# Questions tagged [quantization]

Quantization, in mathematics and digital signal processing, is the process of mapping input values from a large set (often a continuous set) to output values in a (countable) smaller set, often with a finite number of elements. Rounding and truncation are typical examples of quantization processes.

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### AWGN model of Quantization Noise

[Edit answer moved from OP edit to "Answers" as per comment suggestion] I'm trying to create a simple model of a signal chain (image sensor) that includes an ADC but I'm failing to observe ...
1 vote
73 views

### Detect digitally time stretched audio made back to tape

Can anyone tell me how I might detect and measure a digitally time stretched audio signal (Pro Tools) when subsequently made back onto tape? Could quantization of the signal be detectable on tape and ...
54 views

### Signal averaging of a digitized noisy signal

If I have a signal that is lower than the noise power, I may want to use signal averaging over time to increase SNR. However, when the signal has been obtained after digitization, there is ...
42 views

### What order to apply noise shaping and anti-aliasing to an idealized synth

I am trying to write a small synth code that goes something like this, I have an abstract symbolic sound representation, sine/square/saw waves. To generate final sound and make it sound good I thought ...
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### Mean square error for a quantizer - problem in integral

There are similar questions about related problems that I honestly didn't understand. I believe this might be a lack of statistics knowledge of my part. Quantization error standard deviation Error ...
1 vote
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### how to calculate step size for uniform quantizer?

so I am a little bit confused about the formula of the step size in a uniform quantizer. from what I have studied: StepSize = $\displaystyle\frac{maxValue-minValue}{2^n}$, where ...
189 views

### Which command should be used for quantization of a signal in MATLAB?

I want to convert analog signal to digital form using Matlab. I know that this will need two steps (sampling and quantization) but I am confused which command should be used for quantization? ...
139 views

### Design a quantization scheme around a desired quantization noise distribution

I have a - perhaps naive - question regarding the quantization noise/error. Assuming the goal is not the performance of the quantizer but rather being able to model the quantization noise exactly - ...
1 vote
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### What are the purposes of color extraction using k-means clustering?

Using K-means clustering it is possible to reduce the amount of colors in an image. What are the purposes of using this method for extracting colors from an image? 227 views

### Performance Effects of Dropping ADC Least Significant Bits before DSP processing (Besides the Obvious)

What would be the effect of dropping LSBs of an ADC on the performance of a DSP system apart from the obvious reduction in dynamic range. For example if there is a 14 bit ADC and only 10 bits are used,...
60 views

### Question on discrete signals and quantization

Suppose we have 2 different levels of a quantized signal. Let's say that the range is $[-1,1]$. The number of bits necessary to encode these levels is$\log_2(2) = 1$. However if the value of the ...
1k views

### How do you find the null to null bandwidth for the signal below?

My tutor does not explain it very well. Can someone please explain to me the reasoning and what null to null bandwidth actually is?
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### What is the best coding strategy?

There is a dataset of $N$ elements, each represented by $K$ bits. Now due to hardware limitations to reduce memory for storage, they have to be reprocessed into $K'$ bits each, and $K'<K$. What is ...
38 views

### Do you append 00 or 10 when oversampling

Say I have an 8-bit ADC and I oversample at such a rate as to obtain 2 additional bits. So, before I apply the low-pass filter, I need to append two extra bits to the 8-bit signal of the ADC. Do I ...
53 views

### How to add quantization noise (SQNR) to thermal noise (SNR) in a total value?

How can I add the BAQ (Block Adaptive Quantizer) compression noise to the input SNR? In the end is a quantization noise to be added to a thermal noise. I got the following formulation, but I dont ...
77 views

### How to decode a MIMO stream using V-BLAST?

I am attempting to implement the V-BLAST algorithm for MIMO streams as described by Wolniansky et al. in the following paper: https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/738086 (I am not commenting on its ...
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### Estimating quantification and sampling error

I have a signal sampled from $\mathbb{R}^2$ at a frequency of $2\text{Hz}$. It is quantized from $\mathbb{R}^2$ to $\mathbb{N}^2$, seemingly using the round operator. How can I estimate the error ...
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### Confusion implementing Quantization in MATLAB?

I am quantizing a continuous time signal in three different cases(using different number of bits) But Why i am getting same quantized signal in xq2 and xq3,despite using different values of D(...
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### Oversampling in quantization

Q: It is said that "to maintain the same quality in the two cases, we require that the power spectral densities remain the same". Why is this a measure of the same quality? Why is not the ...
1 vote
604 views

### Connection between SNR and the dynamic range of the human ear

For signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), SNR=6B dB is called the dynamic range of the quantizer. The dynamic range of the 16-bit quantizer is 6B = 6·16 = 96 dB. Note that the dynamic range of the human ear ...
119 views

Quantization of Continuous-Amplitude Signals This point is not clear to me: "The smallest quantization levels ($\pm\Delta$) correspond to the least significant bit of the binary code word."...
1 vote
616 views

### Non-Uniform Quantization

I was reading a research paper on companding schemes for non uniform quantisation. In paper one of the motivations for non-uniform quantisation is that distortion at larger amplitude values is less ...
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### Quantization and Sampling - putting it all together

So after I learned this two topic: quantization and sampling, I'm learning the way to look at both of them and try to optimize the split of a given amount of bit B to N and k, where N is the amount of ...
365 views

### SNR of μ-law companding

I know the snr after μ-law compression is $\text{SNR}\approx\frac{3L^2}{[\ln(1+ \mu)]^2}$ when $\mu \gg \frac{\max_t m(t)}{\text{rms}(m(t))}$, where $m(t)$ is the message signal, and $L$ the number ...
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### Quantization SNR of sine wave doesn't match 1.761 + 6.02 * Q

I am trying to show with numpy that the quantization noise of a sine wave matches the SNR formula of SNR = 1.761 + 6.02 * Q. The numpy code is simple: ...
1k views

### How to quantize filter coefficients to 10 bits

I am trying to learn digital filter design. One of the concept is quantization of filter coefficients. I used Designfilt to design an lowpass IIR filter and obtained coefficients. Now I want to ...
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### Having converted a grayscale image to binary using im2bw(), is the converse operation possible?

I have converted a gray-scale image to binary using im2bw() now i wanna do the opposite. How can I do that in MATLAB?
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### Binary image? Only black and white? [closed]

By name, a binary image is one that has two levels. But is it essential that those two colors are black and white? Or any other combination also allowed as shown in attached snap. Snap is output image,...
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### Fixed Point Design Resources

Can anyone point me to good methodologies for designing fixed point versions of possibly nonlinear signal processing algorithms? Are there any systematic methods other than simulation for optimizing ...
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### What's the difference between quantization and coding?

From what I understand quantization takes an analog signal and assigns numerical values to it as convert it to a discrete signal. However coding converts a signal into binary. It seems like coding is ...
1k views

### Explanation for the quantization matlab function

I found this code on quantization on page 314 in the book Modern Digital and Analog Communication Systems by B.P.Lathi and Zhi Ding. I can understand only half of the code. Please, someone, help in ...
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### Difference between formula of SNR and SQNR?

Is there any difference between formula/expressionsof SNR and SQNR? where SNR is Signal to noise ratio and SQNR is signal to quantization noise . The following DSP SE question shows both SNR and SQNR ...
I have a continuous time signal $x(t)=\sin(2πft)$ where $0 \leq t \leq 3$. I want to sample the continuous time signal and then quantize that sampled signal and then plot both sampled and quantized ...
Suppose we have a dead-band quantizer with $\ N = 5 \ quantizing \ levels$ which uses $\ b = 3 \ bits$ for each produced symbol. The quantizer gets as input a uniformly distributed signal $\ X$ ...