Questions tagged [modulation]

Modulation is the process of varying one or more properties of a high-frequency periodic waveform, called the carrier signal, with the amplitude of low-frequence modulating signal which typically contains information to be transmitted.

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337 views

What is the phase coded modulation?

I'm trying to understand what is the "phase coded modulation" and how does it work. As far as I know, Although the linear frequency modulated (LFM) waveform continues to be the workhorse of modern ...
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How to correct a QAM time delay

How can you correct the anticlockwise rotation that occurs in the received constellation of a QAM system? My only idea is to compensate the delay with an advance but this is impossible since you ...
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Pulse shape estimation

Given a captured noisy BPSK signal, how do I formulate the maximum-likelihood problem so as to estimate the matched filter? The model of interest would be baseband BPSK with AWGN: $$c(t) = \sum_{\ell=...
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34 views

Mapping soft symbols in DQPSK

I'm trying to soft decode DQPSK. According to this paper the bits are: $b_1 = \mathrm{Re}\{s_n s^*_{n-1}\}, b_2 = \mathrm{Im}\{s_n s^*_{n-1}\}$ If I put 0.707 as a 100% probability of 0: $\begin{...
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Multiply signal $x[k]$ with $\cos(2\pi\nu_0k)$, then given $X(\nu)$ draw resulting function in frequency domain?

Let $$y[k]=x[k]\cdot \cos(2\pi\nu_0k) .\tag{1}$$ Then, given a signal $x[k]$ with the DTFT $X(\nu)$ according to the following figure what will the frequency domain for $Y(\nu)$ look like for a ...
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18 views

Modulation with Maximum Likelihood decoder and capacity

My question comes from the high spectrum efficiency claim of OFDM. This seems not correct IMHO, at least theoretically. For me, we lose energy in using cyclic prefix, hence OFDM should be a waste of ...
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60 views

Binary and Quadrature Phase Shift Keying [duplicate]

I was learning Modulation Techniques and was on the topic Phase Shift Keying (PSK). As far as I have understood, In Binary PSK we encode a single bit on a one signal element and we differentiate ...
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57 views

Continuous Phase Modulation

The wikipedia article on continuous-phase modulation states the following: For instance, with QPSK the carrier instantaneously jumps from a sine to a cosine (i.e. a 90 degree phase shift) whenever ...
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3answers
436 views

OFDM violates sampling theorem

The "textbook" OFDM block diagram is as the below figure. But I wonder if it satisfies the sampling theorem. Here, we have N points $X[k]$ before IFFT, and $$x[n]=\frac{1}{\sqrt{N}}\sum_{k=0}^{N-1} X[...
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Synchronization Accuracy Required For Communications

One of the biggest problems in phase modulated communication is discovering when your signal has arrived. High accuracy in this area is important, as even a quarter wavelength error can cause the ...
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Input and Output SNR Calculation in AM receiver input and output

For the FOM calculation of an AM receiver, the input and output signal powers are respectively, $$P_{in} = \frac{A_c^2(1 + k_a^2P_m)}{2}$$ $$P_{out} = k_a^2A_c^2P_m$$ These are obtained from the input ...
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why is the z transform transfer function 1/(z-1) called an integrator?

I am reading up on delta sigma modulators and there this term $\frac{1}{z-1}$ that appears repeatedly and is referred to as an "integrator". Why is this so ?
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How to make SL to RF inport in simulink work real time?

I am using qam in the simulink and need to upconvert the complex baseband data and obtain the time domain passband signal. I pass the complex baseband data to SL to RF inport and then do the ...
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1answer
28 views

Demodulation of OFDM symbol in LTE for multi-user case

I was trying to understand what exactly happens when you try to modulate an ofdm symbol in the downlink in LTE for multi-user case. When we modulate, usually we allocate different sets of RBs for ...
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87 views

Modulation and Noise

I am fairly new to studying communication systems. When it comes to different digital modulation techniques, does the effect of an additive complex noise (a) introduced by the system, and (b) by the ...
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231 views

modulate/demodulate audio file as FSK signal mixed with music signal

What I want to do: I want to encode an audio message inside a regular music file; this shall be decoded by an audio analyzer running on another machine (by listening to the audio playback from the ...
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776 views

how to implement a one bit quantizer in simulink?

I am trying to implement a delta sigma modulator block diagram in matlab simulink but can't find a 1 bit quantizer (which is required in the modulator) anywhere . Could anyone please tell me how to go ...
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844 views

Ratio of the power in the sidebands to the total power in conventional AM

Message signal and carrier signal are given as $m=\cos(2 \pi \cdot f_{m} \cdot t) $ $c=A_{c}\cdot \cos(2 \pi \cdot f_{c} \cdot t) $ I was asked to find modulation index $a$ so that ratio of the ...
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242 views

How to find a know signal in another signal which contains other signals along with the signal i need in python

I am working on BPSK with sound waves a carrier waves. Actually I am modulating my data with some known sync bits along with the information I need to send. So the things I will be having at ...
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330 views

How to generate IQ component for transmitting 2FSK

I am trying to generate IQ components for 2FSK modulation. I have started off from this thread FSK and IQ modulation , but I don't quite understand the IQ TX components plotted in the example there by ...
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331 views

Recover IQ samples from signal

I have a data acquisition device that provides me with an array of integers that represents a modulated signal (let's say QAM16). I would like to recover the I and Q samples from the raw time-domain ...
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GNU Radio QPSK 4 Symbols

I'd like to generate a simple QPSK signal in GNU radio, but so far I haven't been able to get it to perform the way I'd like and I'm not sure if this has to do with some misunderstanding I have about ...
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66 views

concurrent multiple sound sources seperation for TDoA estimation

consider a room with some sound resources and several mics, these sound resources almost concurrently emit sound signals. As for one mic, it may pick up sound signals from different sound sources ...
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402 views

How to set a Carrier Wave for DBPSK Modulators in gnuradio?

for a Project I need to build an Audio Modem in GNU Radio. I decided, that it would be the best to use DBPSK Modulation, because that is fast and relatively noise resistant. But as it seems, the ...
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2answers
134 views

Up-converting a sinusoidal signal

I want to up-convert a baseband sinusoidal signal of frequency $4000 \, \rm{Hz}$ using a carrier frequency of $20\, \rm{KHz}$. I read that one can up-convert a baseband signal to a passband signal ...
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344 views

Adding a constant to a bandpass-signal in transmission

I do understand AM-DSB-SC and AM-DSB-TC, but can't see the point in adding a constant DC-offset of 2 in the upper part of this Simulink-model? Source
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278 views

Inter Symbol Interference (ISI) / Equalization in Digital Signal Processing

I am studying the OFDM system and before to start I have decided to study the main concepts of modulation. And I have spent yet a lot of time to understand the concept of an equalization to reduce ISI....
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539 views

Cyclic prefix length in baseband OFDM with ZF equalizer

My question is about baseband OFDM. I try to plot the BER according to the SNR. I noticed that changing cyclic prefix length does not affect the performances. I.e., following the code below, ...
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How to soft decode DQPSK?

I'm successfully soft-decoding D-BPSK by taking the dot-product of the constellation-position of the symbol and of the previous symbol. If the result is >= 1, then the symbol phase hasn't changed and ...
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37 views

Explanation for the following code in python [closed]

x=2 *(rand(N) >= 0.5) - 1 Can someone please explain how the above expression corresponds to BPSK signal please?
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3answers
46 views

Why bit rate is same in a lower frequency spectrum and higher spectrum?

If there is a spectrum between 0 Mhz - 1 Mhz, bandwidth would be 1 Mhz here and for example with baseband we can send 2000 bps. What I can't understand is if spectrum is 5-6 Mhz instead of 0 - 1 Mhz, ...
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Half Subcarrier spacing in LTE Uplink

First post here, trying to make it as good as possible. Do not know how to make the Python code look nice - any tips? :) Anywho - to the main problem: I am currently working on simulating the uplink ...
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43 views

Is there any relation between QAM and streaming?

I am trying to determine whether there is any relation between QAM and streaming (e.g., video streaming). I know that QAM can be used for broadcast TV. I'm not sure if QAM is used for WiFi bit ...
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25 views

Diode demodulation for AM

What is the capacitor and resistance at output of LPF meant for in the document it was mentioned that it is DC blocker I don't get it can't message contain DC value.
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27 views

Envelope detector for AM signals

How or what are the constraints for deciding factors of envelope detector for AM As far as I know that charging time of capacitor should be below 20T where T is periodic time of carrier and ...
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737 views

Impact of modulation index in FM

If I have the spectrum of a FM modulation, does the frequency of the carrier disappear when the modulation index is too big? Does the amplitude of any side band depend from the modulation index? And ...
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Channel state information from non-HT packets: is that possible?

I read several papers about CSI data, but one thing is not clear. I would like to extract csi from legacy rate packets. I read some forums related to existing CSI tools and they only state that CSI ...
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How to find index of FM modulation

In text I know that frequency of amplitude signal is 10KHz and carrier frequency is 80 MHz. And I need to write code for FM modulation in matlab, I know how to calculate index but here I do not know ...
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2answers
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Getting the bitstream of an unknown RF signal

I am trying to get the bitstream of a signal sent over 433MHz. I have installed SDR# (I'm on Windows), connected my NESDR SMART, and I identified the signal here: I can see there is only one peak ...
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4answers
939 views

How can the I and Q components of a quatrature signal be different from each other (apart from the 90º phase shift)

I've spent many hours reading and doing research about this. I don't attend any university classes or any type of classes that may approach such a topic. I am trying to learn this by my own without ...
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143 views

Relation between constellation SNR and baseband SNR

Let's say I have an I/Q modulation, ie. QPSK. I can simulate an the effects of an AWGN channel by adding to my QPSK symbols the realizations of a complex normal. $\mathcal{CN}(0,\frac{1}{\mathrm{SNR}...
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3answers
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Why only odd harmonics after non-linear amplification?

Why do I get only odd harmonics appearing? This not only happens at saturation of the transfer curve, but also in the linear portion of the curve. I make a input signal that has too high power that ...
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What does this spectrogram mean?This is spectrogram of a multitone FM signal

! The spectrogram of FM signal has been generated by using Matlab.Now I want to what does these scratch like lined represent, though I have only two frequency components in my message signal(https://i....
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166 views

What is the mixed numerology in OFDM

In order to meet the user requirements in the next generation radio access technology, the ongoing standardization within 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) offers flexibility in terms of ...
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How to compare two 802.15.4 O-QPSK modulated digitals signals?

I am working on wireless sensors project and I am trying to simulate a transmission between two nodes. So let's say I have two nodes which transmit the message to each other, i.e. node 1 transmits ...
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Does gray coding bring improvement to SER of QPSK, compared with natural coding?

I understand gray coding contributes to BER of QPSK, yet really don't understand why it brings improvement to SER. According to the relationship of SER and BER, it should be improved. Actually, when ...
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What determines the maximum/minimum values in I/Q constellation diagram?

I need to do some data analysis on I/Q samples and was trying to know what are the parameters that determine the maximum/minimum values of these samples. In other words, what determines the maximum/...
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Generating a phase modulation frequency spectrum with jitter

I would like to produce a frequency spectrum plot like this: (from All About Circuits) I know that one can take the modulation frequency and multiply it by a given order and scale by the modulation ...
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IT++ and Alternatives DSP Libraries

I want to implement some signal processing blocks in C++ so I did a bit of search on the available libraries for signal processing in C++ and I found that IT++ provides comprehensive set of functions, ...
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74 views

Advantage of using DFT and IDFT hardware for modulation

I am doing a course in communications and while discussing multicaruer modulation to break down a signal into smaller bandwidths (for BW to be less than coherence bandwidth), there was mention of ...