Questions tagged [linear-systems]

A linear system operates on inputs with only linear operators so the response to a complex input can be analysed as the sum of the response to a set of simpler inputs. This mathematical property makes the analysis of linear systems much simpler than non-linear systems where this summation or superposition does not hold. Linear systems are generally further classified as time invariant, meaning that there characteristics do not change over time.

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160 views

Are Chebyshev Type 1 filters very unstable at very high orders?

I am currently experimenting with a digital implementation of a Chebyshev Type 1 filter of mine, for audio purposes. I have written the code myself so I was wondering if the behavior I've noticed is ...
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104 views

Determining if a 2D system is LSI

After a long time away from school, I'm a bit rusty and struggling with this question: Determine if the following discrete system is LSI: $y(m,n) = mn*x(m+n) + mn*x(m-n)$ So here's what I've done ...
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1answer
31 views

Invariance of $T[x[n]]=\sum_{k=n-1}^{n+2}x[k]$

I have to test whether the following system is invariant or not: $T[x[n]]=\sum_{k=n-1}^{n+2}x[k]$, so I want to verify that, if $y[n]=T[x[n]]$, then $y[n-N]=T[x[n-N]]$. $$T[x[n-N]]=\sum_{k=n-1}^{n+2}x[...
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167 views

Analytical Solution for the Convolution of Signal with a Box Filter

I have an exercise in which I am trying to filter an input signal $y(x) = \sin(x)$. Ideally, I would like to apply a box filter to this signal. Previously, I successfully convolved the input signal $...
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338 views

Why does knowing the impulse response allow you to determine the output for any LTI system?

Going over some notes on LTI systems and I’m quite confused about how knowing the impulse response of a system allows us to recover the systems’ response to any signal. In the textbook screenshot ...
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1answer
123 views

Representing a continuous LTI system as a discrete one

I am aware that there are different ways to represent a continuous time system in discrete domain (e.g. bilinear transform, impulse invariance transform). But my problem is as follows: Given an ...
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2answers
209 views

Cross-correlation of filtered random processes

I have a wide-sense-stationary (WSS) process $\{x(t)\}$ and two linear filters with impulse functions $h_1$ and $h_2$. Let $\delta(\omega)$ be the power spectrum of $\{x(t)\}$ and $$H_1:\omega\...
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1answer
147 views

Difference between the two forms of input-output relationships of an LTI system

$$y(t)=f(t)*h(t)\tag{1}$$ $$y(t)=H(s)e^{st}\tag{2}$$ $$H(s)=\int_{-\infty}^{\infty}h(t)e^{-st}dt\tag{3}$$ Let $f(t)$ in Eqn $(1)$ be $e^{st}$. In many worked out examples, I have found that the two ...
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75 views

how do I derive the system equation for a simple delay with feedback?

I am a software engineer, and just learning digital signal processing formally, though I've hacked around before a fair amount. I'm implementing a delay audio VST and I'm trying to wrap my head ...
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1answer
44 views

Controllability's dependence on B matrix

Assuming the LTI system: $\dot{x}=Ax+Bu\\$ , where $x\in R^n$ I understand that the $B$ matrix is usually given, and it is up to us to derive the optimal $u$ given an initial state of the system ...
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32 views

External/Internal Description of a System

When an LTI system is NOT completely controllable/observable, does the linear differential equation governing the system give the internal or the external description of a system?
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1k views

Unit Impulse : Bounded or Unbounded?

As the title suggests, I have a confusion here. In a Systems text I am going through, it mentions of the Unit Impulse as an unbounded signal. Yes, the unit impulse "height" is unbounded, but the "...
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478 views

Determining LTI system response to a scale change

We know that for an LTI system, if $y(t)$ is the output for $x(t)$ then the response for $x(t-2)$ will be $y(t-2)$ and so on. But my question is what will be the system response for the input $x(-2t)$...
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What is the difference between a controller and a compensator?

I recently revisited some texts on control theory. In some textbooks the term compensator is used, seemingly interchangeably with controller (see e.g. The Control Handbook by Levine, chapter 14 on ...
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764 views

LTI system and initial conditions

I suspect this is rather obvious once explained; I must be misunderstanding something. From reading various answers here (such as this one), I understand that an LTI system must have zero output for ...
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33 views

Does phase margin exists only for linear systems?

If possible, how to determine the phase margin for nonlinear systems?
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301 views

Why the following discrete type system,variable accumulator, is time invariant?

$y[n]=T{x[n]}=\displaystyle\sum_{k=n-n_{0}}^{n+n_{0}} x[k]$ it is some sort of moving summer which computes $n^{\text{th}}$ output sample by adding all samples lying within length $n_{0}$ around some ...
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24 views

Inversion problem for big dataset

Suppose my goal is to solve for $x$ in $Ax = b$ using CG method and $A$ is Toeplitz. The problem is that $b$ is extremely large in size and I can't just read in the whole vector $b$ and then solve for ...
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219 views

System Identification with a Limited Bandwidth Input Signal and Region of Interest

Given a FIR filter $h[n]$. Its action can described as: $$ \mathbf{y} = \mathbf{H} \mathbf{x} \\ \mathbf{y} = \mathbf{X} \mathbf{h} $$ where $\mathbf{H}$ and $\mathbf{X}$ is a Toeplitz matrix. If $h$...
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2answers
429 views

What is the difference between y[n] and y(k) (using square brackets)?

Can I modify y[n] = αy[n-1] + x[n] the same way I would do it with y(k) --> Y(z)? I need H(z), but I don't know what is the difference between using (k), and (n). I often encountered [k] notation, ...
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1answer
57 views

A question about Fourier transformation

Hello, this is my first time actually asking in stackexchange. I am a computer engineering student and currently i am doing a linear system course (i don't really know how this is equivalent in ...
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3answers
1k views

How to Prove a System Is Invertible?

what i know is that for a system to be invertibel it should be one-one , but I am confused that if i am given a transfer function of a LTI system how can I prove or verify if it is invertible. ...
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1answer
45 views

Reconstructed output mismatch for LTI system

I have a system with measured input (u) and output (y). I assume that this is an linear time-invariant (LTI) system and I want ...
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1answer
78 views

Computing response of LTI system in terms of its step response

I have solved a problem, Kindly help me in determing if I solved it correctly. I will post the question and my own working below. Problem My working
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4answers
3k views

Is the first derivative operation on a signal a causal system?

Please help me sort this issue out. Consider a system whose output $y(t)$ is the first derivative of the input signal $x(t)$. We can write the first derivative of an input signal as follows: $$y(t)...
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1answer
87 views

How to detect algebraic loop in a system

I came across a system (screen below) that looks like it should result in a algebraic loop, but when writing the equations using the Z-transform, it obviously does not (calculation below too). But I ...
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1answer
30 views

Why does the Y component in YCbCr represent luma/intensity?

As far as I know, the RGB to YCbCr conversion is just a linear transformation, yet the Y channel successfully captures the intensity value of each pixel. How? In other words, where do the following ...
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1answer
58 views

confused in difference between calculations of convolution and multiplication?

How are two signals multiplied? And how is it different from convolving two signals?? I have read the above question on dsp stack exchange and i also tried it in my matlab , code is as follow: ...
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1answer
30 views

Is it possible to use k-means algorithm with just one vector

Suppose I have a vector $X = (x_1, x_2 , . . . ,x_n)$, $x_i$ is the maximum of $X$ and $x_k$ is the minimum. Is it possible to use k-means algorithm to cluster the values in vector $X$ into two ...
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1answer
691 views

Output of an LTI system given its transfer function and input

Given the transfer function $$T(s) = \frac{100}{1 + \frac{s}{10^{6}}}$$ and the input $$v_i(t) = 0.1 \sin(100t)$$ find the output, $v_o(t)$. My approach was to use $v_o(t) = \mathcal{L^{-1}}\left\{T(...
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2answers
251 views

time invariance concept?

First of all ,please let me know?Is cosine time invariant or time variant? If latter is the case then if a time varying input like cos is given to a time invariant system,how will it behave? I have a ...
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1answer
169 views

Cost function for LTI system identification

I am currently reading and trying to understand a paper (Kulkarni and Colburn, 2004) that utilizes system identification methods to approximate head-related transfer functions. The general approach ...
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0answers
279 views

Region of convergence of transfer function

I posted this question Mathematics SE and got no answer so I have posted it here. I learned in my signal processing class that an LTI system can be defined using a linear constant coefficient ...
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1answer
207 views

Why is the ROC of Laplace transform independent of imaginary part of s?

An integral is defined as converging if it yields a finite value upon application of limits of integration. It is divergent otherwise. Now sticking to the mathematical notation of Laplace transform, ...
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1answer
44 views

Equivalence of difference equation with system of difference equations

I have this system and tried to write down its difference equation as follows $$ y[n] = b_0v[n] + b_1v[n-1]\\ v[n] = x[n] - a_1v[n-1] $$ I was asked to prove that the system can be ...
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1answer
120 views

Consider the integrator and check for time invariance

I'm trying to check the following system for for time-invariance. $$ y(t) = \int_0^t x(\lambda) d\lambda$$ Please explain me why it is time-invariant.
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1answer
100 views

confusion in time invariance?

I am trying to learn shift invariance(time invariance) and i came across a function/system $$y(t)=3x(t)+2\cos(\pi t/3)$$ I am confused.If it was alone 3x,it should be definitely time invariant(i ...
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2answers
413 views

Contradiction while using the convolution sum for a non-LTI system

In a recent quiz, we were given the following problem: The cascaded LTI systems $\mathcal{T}_1$ and $\mathcal{T}_2$ respectively have impulse responses $h_1[n]=\delta[n+3]$ and $h_2[n]=\delta[5−n]$....
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2answers
114 views

Confusion in linearity?

I am studying linear systems from the book "Signals and Systems Laboratory with MATLAB". I have performed an example on MATLAB myself in this regard. Code is as follow: ...
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0answers
16 views

Range of updated/new time axis after upsampling? [closed]

I am reading the book "Signals and systems laboratory with MATLAB" by Alex Palamides and I am reading system properties on pg 154 of the book but I am confused about an example shown in attached photo....
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2answers
260 views

Why can convolution only be applied to compute the output of a linear filter?

We apparently cannot compute the output of a bilateral filter (BF) using convolution (with the image) because the BF is a non-linear filter. In general, why can convolution only be applied to compute ...
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2answers
39 views

System Response Terminology

If I have a system specified by $$P(D)y(t)=Q(D)x(t)$$ and I specify initial conditions $y(0^-)=a, \ y'(0^-)=b,\ x(0^-)=c$ does the term $x(0^-)=c$ correspond to the zero state response or zero ...
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1answer
201 views

confused in practical example of shift invariance?

I am reading book of w smith ,"The scientist and engineer guide to digital signal processing" 2 edition I am trying to understand topic of shift invariance from theory given on pg 92 I have attached ...
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1answer
172 views

How does one describe the “frequency response” of a mixer?

Suppose one uses a vector network analyzer to measure the $S_{21}$ parameter of an RF mixer over a frequency range. Would it be appropriate to call this the “frequency response” of the mixer? I find ...
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1answer
93 views

What does this notation $g(x) = S\{\delta(t) \}(x)$ mean?

What does this notation mean $g(x) = S\{\delta(t) \}(x)$ mean, where $S$ is a "system", $\delta(t)$ is the impulse function and $g(x)$ the output function of the system? I am really not familiar with ...
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3answers
531 views

Causal unstable system turn into stable anticausal?

I would appreciate it very much if someone would be able to provide some clarity, help or comment on this problem. I have been reading several papers on time series identification such as https://www....
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1answer
407 views

Higher-order moment of output of LTI system

Assume a very simple LTI system. Assume $x$ is white Gaussian i.i.d. with variance $\sigma^2$. The output variance is straightforward to obtain. For example, for a continuous-time system: $$\mbox{...
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1answer
227 views

Can all systems be described by differential/difference equations?

All LCCODEs (linear, constant-coefficient ordinary differential equation) with initial rest conditions describe causal LTI systems (is this a correct statement?) Is the converse true, i.e. can all ...
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212 views

Eigen Function of Linear Time Invariant (LTI) System

Whenever I try to find the derivation of eigen signal of a LTI system, they always start with assumption that the input signal is complex exponential. Is there any other way to prove that this is the ...
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1answer
65 views

Is the system $y[n]=x[n]+2=T\{x[n]\}$ an LTI-System?

Is the system $y[n]=x[n]+2=T\{x[n]\}$ an LTI-System? Linearity: $ \alpha \cdot T\{x_1[n] \} + \beta \cdot T\{x_2[n] \} = T\{\alpha \cdot x_1[n]\ + \beta \cdot x_2[n] \} \\\alpha \cdot (x_1[n]+2) + \...

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