Questions tagged [signal-power]

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Understanding the following formula of Throughput?

In massive multiple input multiple output (MIMO) case, I came across the following formula of throughput: $\tau_{ij} = \bigl[\displaystyle\sum_{j\in \mathcal{U}}x_{ij}\bigr]^{-1}W_i\text{log}(1+\...
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1 vote
2 answers
63 views

SNR ratio in radar for stationary targets

Is there a mathematical model which provides relationship between the Signal to Noise Ratio in radar measurements and velocity/range of targets. i.e. How SNR varies with the speed of targets? How SNR ...
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0 answers
34 views

Why the 1L array gives worse result than circular array?

If we place antennas along x-axis and y-axis to make 1L-shaped array and find DOAs(Azimuth and Elevation angles) with it using MUSIC algorithm and then if we place the same antennas in a circle to ...
-1 votes
2 answers
79 views

Elevation angle or Azimuth angle?

Suppose my ULA(Uniform Linear Array) is along x-axis only, then definitely we can estimate elevation angle with this ULA. But if we lift this array from x-axis and place it along y-axis, then which ...
0 votes
0 answers
25 views

How to calculate Cepstral Peak Prominence (Smoothed) for speech signal - when to take logs

I understand the main steps of finding smoothed cepstral peak prominence, but am confused on some specifics: You first take the log of the Fourier transform of the signal, getting the spectrum. I'm ...
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20 views

What is physical significance of Bit Error Rate (BER) and Outage Probability?

I am trying to understand the physical significance of Bit Error Rate (BER) and Outage Probability especially in low power wireless communication such as internet of things (IoT). Any help in this ...
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3 votes
1 answer
85 views

Finding a periodic signal knowing its period, mean value and power

I've found an interesting exercise which I have been trying to solve for a couple days, without success. Let $x(t) \in \mathbb{R}$ be a periodic signal with fundamental period $T_0 = \tfrac{1}{4}$, ...
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0 votes
0 answers
12 views

Noise impact on X-band signal amplification

I have a locally generated 10 GHz LO signal that should go into the LO port of a mixer. The LO signal strength is -1.7 dBm. The mixer has a required LO-drive of about 13 dBm. Before the LO signal hits ...
1 vote
1 answer
48 views

Power of noise signal through a matched filter (Digital Receiver)

I am studying matched filters and the sense of signal to noise ratio. In a question I was given, stated that: Show that a matched filter of a signal $s(t)$ maximizes the SNR of the output on a ...
1 vote
0 answers
54 views

Envelope of a series of pulsed signals [duplicate]

I need to record a series of pulse waves for an experiment. The recording is done via Software Defined Radio (GNU Radio). The pulse waves are modulated in such a way that the amplitudes of each single ...
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1 vote
0 answers
25 views

Is there a standardize method for writing statements combinations of (RF) signal flow path through a system?

Let's say I am given a system block diagram of various components that either route/switch/amplify/filter and so on. Each of these components of the system perform these signal modifications or lack ...
2 votes
1 answer
46 views

What a SDR can (and cannot) tell about a received signal's power/energy

I'm rather new to SDR and I'm still wrapping my head around understanding how it functions. I greatly appreciate it if you guys can help me understand what's going on. From what I've gathered, an SDR ...
4 votes
3 answers
223 views

Undestanding antenna gain applicability

While searching for the info about antenna gain and why it is GAIN I found this interesting example: If the two antennas in the drawing are “welded” together, how much power will be measured at point ...
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1 vote
1 answer
34 views

Power of signal in specific frequency in FM and AM modulation

My professor gave us the following problem: Given a sinusoidal signal with $f_m = 1KHz$ which is put into an AM and FM modulation find the modulation index of FM and AM if you know that (amongst ...
0 votes
1 answer
30 views

Power Spectrum for feature extraction

I want to extract frequency domain features for my machine learning model, and to do so I have calculated the power spectrum of the EMG signal. One of my first questions is that my frequency is just ...
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0 answers
47 views

What are the differences between GPS and GLONASS?

I'm studying the localization systems, especially the GPS one. I inquired about other systems and wanted to understand what are the main differences between GPS and GLONASS, why has the first type ...
0 votes
1 answer
56 views

How can I add white gaussian noise to get the required extinction ratio?

I need to add white gaussian noise to my signal in MATLAB so that I obtain 15 dB extinction ratio (ER). I know that ER is max power level to min power level. I use below code to calculate my signal ...
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0 votes
1 answer
117 views

Plot the Power Spectral Density for a signal in Matlab

I have an OFDM signal x, generated using QAM modulation, I first use the command in matlab y1 = ifft(x); to generate the time-...
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0 votes
1 answer
39 views

number of subcarrier and transmit power

How does the total transmit power affects the number of subcarriers? For example, if we have 624 subcarrier, can we use the same maximum power (for example the budget is 64 watts) as we will when we ...
0 votes
1 answer
84 views

Calculating instantaneous power of a frequency band in a 1-d signal

I am trying to calculate the instantaneous power of a 1-d signal within a particular frequency band in an on-line, real-time, streaming application. I have tried using sliding window FFTs but these ...
0 votes
0 answers
44 views

Correct Noise for NOMA system

I am trying to simulate a NOMA system with SIC, but I'm so confusing with the noise expression: $n_m \sim CN(0, \sigma^2_m)$, is zero mean complex additive Gaussian noise with variance at mth user ...
1 vote
1 answer
23 views

How to find the relative energies between multiple frequency bands?

I am filtering my input into four frequency bands using IIR filters. The output of each band has some disturbances or ripples in it. I am looking for a method to normalize the four bands so that all ...
2 votes
2 answers
183 views

Confusion regarding energy and power signals?

I know that when a signal has finite energy,it is energy signal and when its power is finite, it is power signal But what is exactly meaning of finite here? Zero also included? For example if a signal ...
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0 votes
0 answers
62 views

Problem to extract value from complex_to_mag_squared GNURadio block

I am trying to dissecate a large bandwidth into smaller ones and, for each of those smaller bands, see if it contains enough energy to consider that a message is sent in it. To do so, I am thinking of ...
0 votes
2 answers
38 views

High frequency and received signal power? Why using massive MiMo?

The power received by an isotrapic antenna is calculated by: $P_0=\frac{P_T}{4 \pi d^2}\cdot \frac{\lambda^2}{4 \pi} = \frac{P_T}{4 \pi d^2}\cdot A_e$ or, by Friis transmission formula: $\frac{P_r}{...
4 votes
0 answers
93 views

Energy and Time Signals

In Signal Processing, we broadly categorize signals as either being "Energy Signals" or "Power Signals". If the total Energy for a signal is finite, we categorize it as a Energy ...
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-1 votes
1 answer
61 views

what is bi-spectrum of signal

anyone knows what is bi-spectrum and its usage in signal processing? how can I extract data from bi-spectrum of signal? I want to use bi-spectrum of signals to classify them and I want to knows the ...
-1 votes
1 answer
67 views

Receiver Peak Output Voltage

I am currently on a university course doing a telecommunications module. I have been doing some past papers today and came across a question around peak output voltage of an optical receiver and have ...
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1 vote
1 answer
125 views

What is the meaning of dbFS/LSB

A simple question that I am not able to find any solution online or in the literature I have. What does it mean when it something is written as dbFS / LSB, for example ...
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0 votes
1 answer
71 views

Why the received SNR increases with bandwidth?

I am performing the following simulation: Complex chirp signal with bandwidth [-B, B] is transmitted through a multipath channel which has $N$ taps all being complex Gaussian variables (i.e., ...
-1 votes
1 answer
53 views

Random Signal Energy

Why the energy of random signal(random process) is infinite? and why random signal can not be zero at infinity? I know that there is a relation between the tow questions but I'am still confused.
0 votes
1 answer
130 views

Relation between SNR and fading channel coefficients?

I am trying to understand the following thing: Does the average signal to noise ratio (SNR) depends on fading channel coefficients ? Any help in this regard will be highly appreciated.
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0 votes
1 answer
24 views

total rms current from rms current values

I would like to calculate the RMS current value over a say an hour from RMS current values taken at minute intervals. I don't have access to the instantaneous current values, just the rms current ...
1 vote
1 answer
189 views

How do we equate the signal energy before and after sampling?

I have a band-limited signal and sample it at sample rate of $f_\mathrm{s}$. By taking the continuous time fourier transform, I will see copies of the same signal at $n\cdot f_\mathrm{s}$ where $n \in ...
1 vote
3 answers
76 views

Multiplying complex signal with its own complex conjugate transposed copy? [closed]

Let input be a real (audio) signal, and let X be its complex frequency domain representation. What does the output represent when the frequency domain signal is ...
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3 votes
3 answers
99 views

$\frac{\mathbb{E}[P]}{\mathbb{E}[N]}$ vs. $\mathbb{E}\left[\frac{P}{N}\right]$

This is a very simple question arised from my considerations in here: Log-normal shadowing and mean power. I have understood that SNR is often defined as $$\frac{\mathbb{E}[P]}{\mathbb{E}[N]},$$ but ...
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0 votes
0 answers
80 views

maximum faithful coverage distance of signal

For a microwave terrestrial-based line-of-sight communication operating at 10 GHz, what is the maximum faithful coverage distance that the signal could make before requiring a repeater? The following ...
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2 votes
2 answers
131 views

The transmission distance of a signal

I am no professional in this area so please forgive me if this question is too immature. And thanks in advance for any help and information. I want to know how to calculate the transmission distance ...
0 votes
1 answer
75 views

Log-normal shadowing and mean power

Let's assume I'm receiving a signal with power measured in dBm shadowed according to the normal distribution, i.e. $P_{\text{dBm}} \sim N(0,1) $. If there is also a normally distributed noise power $...
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0 votes
2 answers
402 views

Units of a Fourier Transform (FFT) and Spectrogram [closed]

I am very interested in analyzing signals in the frequency domain. Units of a Fourier Transform (FFT) when doing Spectral Analysis of a Signal 1.In the previous question, answer the unit for the ...
1 vote
1 answer
43 views

What does not happen if we limit the duration of this sequences to 2014 samples?

I am confused with this multiple-choice question: Assuming that $x(n) = e^{-2n}u(n)$, what does not happen if we limit the duration of this sequences to 2014 samples? A. The signal power leaks out ...
1 vote
0 answers
65 views

How to calculate received signal power for a Multi-User MIMO OFDM system?

I have a Multi-User MIMO system where there are 2 users served by a base station. The base station consists of 64 transmit elements and the users are equipped with linear antenna array consisting of 3 ...
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0 votes
1 answer
123 views

How to extract noise from a signal in order to get both noise power and signal power

I have to implement a function to get an accurate SNR value. For that, I would need a separate noise signal to get the signal power and noise power but I have only one noisy signal (a .wav file.) ...
0 votes
0 answers
56 views

Is this a valid way to calculate SNR?

If I calculate 1.) the average power of a signal, $P_s$, in terms of the average energy of the signal, $E_s$ and take it as a constant over a given period of time, $T_s$, as $P_s=E_s/T_s$ where $E_s$ ...
1 vote
1 answer
102 views

Estimating the SNR of respiration signal

I'm trying to evaluate the SNR of a respiration signal on MATLAB environment, so the bandwidth considered is [0.04-1Hz]. The problem is that noise is overlapped on the signal, so I can't evaluate the ...
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0 votes
1 answer
76 views

Does the RMS value of a signal yields its root-power?

I'm relatively new to the field of signal processing and might be a bit confused about terminology here. I'm trying to understand what determines whether I deal with a root-power or simple power ...
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0 votes
2 answers
70 views

Working out EIRP

There is a debate about the proper way of how to calculate the EIRP, so I need your help on which method is wrong and why please! Let's suppose we have the following: Output power: 165 W Reflected ...
0 votes
1 answer
39 views

Understanding SNR effect on signal [duplicate]

I'm studying how SNR is measured, I know is a ratio between the power of signal and noise, and is given in a logarithmic scale but I'm confused about how is interpreted, for example does a SNR of 6 ...
0 votes
2 answers
88 views

Saturation in magnitude estimation?

An magnitude estimate algorithm has been used for a while in which no multiplication is done. See link here: http://dspguru.com/dsp/tricks/magnitude-estimator. This method does have advantage in terms ...
3 votes
2 answers
106 views

Correlation: A Magnitude or Power quantity?

I am confused about the units we would refer to with a correlation result in that if it would be a magnitude or power quantity (and therefore specifically when using ratios in dB would we use 10Log or ...
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