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Questions tagged [magnitude]

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Confusion understanding Fourier series line spectra?

I am reading book signals and systems Laboratory with MATLAB where I am studing chapter 5, Fourier series and i trying to understand magnitude spectrum and phase spectrum but i have certain confuisons ...
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Scaling of FFT2 magnitude in image-processing

I got the following code: ...
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  • 157
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2 answers
62 views

Computing magnitude response of system

Suppose I have this equation: $$H\left( e^{j\omega }\right) =\dfrac{1+e^{-j\omega }}{1-0.1e^{-j\omega }}$$ How do I find the magnitude exactly? I tried expanding it, but it seems to not work. $$\frac{...
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Z domain Transfer function to magnitude

How would one go about calculating the Magnitude of... $\mathcal{Z}$-transform = $$\frac{1}{1-z^{-2}}$$ I understand that z can be replaced with $${exp}^{j\omega}$$ and I am aware of the identities $${...
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-1 votes
1 answer
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Draw the poles and zeros in the z plane for a system with poles at 0.45±j1.06 and zeros at 0.58±j2.06 Also plot the magnitude response of the system

Can you guys share 1 resource that solves similar type of this problem. This is not do my homework post. I just want a place which solves this type of problem. If you have pdf in book or sth, do share ...
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32 views

Stable and causal system

How many stable and causal systems with the same magnitude response are there? I know this relates to an all pass system for two rational transfer functions but am not sure about the specifics of this
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1 vote
1 answer
113 views

Why do the DTFT and FFT give me completely different results for magnitude at a specific frequency?

I am trying to write a program to compute the magnitude and phase of a specific, non-integer frequency component (i.e. given a sampled finite signal of length $N$, I want to know the magnitude and ...
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2 votes
2 answers
196 views

Non-zero DFT components where zero is expected?

I am implementing DFT in Octave. Here's my code: ...
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0 answers
61 views

Blackman window magnitude attenuation

I am trying to compute the fundamental phasor using sliding window DFT. I have employed a Blackman window in conjunction i.e $$ \sum_{k=0}^{L_{DFT}-1}x(k) w(k) e^{-j2\pi k/N} $$ where $x(k)$ is the ...
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Moving average filter output magnitude in simulink

I was using the Moving average filter provided by simulink. I set the window length equal to 31 samples and i was using a fixed step solver with a step size of $\frac{1}{(50\times24)}$. I used a unit ...
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  • 15
-1 votes
1 answer
151 views

SMA, SVM and PSD python

I'm looking for python functions (package) to calculate SMA (signal magnitude area), SVM (signal vector magnitude) and PSD (Power Spectral Density). The goal is to extract features from an ...
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3 votes
1 answer
10k views

Calculate the magnitude and phase of a signal at a particular frequency in python

I have a signal for which I need to calculate the magnitude and phase at 200 Hz frequency only. I would like to use Fourier transform for it. I am very new to signal processing. And this is my first ...
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1 answer
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Magnitude response of mirrored (with respect to unit circle) poles and zeros

I just want to check that my understanding about the following paragraph from Optical Filter Design and Analysis by Christi K. Madsen, Jian H. Zhao is correct: A filter’s magnitude response is equal ...
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1 vote
1 answer
279 views

Squared magnitude of the Z-transform

I am basically new to the $z$-transform and there are some points regarding its square magnitude that I do not understand. Basically I do not understand how in slide 4 of PDF, they arrive at the ...
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2 answers
816 views

How to convert magnitude to dB in matlab

I exported a diagram from FDTD simulation, and now I want to change the magnitude to dB, here is the exported codes: ...
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1 vote
1 answer
77 views

Terminology for instantaneous phase of magnitude component of complex signal

In my field, we deal with data that are originally complex-valued. Typically, researchers convert their data from real + imaginary to magnitude + phase, and then discard the phase data (i.e., we ...
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Working with a sound's magnitude instead of amplitude

I'm working on a project, where we're recording sound with a piezo-disc which looks a little something like this: Now, unless we're doing something horribly horribly wrong, I've discovered that we're ...
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1 answer
420 views

Impulse response from frequency response in Matlab

I am trying to design equalization filter and therefore I want to define my own amplitude and phase response and then to obtain the impulse response of the filter. I thought that the output of the ...
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1 vote
3 answers
158 views

What does this paragraph mean?

I'm reading this paper about about an algorithm to measure image sharpness, and am confused by these sentences in the 6th paragraph: It is well known that the attenuation of high-frequency content ...
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What is the "Energy" equivalent of the Magnitude Spectrum

I have a semantic issue regarding the discrete spectrum $X[k]$ of a time domain signal with limited length $x[n]$, so we're talking about the FFT. Now, when I what to compare the bandwidth and ...
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1 vote
3 answers
1k views

How do the magnitude and phase spectrum of an imaginary function look like?

Say I have the function $$x(t)=j \operatorname{rect}(t)$$ Is the phase spectrum even or odd? I am confused whether the phase spectrum is an odd/even function of $\omega$ (angular frequency, Fourier ...
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1 answer
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Why is there a negative in front of the phase response equation for this complex exponential?

first time on here! I'm working through "Digital Signal Processing using MATLAB" by Vinay and Proakis. Good book. I am stuck on this example tho. Shouldn't the imaginary part in the denominator (...
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2k views

Understanding FFTs for simple Sin / Cos

this is my first question in this forum, and although I read several threads on this side and googled a lot I could not find the answer to my question (maybe it is too basic)? For anyone reading this ...
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-1 votes
1 answer
3k views

Calculating the magnitude spectrum and phase spectrum

From a window function $x(t)=u(t+2)-u(t-2)$, we can get the Fourier Transform $X(j\omega)=\frac{2\sin(2\omega)}{\omega}$. Then, I want to calculate its magnitude spectrum and phase spectrum. The ...
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3 answers
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Relationship between DFT input sequence and magnitude

Assuming there is a sequence that could look like this: $$ x[n] = \{1, 1, 0, 0, 1, 1, 0, 0, 1, 1, 0, 0,1, 1, 0, 0, 1, 1, 0, 0,1, 1, 0, 0, 1, 1, 0, 0, 1, 1, 0, 0\} $$ Using this sequence, I want to ...
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FFT frequency-magnitude not correct when a positive gain EQ point is applied

I have a measurement system, which applies a log sine sweep as stimulus to a DUT and records the return signal. I then extract the impulse response, and perform an FFT on this to examing phase and ...
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1 answer
378 views

Correctly scaling FFT of different lengths

I have been looking at using two FFTs of different lengths and displaying the output magnitudes on the same graph (a shorter length window for the higher frequencies, and a longer one for lower ...
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Magnitude attenuation by a filter

I have a filter, with coefficients given by $$ W=\sin((2*\pi*2*F_f*k/F_s)/(2*\pi*2*F_f*k/F_s))*h[k] $$, where $F_f$ is the filter reference frequency, $k$ runs from $-N/2$ to $N/2$ ($N$ is the order ...
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1 vote
1 answer
327 views

Energy definition for Autocorrelation lag 0 and lag 1 for complex signals

I am studying the role of an auto-correlation matrix for random signals and the difference of energy between a lag 0 and lag 1 matrix. Consider a complex input signal $x(k)=[x1,x2]^T$ and $x(k-1)=[x0,...
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2 votes
3 answers
378 views

Matlab IIR cheby2 bandpass, problems with Magnitude

I am trying to implement an IIR bandpass in Matlab. There are two things I don't understand. But first of all, let me post the code. ...
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0 votes
2 answers
121 views

Is it valid to calculate the magnitude, power, and phase of a real time-domain signal without converting it to the frequency-domain?

I would assume you perform the calculations the same way, but since there would be no imaginary component because the signal is not complex it would be simpler: ...
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2 votes
3 answers
660 views

Frequency response of a microphone using a sine sweep

I want to determine the frequency response (magnitude, phase) of a microphone. I have another "good" reference microphone whose frequency response I know. I understand that I can use a good speaker ...
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2 votes
2 answers
121 views

Phase response of $H(f)=e^{-j2{\pi}ft_0}$

Given is the impulse response: $$h(t)=\delta(t-t_0)$$. I calculated $$H(f)=e^{-j2 \pi ft_0}=|H(f)|\cdot e^{j\varphi(f)}$$. Now, the magnitude response of $H(f)$ is: $$\begin{align} |H(f)| &=\...
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1 vote
1 answer
120 views

Calculate aliasing of $x_a(t) = \cos{(2\pi300t)} + \cos(2\pi600t)$ when sampled with $F_s = 1000$

I'm asked to sample the signal $$x_a(t) = \cos{(2\pi300t)} + \cos(2\pi600t)$$ with sampling frequency $F_s = 1000$ and plot the magnitude spectrum for the resulting sampled signal. My thinking is ...
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1 vote
2 answers
1k views

Zero padding and 2D Fourier transforms: how does zero-padding affect phase?

It's pretty clear that zero-padding an image before performing Fourier transform simply enlarges the magnitude image (stretching it to the new, padded size). What I can't understand is how it affects ...
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1 vote
1 answer
150 views

How would I find the function given the magnitude plot and the phase response?

I'm wondering how I'd find the Fourier Transform X(jw) given the following information: My understanding is that the expression for the continuous time fourier transform (CTFT) is magnitude(CTFT)exp(...
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1 vote
2 answers
264 views

How to graph magnitude plots for basic 4-pole filters?

I have developed magnitude plots for basic one-pole and two-pole filters derived from various Physics PDF's and tutorials I have found online and calculated from: https://www.desmos.com/calculator/...
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1 vote
3 answers
1k views

$e^{j\omega}$ on unit circle

I am new to DSP, and I'm self studying. I am confused about the magnitude of $e^{j\omega}$ - where $\omega$ is the normalized angular frequency - when we are on the unit circle. According to the ...
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3 votes
1 answer
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Given a plot of both the magnitude $|H(\omega)|$ and its angle, How can you find the $H(\omega)$?

I'm specifically trying to use an inverse Fourier Transform to find $h(t)$, but I'm finding it difficult to get $H(\omega)$ in the first place. I'm under the impression from my textbook that $H(\...
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2 votes
1 answer
2k views

Spectrogram with square or non-square magnitude of STFT: power vs. magnitude

As seen in this question and answer, to do a spectrogram, it's common to plot either: the square magnitude $|\text{STFT}(\text{frame}, \text{bin})|^2$ ("power spectrum") the magnitude $|\text{STFT}(\...
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4 votes
4 answers
2k views

How do I calculate peak amplitude of the signal components after zero padding and FFT?

I am learning about DFT and trying to apply it to some audio processing. I am new to DSP but experienced in programming and have some background in math and physics. The FFT algorithm I use (lomontFFT)...
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0 votes
1 answer
333 views

Summing magnitudes of individual frequency bins

I am working on signal analyser and have problem with understanding relationship between display resolution and frequency resolution (range). My frequency range is $ 1-20000\quad [ H z ] $ so to ...
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2 votes
1 answer
144 views

Why harmonic components appear only after a certain level when a signal is clipped?

I recently observed this phenomenon that when a signal is clipped the harmonics start to appear only after a certain level. The Python code to reproduce the effect is given below. The signal has 3 ...
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2 answers
254 views

Phase information from product of complex conjugate transfer functions

For an input signal $x(t)$ and output signal $y(t)$ through an LTI system I $H(t)$ I have found and interesting property that concerns signals' power spectral densities: $${\lvert H(\omega)\rvert}^2 =...
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1 answer
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Computing real signal with minimum absolute values from even magnitude spectrum

I want to derive a real audio signal from an arbitrary even magnitude spectrum. The phase spectrum affects the values of the signal in the time domain; for example, a phase of 0 for all frequencies ...
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1 vote
1 answer
1k views

Magnitude response and DFT normalization

Suppose I have an FIR denoted h that represents the impulse response of a system. Using MATLAB syntax (for convenience and brevity), What does ...
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4 votes
1 answer
340 views

Calculating phase response of maximum phase filter using Hilbert Transform

Given only a magnitude response $A(\omega)$ of a minimum phase filter, one can calculate the phase response using the Hilbert Transform: $$θ(ω) = -\mathcal{H}\{\ln(A(\omega)\}$$ This paper suggests ...
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2 answers
8k views

Plotting the magnitude response of a filter?

I have designed a second order butterworth filter. Sampling frequency: $4\textrm{ kHz}$, Cut-off frequency: $500\textrm{ Hz}$ $$e = \tan⁡\left(\frac{\pi \times f_c}{f_s}\right) = \tan\left(\frac{...
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0 votes
1 answer
122 views

Does a filter need to completely attenuate high frequencies to be considered low-pass?

I'm looking at a system with a frequency response that is: $$H(e^{j\omega})=\tfrac{1}{4}(2\cos(\omega)+\cos(2\omega)+2)$$ I think the magnitude of this system looks like this (not sure what is the ...
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1k views

When does the Amplitude Spectrum equal the Magnitude Spectrum?

I had the following question on edX: I'm failing to understand why the second signal has $M(\omega)=A(\omega)$. First I find the DTFT of the signal: $$\mathcal{F}\{\delta [n]+\delta [n-1]\}\ =\ ...
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