Questions tagged [linear-systems]

A linear system operates on inputs with only linear operators so the response to a complex input can be analysed as the sum of the response to a set of simpler inputs. This mathematical property makes the analysis of linear systems much simpler than non-linear systems where this summation or superposition does not hold. Linear systems are generally further classified as time invariant, meaning that there characteristics do not change over time.

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497 views

Ideal BandPass Filter

Let suppose x(t)=$\sum\limits_{k=-∞}^∞ R(t-kT)$ $R(t) = \begin{cases}1 &[0,2T] \\ 0 & \text{otherwise} \end{cases}$ x(t) is the input to an ideal bandpass filter with $\text{BandWidth} = \...
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13k views

System Properties; Linear, Causal, Time-Invariant, Stable?

I know the answers of the below question but I dont know why, except linear, could you explain the rest? Small tick: correct, small tick with dash incorrect answer.
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1answer
161 views

LTI system output

I compute the output of a LTI system, can someone tell me if my answer is right..? and help me with my others questions? The impulse response is: $h(n) = \left(\frac{1}{2}\right)^nu(n)$ , entry is $x(...
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3answers
148 views

Fit a line pattern on curve with unknown number of points

I've got a sample curve which ends theoretically with decreasing exponential. The curve end falls into noise. The sample points are given in log scale. What I want to do, is to find and fit the linear ...
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1answer
2k views

Do Causal Discrete-time systems have proper transfer functions?

In the case of continuous-time systems, if the system is causal, its Laplace transfer function is strictly proper (the degree of the numerator is less than the degree of the denominator). Is this ...
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2answers
403 views

Can I see from the PSD if a system is a LTI system?

I am studying the meaning of the power spectral density (PSD) and I am wondering whether I can see from the PSD of the input signal and output signal if a system is a LTI system?
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2answers
106 views

Is this HW question even valid? (linear systems)

The question is: Are the following systems linear time invariant? $y(t)=x(t)$, with $x(t)=u(t)$ (unit step function) $y[n]=x[n]$, with $x[n]=\delta[n]$ (Dirac delta function) The reason I am asking ...
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1answer
3k views

Is digital up and down sampling linear/causal/time-invariant?

So I am trying to determine whether the process of up sampling (zero padding) and downsampling are linear, causal and/or time-invariant. Based on some resources I found online, I am under the ...
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1answer
257 views

How do I take the real part of this bandpass filter system's output?

I'm stuck on a final step in this problem. Essentially, there are the two systems above, which we'll call System 1 (Fig. 4.26, with ideal lowpass $H(jw)$) and System 2 (with $H_1(jw)$). The question ...
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4answers
377 views

Does instability make an otherwise LTI system nonlinear (or time-variant)?

I am spinning this question off from the question from johnny. Matt L. and I have had directly opposite conclusions to johnny's question. I want to decouple the question from issues of causality and ...
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1answer
160 views

How to periodically estimate states of a LTI if the output is measured irregularly?

How can I periodically estimate the states of a discrete linear time-invariant system in the form $$\dot{\vec{x}}=\textbf{A}\vec{x}+\textbf{B}\vec{u}$$ $$\vec{y}=\textbf{C}\vec{x}+\textbf{D}\vec{u} $$...
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3answers
435 views

Is this system linear?

I have this system: $$ y[n] = -\frac{1}{2} x[n+2] - y[n+1] $$ I have no idea how to prove if the system is linear or not, because, it depends on future outputs... Thanks for the help
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2answers
5k views

Checking linearity/time-invariance etc. for recursive system

I'm familiar with the general methodology for checking if a system is linear: Define output $y_1[n]$ for input $x_1[n]$, define output $y_2[n]$ for input $x_2[n]$ Define $x_3[n] = ax_1[n] + bx_2[n]$ ...
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1answer
1k views

Natural, Forced and Total System Response - Time domain Analysis of DT

I am a self-learner of DSP by reading related books. While reading Time domain Analysis of DT (Discrete Time) system, I suddenly got introduced to difference equation representing a system. It then ...
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4answers
14k views

Time variant and Time Invariant Systems

I was trying to solve the below system is a Time variant or Time Invariant System: $y(n)=nx^{2}(n)$ Now for a system to be time invariant the system property should be : ...
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2answers
2k views

What Are Some Examples of Applications of LTI Systems

I'm giving a lecture on LTI systems. I encountered some questions: for a discrete LTI system H with impulse response h, is the system applied on signal x(t) equals x*h - normal discrete convolution ...
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0answers
51 views

Low dimensional system identification algorithms

I'm a physics Phd student and just have a self-taught knowledge about lti-systems. After a while I found out that several techniques such as heat capacity or thermal-conductance measurements can be ...
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3answers
84 views

Introduction to Clustering and Classification of Linear Sequence

I'm a programmer/engineer that is getting into developing prototype wearable technology. I would like to be in a position to interpret raw accelerometer data and categorised the data into activities ...
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2answers
1k views

Impulse response of the inverse system to the backward difference

I'm currently stuck on a problem. I have a DT LTI system $\mathcal{T}$ that depicts the first backward difference: $$y[n] = \mathcal{T} \{ {x[n] \} } = x[n] - x[n-1]$$ Its impulse response is ...
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1answer
215 views

Compute output of a LTI system

Is it possible to compute the output from one linear time invariant system which unit impulse sequence is: $$h(n) = \left(\frac{1}{3}\right)^nu(n)$$ and the entry in the system is: $$x(n)=u(n)-u(n-...
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1answer
6k views

How to find the output of a system with the unit-step response and the input?

Convolution is used to find the output when the input and the impulse response is known. I am curious if there is a similar operator, like convolution, or a method that can determine the output of a ...
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1answer
5k views

How to determine if a system is LTI?

If the difference equation that defines the DT system is, $$z[n] = (1-x[n]) + (1-y[n]) $$ How can we determine in the system is LTI or not when: $x[n]$ is the input $y[n]$ is the input both are ...
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1answer
706 views

First-order low pass filter with bounded derivative

Given a function $x(t)$ and a first order low-pass filter $\frac{dy}{dt} = \frac{1}{\alpha} (x(t) - y(t))$, is there a way to choose $\alpha$ analytically such that the derivative of $y(t)$ is bounded,...
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2answers
382 views

Causality of Linear Phase Filter

If a digital LTI filter has phase response on the form $arg[H(e^{jw})] = -\alpha\omega$, what could one say about it's causality (and consequently, the causality of it's impulse response)? Also is ...
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1answer
184 views

Conceptual Question from Signal Processing - Impulse Response and AR Coefficients

In continuation to the previous question Conceptual questions from signal processing I have a doubt which is: Consider an Autoregressive model (AR(2)): $$ y(t) = ay(t-1) + by(t-2) $$ and a FIR (...
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1answer
109 views

Linear classification and overlapping problem reduction

I am study linear classification(Y=aX+b) But it is still weakness that is overlapping problem. Could you suggest to me how to reduce overlapping problem in linear classification or how to find these ...
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1answer
232 views

Issues in generating AR model with a constraint

I am new to the topic of system identification and looking for a large Autoregressive (AR) model. Can anybody point out a large stable AR model which has more than 2 coefficients AND there should be a ...
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1answer
71 views

Is the following system LTI (finite speed of signal propagation)?

I wonder if the following acoustic system is i) considered to be linear time-invariant, and ii) if it is fully described by it's frequency response? A speaker produces waves at the input location of ...
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1answer
3k views

Relationship between Discrete Deconvolution and Toeplitz Matrices

I have 2 vectors, $a$ & $c$, both of length M. I know they are related by $a*b=c$. My goal is to recover $b$. Obviously $b=$deconv$(c,a)$. I am only interested in the first M elements of the ...
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0answers
524 views

Coefficient Cancelation on Particular Solution

I am stuck on a problem about finding the complete solution of a Discrete Linear System by using the parametrization $y_{c}(n) = y_{h}(n) + y_{p}(n)$ where $y_{h}(n)$ and $y_{p}(n)$ are, respectively, ...
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2answers
156 views

Impulse Response with non-delayed feedback

I've been trying to solve a Discrete LTI System problem where the overall impulse response of the following System, whose input and output sequences are, respectively, $x(n)$ and $y(n)$, has to be ...
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1answer
4k views

How to calculate the zero state response?

In the following question and answer I kind of get it how it is calculated at surface but I don't get it fully. Can someone please explain the answer in depth?
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2answers
2k views

Criteria to distinguish FIR and IIR filters from difference equation?

What criteria should be used to safely decide if it is an IIR filter or FIR filter from a difference equation? FIR filter are always stable, meaning all poles are inside the unit circle AND have pole-...
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6answers
2k views

Why do we always characterize a LTI system by its impulse response?

Why do we always characterize a LTI system by its impulse response and not by another response, like the step response? What does the impulse response have that is so special?
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2answers
200 views

Can I construct a linear system so that it results in a moving average?

I've just learned about linear systems and impulse response functions. I know that in a linear system consisting of $h_1[k]$ and $h_2[k]$, the impulse response of the system is $h_1[k] \ast h_2[k]$. ...
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3answers
1k views

What's the Difference between Convolution Kernel and Point Spread Function in the Context of Image Convolution?

When you use the deconvolution method to make the blurry image sharper, you will have to estimate the Point Spread Function. Is there a difference between this PSF and an image kernel? Second ...
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1answer
313 views

The impulse response, $h(t)$, of a system

I have this differential equation $$ y''(t) + y'(t) + y(t) = x(t) - 3x'(t) $$ I found the system response of the system: $$ H(f) = \frac{1 - 6\pi fj}{(2\pi fj)^2 +2\pi fj+1} $...
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3answers
241 views

Deconvolution (Linear Convolution)with an Under Determined System of Equations?

If I have a measured signal $\mathbf{y}$ which is the result of the true signal $\mathbf{x}$ convolved with another function (linear and not circular convolution), I always seem to get an ...
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0answers
276 views

Solving linear system and find impulse response

I have this linear system that is defined by the differential equation $$ y''(t) + 4y'(t) + 5y(t) = 2x(t) + 3x'(t) $$ with x(t) the input and y(t) the output. I'm asked to find two things:...
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1answer
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Convolution of a signal by itself properties [closed]

I'm studying for a test and I can't really explain this question very well. If we convolve a signal by itself, will it have the same properties (time-invariant, linear, stable, casual)? I know how ...
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4answers
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Are complex exponentials the only eigenfunctions of LTI systems?

Is there an example of an eigenfunction of a linear time invariant (LTI) system that is not a complex exponential? Justin Romberg's Eigenfunctions of LTI Systems says such eigenfuctions do exist, but ...
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3answers
946 views

Is there a way to obtain the impulse response of a discrete system by just knowing it's response to the discrete unit step function?

In continuous time it was possible; $$ u(t){\longrightarrow} \boxed{\quad\textrm{system}\quad} {\longrightarrow} y(t)\implies \delta(t)=\frac{du(t)}{dt}{\longrightarrow}\boxed{\quad\textrm{system}\...
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1answer
94 views

What filter is better with -1/3 2/3 -1/3 or with -1/4 1/2 -1/4 coefficients?

Professor asked me what filter is better -1/3 2/3 -1/3 or -1/4 1/2 -1/4, the answer was second. But what those coefficients means? It was during discussion of linear filter but i'm not sure was it ...
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1answer
2k views

Causal systems - Paradox? Confusion of definition?

For a system such that $y[n]=\cos(x[n])$, I'd like to determine whether the system is causal or not. Definition 1: A system is causal if and only if the output $y[n]$ is a function of a linear ...
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1answer
280 views

Determining linearity, causality, memory, and time invariability from a picture of the signal

So, this is a picture of saccadic eye movement reflected by an EOG. How can I determine if the eye movement system is linear, causal, memoryless, and time invariant from this displayed waveform? ...
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3answers
1k views

Sum of Sine and Cosine with Random Phase as LTI System

I have the following system: Where $ {H}_{1} \left( f \right) = {H}_{2} \left( f \right) $ and $ \theta \sim U[0, 2\pi]$ independent of any other factor in the system. Given the input is identical, ...
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1answer
91 views

Choosing inverse Z-transform equation, given that $|a|<1$

Given that $|a|<1$, then which of those inverse-Z-transform equations are we to use? I am leaning towards the first because (as I understand it), $z$ is merely a complex number that is evaluated ...
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1answer
124 views

Ideas on Matrix Factorization / Transformations for $ {L}_{1} $ Minimization

I am starting with a typical $\ell_1$ basis pursuit problem: $$ \min_{\mathbf{x}} \Vert \mathbf{x} \Vert_1 \quad \mathrm{s.t.} \quad \Vert \mathbf{ERx} - \mathbf{y} \Vert_2 \leq \epsilon, $$ where $\...
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5answers
99k views

What Are Linear and Circular Convolution?

I have some basic understanding of signals and convolution. As far as I know it shows the similarities of two signals. Could I get some explanation in plain English of: what are the linear and ...
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2answers
266 views

Situations where complexity is too big to exceed linearity and gaussianity

I'm studing about Kalman Filter and Particle Filter in multiple target tracking in computer vision (tracking pedestrians). Reading sientific papers I'm colliding with a lot of sentences like: The ...