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Questions tagged [modulation]

Modulation is the process of varying one or more properties of a high-frequency periodic waveform, called the carrier signal, with the amplitude of low-frequence modulating signal which typically contains information to be transmitted.

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2answers
112 views

How to calculate $E_b/N_0$ for a 8-PSK?

How to calculate $E_b/N_0$ for a 8PSK? My BER is given. But I don't understand how to calculate $E_b/N_0$ as it is inside a Q function.
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1answer
23 views

Characterization of the amount of modulation in a signal

We have used the ICRA babble noise to generate an 8-talker babble. As a background - babble noise is used as a substitute for competing talkers as babble noise lacks lexical content, but contains the ...
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1answer
197 views

What is the index modulation in OFDM and Subcarrier Index modulation?

I'm new here, I'd like to ask about the OFDM-IM (OFDM - Index modulation), what is it and how it works? Is it the same as SIM-OFDM? I checked white papers, I see it's using the index of sub-...
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1answer
75 views

Advantage of using DFT and IDFT hardware for modulation

I am doing a course in communications and while discussing multicaruer modulation to break down a signal into smaller bandwidths (for BW to be less than coherence bandwidth), there was mention of ...
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1answer
169 views

What is the mixed numerology in OFDM

In order to meet the user requirements in the next generation radio access technology, the ongoing standardization within 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) offers flexibility in terms of ...
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1answer
71 views

upconverting a kHz/MHz signal to GHz

I want to know how in practice we can take a kHz/MHz signal to a GHz band? Suppose we have an FSK modulated signal at around 300 kHz (or 20 MHz). I want to take it to 3.5 GHz, so about 3499700 kHz ...
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2answers
163 views

Why would we simulate baseband rather than passband

My question is, Why do we usually use baseband in simulation rather than passband? however, if we want to test our simulated idea in real environment, it must be sometimes in passband !! So, should ...
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1answer
769 views

How to convert sampled real audio signal to it's IQ components for IQ modulation?

So my question is this: How to convert sampled real audio signal to it's IQ components for IQ modulation? For instance: WHen I have my DSP or FPGA receive a audio signal through a ADC, which is just ...
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173 views

How to calculate the accurate BER expression of circular 8-QAM constellation modulation?

It is easy to understand the BER derivation of square QAM, but the circular 8-QAM? I'm quite confused. The decision region is not in a rectangular shape anymore, meaning regular way does not work here....
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2answers
91 views

Contradiction between complex baseband and real-valued baseband

Suppose a direct-conversion transmitter+receiver (ideal transmitter) along with its filters. In complex baseband, the filters in the signal chain can be modeled as a complex-valued FIR filter ($y$, $c$...
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2answers
84 views

How to test I/Q modulation with only one branch (I or Q)?

Given is a direct-conversion I/Q up- and downconverter system. Receiver and transmitter share the same (10MHz) reference and hence the LO frequency is identical and there is an (unknown) phase ...
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2answers
63 views

Modulation and allocation in GSM900

I want to do one project and I just want to make sure that I've understood correctly. Human's voice frequency is around 85-255Hz. When we talk on phone, carrier is modulated with voice signal in ...
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1answer
103 views

How range of the signal increases when modulation is done? [closed]

I am very confused because we know by increasing frequency we decrease the wavelength hence the distance covered will be very less but when we modulate a signal we are basically increasing the signal ...
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4answers
78 views

Bandlimiting and OFDM spectrum - what is considered “bandlimited”?

I have been reading about OFDM modulation, it's not clear to me how you can have band-limited OFDM but given its prevalence in wireless communication there must be some designation of approximately ...
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2answers
1k views

What is a constant envelope modulation?

The Book "Digital Modulation Techniques" by Fuqin Xiong groups digital modulation schemes into two classes: "constant envelope" and "nonconstant envelope." However, I was surprised by the inclusion ...
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1answer
277 views

How can I do QPSK in MATLAB [closed]

Could you please explain the step below, what is the benefit of it and how does it work. . I do qpsk demodulation, do I started doing the meshgrid, ...
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2answers
286 views

Inter Symbol Interference (ISI) / Equalization in Digital Signal Processing

I am studying the OFDM system and before to start I have decided to study the main concepts of modulation. And I have spent yet a lot of time to understand the concept of an equalization to reduce ISI....
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2answers
299 views

IQ modulation: baseband to bandpass transformation

can someone explain me these doubts? it is a baseband signal representation. A- complex signal, R- real. If I multiply baseband signal with FT( cos) then the signal will look like this ( on the ...
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1answer
39 views

Modulation of real-valued signal

I have one doubt according to modulation of a real signal. there are so many examples where the real signal was modulated with frequency bigger then 0. Why the signal could not be putted in f=0? is ...
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1answer
2k views

Calculating SNR from Frequency Domain

As I am newbie to signals, I have collected an appliance signal in frequency domain as follows: (PSD- Power Spectral Density). So, I need to calculate the SNR (Signal to Noise Ratio) and BER (Bit ...
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1answer
908 views

The code explanation about QPSK modulation

This is the code about the QPSK modulation, and I don't understand the real part and the imaginary part code. Can anyone explain it to me if you know? Why is ...
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1answer
74 views

Homodyne concept of receiver

I would like to understand a concept of homodyne architecture of I-Q demodulator and how the wave looks like at each step. It is a bandpass Signal: Step 1: multiplication with cos and sin wave. I ...
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1answer
65 views

Don't understand the relation about the wireless communication flow chart and TDMA illustration diagram

The first picture is the wireless communication flow chart,and the second is the TDMA illustration diagram,Which part of first picture is TDMA ? or if first picture is the standard process for TDMA,...
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0answers
111 views

What are the pros and cons of common modulation techniques? [closed]

What are the pros and cons of commonly used modulation techniques? Why is one preferred over another in a given situation? Why do so many exist? Are some better at resisting noise, travelling long ...
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1answer
66 views

IQ modulation principle

I am new in the signal processing. I hope I can get help. I want to ask a question regarding IQ modulation work . Why can’t I simply multiply a complex base-band signal with a cosine to modulate it?
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2answers
54 views

Synchronization with a specified sequence

I'm currently creating a project in Matlab where I'm simulating a communication, based on the SSB modulation, between a transmitter and a receiver. I've added a Barker sequence in the trasmitted ...
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2answers
183 views

Audio Steganography: Inaudible Audio Watermarking for Source Identification

What is a relatively inaudible audio watermarking technique to overlay a broadband audio signal on top of playing music without analysing the music for low-bitrate source identification? Ideally ...
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2answers
1k views

GNU Radio QPSK 4 Symbols

I'd like to generate a simple QPSK signal in GNU radio, but so far I haven't been able to get it to perform the way I'd like and I'm not sure if this has to do with some misunderstanding I have about ...
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1answer
85 views

Is Oversampling a Signal Same as Discretizing the Signal?

I am confused about the new terminology 'oversampling' I have encountered very recently. To explain it better, I am going to use numerical examples. Now let's assume I am using a BPSK modulator and my ...
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1answer
234 views

modulate/demodulate audio file as FSK signal mixed with music signal

What I want to do: I want to encode an audio message inside a regular music file; this shall be decoded by an audio analyzer running on another machine (by listening to the audio playback from the ...
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1answer
865 views

Ratio of the power in the sidebands to the total power in conventional AM

Message signal and carrier signal are given as $m=\cos(2 \pi \cdot f_{m} \cdot t) $ $c=A_{c}\cdot \cos(2 \pi \cdot f_{c} \cdot t) $ I was asked to find modulation index $a$ so that ratio of the ...
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1answer
552 views

Cyclic prefix length in baseband OFDM with ZF equalizer

My question is about baseband OFDM. I try to plot the BER according to the SNR. I noticed that changing cyclic prefix length does not affect the performances. I.e., following the code below, ...
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1answer
241 views

FFT based symbol synchronization for digital demodulation

Where can I read more about "slow search" methods for symbol synchronization based on FFT for extracting a clock signal from the modulated signal? I have read here (8.7 Symbol synchronization) One ...
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1answer
66 views

concurrent multiple sound sources seperation for TDoA estimation

consider a room with some sound resources and several mics, these sound resources almost concurrently emit sound signals. As for one mic, it may pick up sound signals from different sound sources ...
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39 views

Relationships between $f(t)$ signal and $f(t) \times \sin(\omega t)$ signal

Let's assume that there is a signal $f(t)$, $0\le t \le T$. Then, is there any special meaning of the signal $g(t) =f(t) \times \sin(\omega t)$? Like AM transmission. What is shown/heard when we play ...
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2answers
169 views

Relationship between the carrier frequency and the propagation distance? [duplicate]

For electromagnetic waves, Is there a relationship between the carrier frequency and the propagation distance? When transmission distance increases the signal tends to lose power, so carrier signal ...
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0answers
89 views

Does anyone recognize this modulation?

I'm trying to extract the code of my garage remote, but i have some difficulty to find witch modulation has been used. At first I thought it was a simple digital modulation, but there is some strange ...
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1answer
449 views

Square law demodulator. How can we eliminate the term containing $m^2(t)$?

We are trying to extract the message signal from the AM signal using square law demodulator. In the final expression, $V_2(t)$, the term encircled in blue has to be retained, and the others have to ...
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2answers
520 views

Bandwidth of product of two signals

POINT 1: According to convolution theorem, if g1(t) has a bandwidth B1 and g2(t) has a bandwidth B2, then product g1(t)g2(t) has a bandwidth = B1 + B2. POINT 2: Now, consider an AM waveform s(t)=g(t)...
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1answer
158 views

Frequency modulation of $m(t)$ in MATLAB

I have a message signal defined in the below interval $$ m(t)=\begin{cases}1&, 0\leq t < \frac{t_0}{3}\\[2ex] -2&, \frac{t_0}{3}\leq t <\frac{2t_0}{3}\\[2ex] 0&, \frac{2t_0}{3}\leq t ...
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1answer
175 views

Real-time modulated IIR filter

I've been learning to implement an IIR filter for a synthesizer project. It is now more or less stable when the parameters are constant, but ultimately I want the parameters to be arbitrarily ...
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2answers
768 views

How exactly does 8PSK work on each I and Q leg?

I am working on making a modulator in VHDL and am implementing 8PSK. Currently, I have BPSK and QPSK looking good, and I have verified the spectrums. However, now that I am moving to 8PSK, I am stuck ...
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1answer
56 views

Recommended literature to learn essential aspects of signals and its propagation [closed]

Where can I learn about signal's features. For instance mean, power, amplitude, frequency, energy, how they propagate in space or any other medium?. What power means its amplitude increases and ...
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0answers
3k views

AM Modulator Demodulator in Python

I am trying to make a AM modem using Python Numpy and Matplotlib. I am successful in generating the AM Signal but I cannot demodulate it using a lowpass filter function that I made. The demodulation ...
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1answer
567 views

Difference between Line Code and Keying

The following statements are from Wikipedia page of Keying Keying or digital modulation applies to transmitting a digital signal over an analogue passband channel. When a digital signal is ...
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2answers
189 views

Don't understand what is meant by signal dimension

I don't understand the concept of dimension of a signal. I ran into it in an explanation of Shannon Capacity, and in a paper on spread spectrum. I was hoping somebody could explain with an example. ...
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1answer
990 views

Confused in Bit rate, Symbol rate, Sample rate and Data rate

I'm using GMSK modulation to send $300 \ \rm bits$ and assuming $1 \ \rm bit/symbol$. $BT$ product is $0.5$. Sampling frequency is $100\ \rm kHz$ and bandwidth of the signal is $28 \ \rm kHz$. (a) ...
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0answers
106 views

low-frequency amplitude with phase modulation of low Hz carrier

I am writing an FM/PM synthesizer, using Java. For the most part it works pretty well. What I am curious about is an attempt to use a low frequency tone as a carrier. By low frequency, I mean in the ...
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1answer
1k views

Symbol rate and bit rate

Nyquist's formula for maximum channel capacity (noiseless channel): $C=2B \log_2(M)$ Shannon's formula (noisy channel): $C=B \log(1+S/N)$. I need to distinguish between the symbol rate and the bit ...
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1answer
696 views

Why would amplitude modulation result in change of frequency?

Question: (single choice correct; source: JEE Main 2015) A signal of $5 kHz$ frequency is amplitude modulated on a carrier wave of frequency $2 MHz$. The frequencies of the resultant signal is/are: ...