
319 views

How to measure signal PAR (PAPR) in practice?

Let's consider baseband complex signal like this: red: real part of signal blue: magnitude^2 green: mean value of magnitude^2 as you can see, there are a lot of peaks but only one has value greater ...
Andrew123's user avatar
  • 123
0 votes
1 answer
373 views

How to calculate to power of a uniformly distributed noise?

I was wondering how I would calculate the power of a noise, if I have a uniformly distributed white noise between $-\frac{q}{2}$ and $\frac{q}{2}$? My approach was to use the formula $$\int\limits_{-\...
Ole's user avatar
  • 3
0 votes
0 answers
60 views

How to measure the PAPR of OFDM signal in practical case

The way of investigating the PAPR for OFDM system using MATLAB is known, but what I am looking for is: can we measure the PAPR effect in real systems? For example, assuming we have a transmitter and a ...
Fatima_Ali's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
42 views

Why am I not getting proper values of power(Px) and energy(Ex) signal as per book?

I am considering an energy signal in MATLAB as I am going through the book Signals and Systems Laboratory with MATLAB by Alex Palamides. My Matlab code is below: ...
lks's user avatar
  • 21
1 vote
2 answers
392 views

Is there instantaneous energy for signals? Why is $\big|x(t)\big|^2$ instantaneous power?

Today I learned, instantaneous power is $$ p_x(t) = |x(t)|^2 $$ and I've known, energy is $$ E_x = \int_{-\infty}^{\infty} |x(t)|^2 dt $$ What I also thought was, $|x(t)|^2$ is instantaneous energy, ...
OverLordGoldDragon's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
885 views

Definitions of Discrete Power Spectrum and Discrete Power Spectral Density

I have been reading lots of posts about the scaling factors in PSD, and related topics on this forum. My understanding of the topic has been greatly improved. Thankyou all. I just need a little more ...
S_holmes's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
86 views

Bartlett's method: Order of normalisation?

I want to estimate the power spectrum of a given signal using Bartlett's method. I understand the general purpose of the method. However, I do not get my head around the algorithmic description of the ...
Helmut's user avatar
  • 109
1 vote
3 answers
284 views

Minimal SNR to distinguish LFM target from noise at range doppler output

I am working on a radar signal processing project using MATLAB. I am required to simulate range doppler maps for Linear Frequency-Modulation (LFM) targets (non-fluctuating) in noise at various SNRs (...
spacey's user avatar
  • 11
1 vote
1 answer
285 views

Calculating SNR of one N-point DFT over another M-point DFT in frequency domain

Consider N-point sine signal mixed with a random noise (implemented in Python below): ...
Curious's user avatar
  • 355
0 votes
1 answer
85 views

signal power from single sided DFT

Definitions As far as I know the power of a signal can be expressed (using discrete time samples) via: $$ P_x=\frac{1}{N}\sum_{n=0}^{N-1}\big|x[n]\big|^2 $$ For details see this question. However, it ...
Yair M's user avatar
  • 305
-2 votes
1 answer
135 views

Energy ratio of signal

What is the energy ratio of signal at frequency domain? What is its mathematical formula at frequency domain and what can stand for? I found it in this paper https://www.researchgate.net/publication/...
RIMA's user avatar
  • 43
1 vote
6 answers
1k views

What's the meaning of negative frequencies after taking the FFT in practice?

Suppose I have a signal $x(t)$ with baseband bandwidth $W$ Hz and power $P$, and consists of $K$ samples, and I draw the two-sided power spectral density (PSD) of this [baseband] signal in MATLAB as <...
Math_Novice's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
10 views

Knowing the power of a portion of a signal's spectrum inside another signal's spectrum

I have a signal $x_1(t)$ with baseband bandwidth $W_1$ Hz over a carrier frequency $f_1$ and power $P_1$. I also have another signal $x_2(t)$ of baseband bandwidth $W_2$ Hz over a carrier frequency $...
Math_Novice's user avatar
1 vote
3 answers
254 views

energy or power of exponential summation signal

Determine below signal is power or energy and derive its power or energy accordingly. $$x(t)=\sum_{n=-\infty }^\infty e^{-\lvert t-n\rvert } \tag 1$$ we have : $$E_x=\int_{-\infty}^{\infty}(\sum_{n=...
math enthusiastic's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
189 views

Noise with a positive or negative mean

I am working on calculating the SNR for my network model. Considering AWGN at the receiver with zero means, the SNR can be presented as $$\text{SNR} = \cfrac{P \cdot|h|^2}{\sigma ^2}$$ where $P$ and $...
MK71's user avatar
  • 11
0 votes
2 answers
1k views

Signal power normalization

Let's say a I have a signal x= [1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11] y= [0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 8, 6, 4, 2, 0] How do I normalize this signal so the integral from 0 to 10 (along x-...
MRR's user avatar
  • 25
0 votes
0 answers
23 views

Normalized Power of a signal [duplicate]

I have the following power values in Watts of a signal: 6.5e-8, 4.6e-8, 7.1e-8, 1.01e-7, 9.98e-7, 2.5e-6, 3.96e-6, 2.84e-5, 2e-4, 4.05e-4, 1.7e-6, 8e-7, 8.23e-8, 8.32e-8. How do I normalize this to ...
MRR's user avatar
  • 25
1 vote
0 answers
65 views

Understanding the following formula of Throughput?

In massive multiple input multiple output (MIMO) case, I came across the following formula of throughput: $\tau_{ij} = \bigl[\displaystyle\sum_{j\in \mathcal{U}}x_{ij}\bigr]^{-1}W_i\text{log}(1+\...
chaaru's user avatar
  • 37
2 votes
2 answers
491 views

SNR ratio in radar for stationary targets

Is there a mathematical model which provides relationship between the Signal to Noise Ratio in radar measurements and velocity/range of targets. i.e. How SNR varies with the speed of targets? How SNR ...
user146290's user avatar
-1 votes
2 answers
422 views

Elevation angle or Azimuth angle?

Suppose my ULA(Uniform Linear Array) is along x-axis only, then definitely we can estimate elevation angle with this ULA. But if we lift this array from x-axis and place it along y-axis, then which ...
matlabbeginner's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
119 views

What is physical significance of Bit Error Rate (BER) and Outage Probability?

I am trying to understand the physical significance of Bit Error Rate (BER) and Outage Probability especially in low power wireless communication such as internet of things (IoT). Any help in this ...
chaaru's user avatar
  • 37
3 votes
1 answer
160 views

Finding a periodic signal knowing its period, mean value and power

I've found an interesting exercise which I have been trying to solve for a couple days, without success. Let $x(t) \in \mathbb{R}$ be a periodic signal with fundamental period $T_0 = \tfrac{1}{4}$, ...
gwn's user avatar
  • 33
0 votes
0 answers
18 views

Noise impact on X-band signal amplification

I have a locally generated 10 GHz LO signal that should go into the LO port of a mixer. The LO signal strength is -1.7 dBm. The mixer has a required LO-drive of about 13 dBm. Before the LO signal hits ...
HighFive's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
426 views

Power of noise signal through a matched filter (Digital Receiver)

I am studying matched filters and the sense of signal to noise ratio. In a question I was given, stated that: Show that a matched filter of a signal $s(t)$ maximizes the SNR of the output on a ...
average_discrete_math_enjoyer's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
54 views

Envelope of a series of pulsed signals [duplicate]

I need to record a series of pulse waves for an experiment. The recording is done via Software Defined Radio (GNU Radio). The pulse waves are modulated in such a way that the amplitudes of each single ...
thehnm's user avatar
  • 11
1 vote
0 answers
28 views

Is there a standardize method for writing statements combinations of (RF) signal flow path through a system?

Let's say I am given a system block diagram of various components that either route/switch/amplify/filter and so on. Each of these components of the system perform these signal modifications or lack ...
whataretheydoing's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
449 views

What a SDR can (and cannot) tell about a received signal's power/energy

I'm rather new to SDR and I'm still wrapping my head around understanding how it functions. I greatly appreciate it if you guys can help me understand what's going on. From what I've gathered, an SDR ...
Vinh Tran's user avatar
4 votes
3 answers
488 views

Undestanding antenna gain applicability

While searching for the info about antenna gain and why it is GAIN I found this interesting example: If the two antennas in the drawing are “welded” together, how much power will be measured at point ...
Vaims's user avatar
  • 63
1 vote
1 answer
246 views

Power of signal in specific frequency in FM and AM modulation

My professor gave us the following problem: Given a sinusoidal signal with $f_m = 1KHz$ which is put into an AM and FM modulation find the modulation index of FM and AM if you know that (amongst ...
average_discrete_math_enjoyer's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
127 views

Power Spectrum for feature extraction

I want to extract frequency domain features for my machine learning model, and to do so I have calculated the power spectrum of the EMG signal. One of my first questions is that my frequency is just ...
ADSS's user avatar
  • 3