Questions tagged [modulation]

Modulation is the process of varying one or more properties of a high-frequency periodic waveform, called the carrier signal, with the amplitude of low-frequence modulating signal which typically contains information to be transmitted.

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2answers
912 views

How exactly does 8PSK work on each I and Q leg?

I am working on making a modulator in VHDL and am implementing 8PSK. Currently, I have BPSK and QPSK looking good, and I have verified the spectrums. However, now that I am moving to 8PSK, I am stuck ...
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1answer
56 views

Recommended literature to learn essential aspects of signals and its propagation [closed]

Where can I learn about signal's features. For instance mean, power, amplitude, frequency, energy, how they propagate in space or any other medium?. What power means its amplitude increases and ...
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0answers
4k views

AM Modulator Demodulator in Python

I am trying to make a AM modem using Python Numpy and Matplotlib. I am successful in generating the AM Signal but I cannot demodulate it using a lowpass filter function that I made. The demodulation ...
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1answer
670 views

Difference between Line Code and Keying

The following statements are from Wikipedia page of Keying Keying or digital modulation applies to transmitting a digital signal over an analogue passband channel. When a digital signal is ...
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2answers
271 views

Don't understand what is meant by signal dimension

I don't understand the concept of dimension of a signal. I ran into it in an explanation of Shannon Capacity, and in a paper on spread spectrum. I was hoping somebody could explain with an example. ...
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1answer
1k views

Confused in Bit rate, Symbol rate, Sample rate and Data rate

I'm using GMSK modulation to send $300 \ \rm bits$ and assuming $1 \ \rm bit/symbol$. $BT$ product is $0.5$. Sampling frequency is $100\ \rm kHz$ and bandwidth of the signal is $28 \ \rm kHz$. (a) ...
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0answers
112 views

low-frequency amplitude with phase modulation of low Hz carrier

I am writing an FM/PM synthesizer, using Java. For the most part it works pretty well. What I am curious about is an attempt to use a low frequency tone as a carrier. By low frequency, I mean in the ...
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1answer
1k views

Symbol rate and bit rate

Nyquist's formula for maximum channel capacity (noiseless channel): $C=2B \log_2(M)$ Shannon's formula (noisy channel): $C=B \log(1+S/N)$. I need to distinguish between the symbol rate and the bit ...
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1answer
788 views

Why would amplitude modulation result in change of frequency?

Question: (single choice correct; source: JEE Main 2015) A signal of $5 kHz$ frequency is amplitude modulated on a carrier wave of frequency $2 MHz$. The frequencies of the resultant signal is/are: ...
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1answer
771 views

How does modulation work in simple language?

I am reading modulation from this site (am a beginner). In the end, they've given this example: I am having trouble understanding how exactly they arrived at the two modulated results for AM and FM. ...
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1answer
72 views

Transmission frquency in MIMO-OFDM system

What I understand in MIMO system, the user data is broken down into several chunks and transmitted over the antennas (say 3 Tx antennas) by using same frequency Fc. In order to use the interference as ...
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1answer
720 views

Extracting the carrier signal from AM

I am new to DSP and leaning about amplitude modulation. I am trying to demodulate a 5 Hz signal that is modulated by a 50 Hz carrier. I am trying to extract the carrier, not the the 5 Hz signal. A ...
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5answers
841 views

Use of the Dirac delta as a sampling operator

As we are all taught in signal processing classes, the Dirac delta is not a normal function but a generalized function. It is sometimes defined as either the limit of some normal function whose ...
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1answer
399 views

What is the phase coded modulation?

I'm trying to understand what is the "phase coded modulation" and how does it work. As far as I know, Although the linear frequency modulated (LFM) waveform continues to be the workhorse of modern ...
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1answer
3k views

Conversion between Eb/N0 and SNR in spread-spectrum modulation like LoRa CSS?

This question is somewhat related to the one asked here: How is multiplexing achieved in spread-spectrum modulations like CSS? I am looking at the bit error rate (BER) performance of communication ...
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1answer
390 views

QPSK on baseband question

Given a signal you are asked to perform baseband QPSK (not on a carrier). Does this mean the following? In baseband QPSK the (possible) constellation points are $$\sqrt {E_s} e^{jn \pi / 2} \...
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1answer
1k views

Bits - symbols mapping in M-PAM beginner question

I am trying to implement a M-PAM modulator in Matlab without using the built-in functions. I am confused when it comes to the symbols-bits mapping. Say I have a sequence of bits: ...
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1answer
323 views

Are IQ-samples independent from the carrier frequency?

Since i am not sure if i have understood IQ samples correctly, i want to ask the following question: If i look at inphase and quadrature in an IQ diagramme, the length of the arrow describes the ...
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1answer
784 views

Power Spectral Density of Digital Modulations

I want to simulate the power spectral densities of different modulations in MATLAB (without Simulink). Unfortunately I have only very basic understanding of signal processing, hence I struggle with ...
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1answer
2k views

The error probability of 16QAM

The signal constellation for a communication system with 16 equiprobable symbols is shown as below. The channel is AWGN with noise power spectral density of $N_ 0/2.$Using the union bound, find a bound ...
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2answers
614 views

What is the meaning of channel capacity?

If the transmitted information signal takes values from a modulation constellation, then is there a way to know what the channel capacity is? Is there a connection between the modulation kind and ...
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3answers
46 views

Some problem with the expression of QAM basis and signal

The expression of QAM basis is \begin{align} \psi_1&= \sqrt{\frac{2}{E_g}}g(t)\cos(2\pi ft)\\ \psi_2&= -\sqrt{\frac{2}{E_g}}g(t)\sin(2\pi ft) \end{align} I want to ask why is $\psi_2= -\sqrt{\...
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3answers
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Transmit data through sound between 2 computers (very close distance)

I'm writing an example on transmitting data through sound betwwen 2 computers. Some requirements: The distance is very close , i.e the 2 computers are basically adjacent to each other Very little ...
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1answer
783 views

Typical number of samples per symbol

Assuming a pulse shaping of a source of symbols (like $s=\{3,-i,2+5i\}$), and a SRRC waveform (or any other waveform). I know that it depends on many factors like modulation scheme, but, in practice, ...
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1answer
176 views

AM modulated signal not centered at carrier frequency [closed]

I am trying to modulate the signal bl_msg_time (this is a speech signal) using DSB-SC modulation however the signal doesn't appear centered at the carrier frequency....
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2answers
268 views

Relation between erfc and the BER

Antipodal Signalling has a bit error probability of $P_b = \frac{1}{2} \mathrm{erfc}\big(\sqrt{\frac{E_s}{N_0}}\big)$ and on-off-signalling has a bit error probability of $\frac{1}{2} \mathrm{erfc}\...
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1answer
206 views

FM modulation audio 50 Hz – 16 kHz MATLAB

I'm trying to modulate in FM an audio signal $x(t)$ coming from a microphone which works from 50 Hz to 16 kHz in MATLAB. But the problem is that I want a FM Bandwidth of 25 kHz at the output of ...
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0answers
672 views

Information in GFSK signal

I was measuring a Bluetooth LE Signal, particullary a Channel with center frequency 2402 MHz and Bandwidth of 2 MHz, 2401 - 2403 MHz. Those measurement points are just the highest peaks. In the ...
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1answer
1k views

Modulation Index of Conventional AM Signal

An AM signal has the form $$u(t)=100\left[1+\sin(2000 \pi t)+5\cos(4000\pi t)\right]\cos(2\pi f_ct)$$ Where $f_c$ is 800 kHz. What is the modulation index? (We can define modulation index as the ...
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3answers
866 views

How can I generate offset QPSK symbols from QPSK symbols

I am trying to generate Offset-QPSK modulated symbols. But I am facing some difficulties. I know how to make QPSK symbols but I am unable to figure out at what stage I have to bring in changes to make ...
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2answers
147 views

Up-converting a sinusoidal signal

I want to up-convert a baseband sinusoidal signal of frequency $4000 \, \rm{Hz}$ using a carrier frequency of $20\, \rm{KHz}$. I read that one can up-convert a baseband signal to a passband signal ...
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2answers
75 views

Meaning of 'angle' in angle modulation

I know what is angle modulation. I want to know why is named as 'Angle'. Is it because in the vector plot of sidebands are described by various angles? or what?
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1answer
72 views

Modulation and filtering

When I modulate a signal $x(t)$ with $\cos(2 \pi f t)$ and the modulated signal passes through a HPF, what output do i get in the frequency domain?
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4answers
1k views

How can the I and Q components of a quatrature signal be different from each other (apart from the 90º phase shift)

I've spent many hours reading and doing research about this. I don't attend any university classes or any type of classes that may approach such a topic. I am trying to learn this by my own without ...
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1answer
269 views

Why do signal have mirror signal after pure frequency shift?

In my Matlab code I have a simple simulation of FPGA with the ability to simulate doppler shift, and after I and Q components plugged into IQmod with some carrier freq. In my Matlab code when I ...
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1answer
317 views

Why is one of the modulated frequency spikes smaller?

This is a simple amplitude modulation experiment. Both waves are sinusoids of the type cos(2 x pi x f x t). The base signal has a frequency 100Hz, and the ...
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0answers
59 views

Is an extra symbol at the origin of a QAM constellation ok?

This question is specifically directed at Maximilian Matthé (as you work with 5G systems), and to anyone who can shed some light. I am trying to implement a GFDM system with a total of N = K*M ...
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1answer
125 views

Changing the number of cycles of an sinusoidal input signal

Imagine we have an ultrasonic sensor that transmits a multiple cycles of sinusoidal signal/waveform that can travel up to a specific distance/range. Can we achieve more distance coverage using more ...
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1answer
867 views

how to implement a one bit quantizer in simulink?

I am trying to implement a delta sigma modulator block diagram in matlab simulink but can't find a 1 bit quantizer (which is required in the modulator) anywhere . Could anyone please tell me how to go ...
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2answers
3k views

why is the z transform transfer function 1/(z-1) called an integrator?

I am reading up on delta sigma modulators and there this term $\frac{1}{z-1}$ that appears repeatedly and is referred to as an "integrator". Why is this so ?
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51 views

How does bandwidth affect a modulated digital signal? [duplicate]

I'm currently reading up on how the lower layers of the ISO/OSI model work and I don't quite understand how broadband communication works yet. Suppose I want to send some data from point A to point B ...
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2answers
2k views

Relation between Normal Phase Shift of a wave and Phase Modulation

I am little confused with the Phase Modulation and the phase of a sine wave. I get the phase modulated wave from the google images as below: Phase modulation has the form: $$PM(t)=A_c \cos\big(2\pi ...
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1answer
355 views

Recover IQ samples from signal

I have a data acquisition device that provides me with an array of integers that represents a modulated signal (let's say QAM16). I would like to recover the I and Q samples from the raw time-domain ...
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1answer
556 views

How is the number of amplitude levels decided in modulation techniques?

For M-QAM modulation, where e.g. $M = 64$ there are 8 amplitude levels. Each level is represented by a symbol that is further represented by bits through the relation: $$b=\log_2(M)$$ This means ...
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1answer
481 views

Why does raised cosine pulse through Butterworth filter introduce (significant) ISI?

Here is a simple MATLAB experiment: ...
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0answers
49 views

Mathematics in selection of RC time constant for an envelope detector for AM

Let the capacitor be charged to voltage $ V(t_0) $ at $ t=t_0 $ and then start discharging. At time $ t \, (>t_0)$, the delayed capacitor voltage is $$ v(t)=V(t_0)\operatorname{exp}(- \frac{t-t_0}{...
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1answer
314 views

Distortion in demodulation signal

I'm doing amplitude modulation and demodulation for DSB. the maximum amplitude of my original signal is $1$. After demodulating the signal, I should be getting the original signal which is $1$ but ...
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0answers
112 views

How to find and fix the delay of a modulation

I am creating a model in MATLAB to simulate power line communication, but I found a problem. I'm very new to the DSP area, I get my code below from a MATLAB example. ...
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1answer
779 views

QAM Constellation Construction - Basic 4/8 QAM

I wanted to know how to construct the set of amplitudes/phase for QAM modulation. I saw that a QAM signal can be represented as: $$ s_m(t)=A_{mi}g(t)\cos(2\pi f_c t)-A_{mq}g(t)\sin(2\pi f_c t) $$ ...
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1answer
905 views

Confusion between PSK and QPSK

What is the difference between PSK (Phase Shift Keying) and QPSK (Quadrature Phase Shift Keying)? Doesn't PSK need quadrature component for its working?