Questions tagged [normalization]

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17 views

The normalized cross-correlation of two signals

I wanted to calculate the normalized cross-correlation function of two signals. I use the command ...
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28 views

2nd derivative using gaussian filter (gnu scientific library) - offset?

I am working on an application where I use gaussian filtering (convolution) to smooth a signal and at the same time get the 1st and 2nd derivative in real time. The signal is an equidistant sampling ...
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20 views

Rule of thumb / Best practice for Audio (voice) data normalization for use in Classification

TRIVIAL QUESTION: I am currently working with some audio data of speech utterances. I am attempting to perform classification on the data based on the phonemes. This means that I manually label the ...
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22 views

How to Normalize the ideal Tx and Equalized Waveforms in LMS algorithm

Below mentioned steps has been done but I don't know if I am doing the right way of Normalizing the 2 signals. Ref_1 = load('Tx_16QAM_25_New.txt'); % transmitted data Tx(:,1)=Ref_1(:,1)+1i*Ref_1(:,2); ...
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47 views

audio reprocessing for machine learning

I have a bunch of phone interviews where there is large sound volume difference between two voices in some of the interview audios, because they were recorded only on one side of the phone. May I ask ...
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2answers
438 views

Am I supposed to normalize FFT in Python?

I'm sorry if this question is posed often, I can't seem to understand the answers already out there. I'm working with several forms of the Fourier transform, including the FFT, PSD, and spectrograms. ...
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1answer
43 views

Autocorrelation - Understanding reduced correlation at periodic time shifts using np.correlate (versus statistical autocorrelation)?

I'm going through the Think DSP by Allen B. Downey, and I'm struggling to understand a specific aspect of np.correlate and how it differs from statistic autocorrelation. The question is at the bottom, ...
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2answers
26 views

Amplitude of a signal. [-1, 1] vs variants and MFCC implications

I've seen two sort of audio signals, one where the y-axis takes values between -1 and +1. I'd think this means 1 means loudest? Not really sure And the second one I saw goes between $-10 000$ and $+...
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18 views

Is audio normalisation required for a speaker recognition/speech classification task? How to do it?

Not entirely sure if this Stack or a ML-related stack would be a fit for this question, but I focus on the signal processing here on this question, so I decided this one I'm developing a speech ...
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1answer
238 views

MFCCs and mean normalization

I'm reading a blog about extracting MFCCs features for Machine Learning applications, but I didn't understand the following points about the mean normalization: To balance the spectrum and improve ...
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1answer
106 views

How do I normalize a predesigned IIR filter?

Obviously my question here is very similar to this previously asked question: How to normalize predesigned IIR filter coefficients to have unity gain? Unfortunately, in the responses available to ...
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73 views

Removing DC Offset (via removing mean) of input and output signals affects their coherence

I have input $x$ and output $y$ signals (fs=10 Hz, length N=10800). I have removed DC offset via the following equation: $x_{normalized} = 100 \frac{(x-\bar x)} {\bar x }$ where $\bar x$ is the mean ...
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21 views

Normalize a Mel-Spec over which axis?

I have to find out: how to normalize a Mel-spectrogram.(for mashine-learning purpose) However, I don't know which axis has to be transformed. The spectrogram S is of shape (m x n) where n are the ...
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51 views

How to normalize features after windowing for future test data?

I have an eeg data about 10 minutes. I want to extract some features (e.g. statistical features, power spectrum features, interchannel features, . . .) from this data to apply them to the machine ...
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1answer
341 views

Spectrogram power/magnitude normalization in analogy with image intensity normalization

In analogy with the 8-bit grayscale image color depth, in which the intensity of a sample pixel is normalized to a value between 0 and 255 by taking into account the minimum and maximum intensities ...
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83 views

How enhance amplitude of audio signal without distortion?

After FFT I've set to zero some frequencies and I'd like to enhance the amplitude in order to recover the leak. I'd like to do a normalization in order to avoid distortion. I've done in this way but ...
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546 views

Basics of Normalizing Cross-Correlation with a View to Comparing Signals

I'm trying to understand how cross-correlation is used determine the similarity of two signals. This tutorial offers a very clear explanation of the basics, but I still don't understand how to use ...
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1answer
705 views

What is the relationship between angular frequency and normalized angular frequency

This is a slide from my lecture notes: My professor used the following words " We denote digital frequencies with capital letters and analogue frequencies with lower case letters" The problem I have ...
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1answer
196 views

Why do we use normalized angular frequency?

Let's say we want to generate a signal in MATLAB, using sin, representing the A-major chord (440 Hz, 550 Hz, 660 Hz, each with amplitude 0.1). I know we have to use the normalized angular frequency. ...
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1answer
392 views

Overlap/add time-domain audio frames: How does normalization/scaling work with overlap greater than 50%?

I am attempting to overlap-add time-domain audio frames in a real-time context (with a continuous stream of data coming-in). Each frames consist of 1024 samples and have been previously "Hann" ...
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1answer
442 views

why multiply grayscale images by 256

I am a newbie in image processing. in an open source code for convolution neural networks, the author is multiplying a gray scale image from MNIST dataset by 256. Please can any one tell me why? ...
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184 views

Correctly scaling Power Spectrum and Correlation Function of Galaxies from Mock Catalogues

I'm currently writing a code to compute the two-point correlation function of a set of galaxies. As I work with a loooot of galaxies, it was suggested to me not to do it in real space, but to compute ...
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1answer
591 views

The concept of normalized frequency

This question has already been asked and answered, but the motivation behind the use of normalized frequency units still evades me. The Discrete Time Fourier Transform $$X(\tilde{ \omega }) = \sum_{n=...
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1answer
70 views

What information does the abs(normalized_image - normalized_quantised_image) carry?

Given a grayscale image X2 And its (under)quantised version with 3 bits depth X3 What information does the abs(X2_normalized - X3_normalized) carry?As an example ...
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1answer
385 views

Pole zero plot, normalizing frequency response plot?

I'm asked to plot the frequency response (amplitude) given a specific pole-zero diagram. $$ H(z) = H_0 \frac{\prod\limits_{m=1}^{M} (z - q_m)}{\prod\limits_{m=1}^{M} (z - p_m)}$$ $$ H(e^{i\omega}) =...
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2answers
1k views

Normalization of a signal with respect to another signal

Imagine that I gave one signal (call it master signal) with respect to which I would like to normalize all the others. How should I treat it mathematically? Any ideas?
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1answer
119 views

Design a filter which passes all frequencies except $\omega=\pm\frac{\pi}{2}$ and plot its pole-zero diagram

Also draw its normalized frequency response. What is the ROC? This has to be done in z-plane so there must be two poles at $+i$ and $-i$ since they cannot be included in region of convergence. Is my ...
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1answer
350 views

Making audio clips comparable in terms of RMS

I have a challenging question on how to normalize several audio clips so that they are comparable (similar) in RMS but without the clips clipping (having values over -1 and 1). Is there a systematic ...
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1answer
250 views

Methods of scaling FFT power

I wanted to know what are the well-known methods of scaling the FFT power of a signal? I am referring to EEG signal but this should apply to all signals I guess. I need to plot the powerspectrum/PSD ...
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1answer
727 views

Normalizing audio waveforms code implementation (Peak, RMS)

I have some audio data (array of floats) which I use to plot a simple waveform. When plotted, the waveform doesn't max out at the edges. No problem - the data just needs to be normalized. I iterate ...
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1answer
94 views

Normalization of signal against reference

I am trying to figure out if there is any standard way of normalizing a sequence such as a time series against a reference sequence. I am not an expert on signal processing but I was hoping someone ...
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1answer
677 views

FIR filter Gain of 0dB at Passband Frequency

I have designed a FIR pass band filter. The impulse response looks good and on applying this on my input data, the filter works as desired. Now I have a requirement in my system to have exact $0$ dB ...
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1answer
2k views

normalized sum of squared differences

I want to search for a patch in a region of image, and I will use the normalized sum of squared differences. I know that the sum of the squared differences is: $SSD = \sum {\left(F - I\right)^2}$ ...
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2answers
86 views

Factor $|a|^{-1/2}$ in definition of mother wavelets

The mother wavelet is defined as $$\Psi_{a,\tau}(t) = \lvert a\rvert^{-1/2}\Psi\left(\frac{t-\tau}{a}\right)\tag{1}$$ in which the factor $$ \lvert a\rvert^{-1/2}\tag{2}$$ is supposed to serve ...
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1answer
998 views

Magnitude response and DFT normalization

Suppose I have an FIR denoted h that represents the impulse response of a system. Using MATLAB syntax (for convenience and brevity), What does ...
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1answer
1k views

Normalization of an image in MATLAB [closed]

If I have an image whose range is from $-18.3667\cdot10^{-5}$ to $9.3127$, how could I normalize it on the same gradient so that they fall between a specific range, say fro $0$ to $255$?
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1answer
3k views

Signal normalization

I have some questions about what is normalization. The obvious way to do that is x_max = max([max(x), abs(min(x))]); x=x-mean(x); x_norm=x./x_max; Can somebody ...
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2answers
210 views

How to choose the “best” measurment (from a given set) as input for a kalman filter?

Problem: For an object tracking scenario with multiple objects and multiple tracks, I want to choose the "best" assignment object<->track. Therefore, I need a parameter indicating how suitable an ...
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1answer
946 views

Obtaining normalized matrix for the Haar Wavelet Transform

I've been reading this article: http://aix1.uottawa.ca/~jkhoury/haar.htm which explains the Haar Wavelet Transform. At a certain point, the author says: ... Since the transformation matrix $W$ is ...
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1answer
2k views

How can I sample a signal at 4 samples per cycle?

I am in Chapter 5 of "Understanding Digital signal processing" 3rd edition by Richard G. Lyons. I am stuck with Section 5.4. In order to get the bandpass filter centred at $F_s/4 \mathrm{Hz}$, I need ...
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1answer
672 views

Effect of DC component on the whole signal - comparison between normalised and non normalised

I have a fourier analysis signal as in the picture attached, where red represents the FFT of movement of the hand of a stroke subject and the blue one is the movement of a healthy subject. I am doing ...
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2answers
545 views

Dynamic range compression - Need pseudo algorithm for normalizing a signal

I have a signal that is NOT an audio signal (but looks like an audio signal - probably you can even "play" it). I would like to amplify the signal in regions where its amplitude is low. In very rare ...
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472 views

Moving signal power normalization

I am using matched filters using GNU Radio to extract from noise a CW Morse signal. The filter actually performs pretty well in various SNR environments. My problem is that the threshold upon I decide ...
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1answer
1k views

DFT normalization for amplitude estimation

After an interesting recent answer, I'm doing some research on proper DFT normalization for sinusoidal peak estimation. It's clear that to get the correct amplitude from DFT peaks we need to normalize ...
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0answers
1k views

How to normalize audio data for feature extraction

I recorded the same piece of music from different instruments and I want to compare their timbre by means of feature extraction. As you can see from the image, the recording is composed of different ...
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1answer
125 views

Adjust the power of a digital signal to a given value

I have two signals: $x(n)$ is a white-noise signal with a given variance, $y(n)$ is the sum of white noise plus a sum of sinusoids. $$ x(n) = v_1(n) $$ $$ y(n) = \sum_{i=1}^{q} [ a_i \cos(\omega_i n) +...
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444 views

How do I normalize accelerometer signals values to a relative scale?

Different smartphone devices have accelerometers manufactured by different manufacturers. Say I want to categorize vibrations recieved from various devices into one of the following scales : ...
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0answers
131 views

Cepstrum: subtracting the mean vs. dividing by the variance

In cepstral speech analysis, it is relatively easy to understand why subtracting the mean removes any "channel" effects (including that of recording equipment and the vocal tract). There is a good ...
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1answer
14k views

Normalization of a signal in MATLAB

I have a signal in MATLAB s = randn(1,1e6); that is normalized in the following way: s = s/sqrt(sum(abs(s .^2)) / 1e6); I ...
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1answer
247 views

In speech recognition applications, how are different voice amplitudes handled? (i.e loud vs. quiet tones)

I am doing some research related to real-time voice/hotword recognition engines. In most current implementations, input is divided into frames (overlapping or not), and audio features are extracted ...