Questions tagged [modulation]

Modulation is the process of varying one or more properties of a high-frequency periodic waveform, called the carrier signal, with the amplitude of low-frequence modulating signal which typically contains information to be transmitted.

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194 views

What can be done with I/Q data which would otherwise be impossible?

As I understand it, I/Q data is the complex representation of any waveform. It enables us to understand two things at any arbitrary point in time: The projected amplitude of the waveform. The ...
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1answer
38 views

Modulate Bipolar(?) signal

I want to modulate this signal if possible with an Arduino, but have no idea what circuit can help me here. Let's ignore the timing and the measurements from the image for a moment, my problem is more ...
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Why can so little digital information be stored on a cassette tape?

I had heard that tape is still the best medium for storing large amounts of data. So I figured I can store a relatively large amount of data on a cassette tape. I was thinking of a little project to ...
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1answer
49 views

Why is a bandpass filtered analog PM signal still PM and not AM

I know, that in theory a sinusoidally phase modulated (PM) signal with an expression like $\Re(e^{\mathrm{j}k\sin(\omega_s t)} \cdot e^{\mathrm{j}\omega_ct})$ with the signal frequency $\omega_s$, the ...
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1answer
35 views

what is OQAM (Offset QAM) and why it is required?

Currently I am studying about a modulation technique FBMC (Filter Bank Multicarrier) which is a predecessor of OFDM. The difference with OFDM is that, FBMC does not have a CP (Cyclic Prefix) which is ...
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3answers
48 views

Can the intelligence message of an FM signal be cross-modulated to another center frequency due to non-linearities?

Can the intelligence message of an FM signal be cross-modulated to a a different frequency by non-linearities, but with the FM modulating message remaining (relatively) intact on the new frequency? ...
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0answers
39 views

Cosine modulated impulse response

How do we show $y_0(n) = y_1(n)$ when $h_k[n] = h[n] \cos(\frac{2\pi}{L} k n )$
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3answers
160 views

Use of pulse shaping in digital modulation

Sorry, I am a little bit confused here cause I thought when we say QPSK, the signal looks like the following. I thought the bits to send/receive depends on the phase shift of the carrier, or is the ...
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3answers
73 views

QAM Amplitude Levels

I'm working on a project to stream video between 2fpgas by using QAM. While mapping symbols with different amplitude pulses(PAM) a question popped up in my mind. In real life how does communicating ...
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1answer
29 views

How to encode binary sequence if the number of bits are odd to e.g. 4-PAM? (Beginner)

I'm new to signal constellation and trying to understand how M-PAM works. If there is a binary sequence that has on odd number of bits and I want to send a 4-PAM signal, there will be one bit left ...
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1answer
34 views

OFDM Modulation: what's the output of the FFT?

I'm trying to understand how OFDM is used in technologies like Wi-Fi. On the Wikipedia page, an idealized transmitter is presented with this schema: Data is converted from serial to parallel, mapped ...
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1answer
48 views

Digitalization of a signal

Suppose I have an analog signal I want to transmit. After sampling and quantization, I can map the samples to bits. So now I have a bit stream that represents the original analog signal. My questions ...
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1answer
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How to deal with modulator jitter?

I have a question regarding an implementation of a modulator. I guess some people here have an FPGA background. I would like to implement a QPSK modulator of  31 Mbit bitrate using a 125 MHz clock. I ...
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1answer
35 views

A communication system

I am solving the following problem as an exercise. I have a signal $$z(t) = x(t)\cos(wt) + y(t)\cos(ut)$$ and we assume $x,y$ to be band-limited continuous time signals. In the frequency domain we ...
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1answer
68 views

Use of I/Q representation for unmodulated Rx Signal

it may be a stupid question but while learning about DSP and Modulation I was wondering, if the I/Q representation of an RF Signal is of any use, when the received signal does not contain any ...
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1answer
38 views

Max frequency of cosine in SDR

I would like to transmit a 56 MHz real cosine and receive it using SDR with max complex sample rate equals 61.44MSPS and an analog filter with BW = 56MHz (the transceiver is AD9361). Can I do it? How ...
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1answer
47 views

Bandwidth of a modulated signal in analog domain

If i am using QPSK modulation with data rate 4 Mbps with rolloff factor $0.5$, then the bandwidth will be symbol $\rm rate\times (1 + rolloff\ factor)$. So here it will be $\rm 2\ MHz\times 1.5 = 3\ ...
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3answers
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What causes this type of distortion in a constellation I/Q plot?

I'm transmitting QPSK through a digital pulse shaping filter (RRC, 35% excess BW, 2 samples per symbol, 64 taps) at a rate of 56Msym/sec. Receiving it on standard lab equipment (Vector signal ...
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2answers
34 views

How are the constellation point coordinates determined in digital modulation

I need to understand where the concept of the distance comes from. What I mean is, how do we know what coordinates are to assign to points in the constellation. For example here for QPSK the points ...
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2answers
69 views

Coding an LFO in C

I want to know how I could implement a Low Frequency Oscilator on a simple synth I've coded in C. First in order to understand how to make this happen I would like just to modulate a sine wave by a ...
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0answers
23 views

modulation depth

When a value for the power dissipated by an AM signal is given, and the depth of modulation is also given. Then you are told to find the modulation depth required to increase the power to a higher ...
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1answer
72 views

Sharp EL-5500III (PC-1403) cassette tape encoding

I have an old audio cassette tape of digital data I converted to .wav and am hacking to recover the original data. I demodulated the 4K/2K FSK modulation with minimodem. Then I get stuck with ...
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48 views

Why does the frequency in fft plot of the baseband modulated signal isn't changing at the receiver

I have designed a transceiver system for cellular frequencies(800MHz). On the receiver side, I have converted the band signal to baseband signal through digital mixing. I have added the Inphase and Q ...
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Pre-envelope of an FM signal $s(t) = A\cos[\omega_ct + B\sin(\omega_xt)]$ [duplicate]

I want to ask a question about pre-envelope of an FM wave: $$s(t) = A\cos[\omega_ct + B\sin(\omega_xt)]$$ Can someone explain briefly how we calculate the pre-envelope of this signal?
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What is difference between Phase shift keying (PSK) and Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM) mathematical equation

I went through a literature and found the following expression for PSK signal. On this basis, what will be the equation for **QAM signal **. Also from where i would be able to read about this equation ...
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1answer
39 views

BFSK modulation coding on MATLAB

Like for BPSK we generate random bits and then data= round(rand(1,num_bit)); %Generate binary data bpskModulated = 2*data-1 % mapping to -1 and +1 Can we do same for BFSK like ...
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40 views

Non coherent detection BFSK demodulation?

I am simulating BER performance of BFSK under AWGN and Rayleigh fading, BFSK has two symbols one entirely on the real plane while other on the complex plane for representing let's say zero and one, ...
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1answer
39 views

Next steps for analyzing this PWM algorithm and choosing a low pass filtering technique?

The Broadcom BCM2711 GPIO controller used by the Raspberry Pi has a hardware PWM implementation option using an algorithm that provides an average value defined by a rational fraction $N/M$ defined as ...
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0answers
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How to find the noise power in my simulation

I am currently working a tricky communication chain that I want to simulate into Matlab. The chain is like a classic BPSK modulator/demodulator chain, but where the BPSK modulated signal has been ...
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1answer
41 views

Channel encoding after digital modulation

Generally, when using channel encoding followed by interleaving, that process should be performed before the modulator and the system structure should be like that : For me, I only use the ...
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1answer
31 views

How to demodulate PM modulation

I'm using a sin wave $s_{sc}(t) = d(t)\cos(\omega_{sc}t + \varphi_{sc})$ to modulate a carrier using phase modulation. I'm working on Matlab so I use the pmmod function to do so. It is not too ...
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1answer
44 views

Is there use of $\pi/8$-DQPSK as shown in MATLAB's documentation?

I was reading MATLAB's documentation on dpskmod. They gave an example of an $\pi/8$-DQPSK. I felt that this is strange as I have seen $\pi/4$-DQSPK and $\pi/8$-...
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3answers
72 views

Nyquist Rate of cosine modulated function

Here's my understanding: $$y(t) = x(t)~ \cos(\Omega_0 t)$$ I take the Fourier transform of y(t) and I get this result: $$Y(\Omega) = \frac{1}{2}X(\Omega - \Omega_0) + \frac{1}{2}X(\Omega + \...
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0answers
17 views

Representing the signal $ u(t)=A_c \cos (2 \pi f_c t + \beta \cos 2 \pi f_m t) $ in terms of Bessel function

I want to represent the signal $ u(t)=A_c \cos (2 \pi f_c t + \beta \cos 2 \pi f_m t) $ in terms of Bessel function. I have done the exercise. I want someone to check whether what I have done is ...
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0answers
9 views

Model of modulator and demodulator in Simulink. Why is MER so lowest?

I created a simple model in Simulink of a quadrature modulator, amplifier and quadrature demodulator. On the oscilloscope(scope in Simulink) and spectrum analyzer the displayed results look normal (at ...
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1answer
41 views

Conditions for analytical signal reconstruction with the Hilbert Transform (HT)

I'm new to the Hilbert Transform, I was reading the paper: "SISAR Imaging - Radio Holography Signal Reconstruction Based on Receiver-Transmitter Motion", and the next sentence was written in the paper:...
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1answer
29 views

CDMA scheme that preserves constant envelope (NRZ/ASK shape)

(This is a followup question to Is this a "valid" CDMA modulation?) Is it possible to find a CDMA scheme in which the receiver can only have a simple slicer? In other words, for the ...
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1answer
39 views

Is this a “valid” CDMA modulation?

I am banging my head against (specific aspects of) CDMA for a few days. At the basic level I am confused about the interrelation between implementations that are modeled as mixing and fully digital ...
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2answers
89 views

MATLAB: Issue with passing data through AWGN Channel [closed]

I am trying to send QAM data through AWGN channel and I have 256 samples/symbol, I have the following code: ...
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1answer
37 views

Phase Noise in Constellation Plot

I have the following phase noise plot (-100dBc/Hz @ 1MHz offset and -130dBc/Hz noise floor): The integrated phase jitter for this phase noise is around $4.6^\circ$. According to my understanding the ...
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2answers
68 views

What is symbol in signal processing?

I am new to signal processing and have been trying to understand the terminology. I came across this statement: "Assuming the signal modulation $\mathfrak{M}$ has an alphabet A of M symbols and the ...
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1answer
23 views

Please clarify the mandatory condition on Vestigial Sideband Modulation filter?

In VSB filter we have the Transfer function condition as $H(F-F_c)+H(F+F_c)=1$ So can we accept that for the range of $F$ in $(F-df,F_c)$ we have $H(F)$ and for $(F_c,F+dF)$ we have $A-H(-F)$ where $...
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1answer
54 views

Why does my digital upconversion result in two tones?

I am using Xilinx's RFSoC in I/Q mode. The important point is that in the digital space I have real and complex samples. I take the incoming data and multiply it by a complex sinusoid. In my test ...
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0answers
22 views

How do you determine the power required for a phase shift keying modulation scheme?

This wiki article has a diagram : which shows how the message "11000110" is conveyed as a waveform. I'm trying to understand how the power to transmit this message can be determined. Do I need ...
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1answer
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Please, help me interpret my Simulink simulation of AM. Why does carrier not appear in the spectogram?

Carrier is 2 * pi * 25, modulating signal is 2 * pi, all the amplitudes are 1s and zero phase. I realized that I could add a sine wave right at the end. I get a carrier in frequency domain, but my ...
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1answer
59 views

I/Q Signal Power Calculation

I am trying to understand the basics of IQ modulation. The amplitude of a demodulated IQ signal is given as $\sqrt{I^2 + Q^2}$ which is easy to understand from the phasor diagram. Yet, I don't ...
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1answer
45 views

Serial to Parallel Converter

in many texts about modulators I have seen there is a component called "Serial to Parallel Converter". For instance, let's consider this scheme and let's focus on the second block (reference): The ...
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1answer
45 views

Confusion about collection of bits and symbols

I'm taking an intro communications module and I'm quite confused on what the term "symbol" really means? Consider this setup: My understanding is as folllows After the information source, we have ...
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0answers
35 views

Is this PSK or FSK

I am analysing a captured 433.92MHz signal sampled at 2MHz: If we zoom in: I am thinking this is PSK? Am I wrong? Thanks
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Can you help me to understand Multi-tone FSK, and how I can implement it?

Any paper, book, Matlab file... that you would recommend. Thanks.

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