Questions tagged [laplace-transform]

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Bilinear transformation confusion

Wikipedia says in bilinear transformation from \$s\$ domain to $z$ domain relation is $$\boxed{s \longleftarrow \frac{2}{T}\frac{z-1}{z+1}}$$ But here this relation is given like this $$\boxed{w=\...
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2answers
4k views

Why do poles in the left half of the S plane make a system stable?

A point on the S-plane (where $s=\sigma+j\omega$) represents a signal with a given frequency (given by the imaginary component) and which either decays, increases or stays stable (depending on the ...
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1answer
41 views

How can I translate what I have learnt in Transfer Functions to differential equations?

I have gone through the entirety of K. Ogata's Modern Control Engineering, and I do not understand how can I translate all the transfer function models into differential equations? For example, how ...
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1answer
477 views

Meaning and unit of frequency in Laplace (Fourier) transform

Imagine transfer function obtained by Laplace transform, for example: $G(s) = \dfrac{1}{s+1}$ Now, I would like to do some frequency analysis, so I replace the $s$ with $\omega i$ (let's consider ...
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1answer
63 views

Laplace of step and integration are same?

Why do we have Laplace transform of a step function and integrator is same. \begin{align} \mathcal L\left[u(t)\right] &= \frac 1s\\ \mathcal L \left[ \int dt\right] &= \frac 1s \end{align}...
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2answers
528 views

LTI system with Laplace transform

Given the input $$x(t)=u(t)$$ and the corresponding output signal measured as $$y(t)= 2 e^{-3t} u(t)$$ determine the impulse response $h(t)$. This what have done so far: $$ h(t)= \mathscr{L}^{-1} \...
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1answer
228 views

How is the simplified version of the Bromwich inverse Laplace transform integral derived?

I do not understand how the last equality is derived from the previous. Apparently the first term in the integral (involving $\mathrm{cos}$) is equivalent to the second (involving $\mathrm{sin}$)!! ...
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1answer
221 views

Impulse response of a continuous system sampled with zero-order hold

I've a continuous system $$F(s) = \frac{K}{Ts+1}.$$ I sample it with zero-order hold with sampling period $T_s$. The discrete system transfer function is $$ \begin{aligned} G(z) &= % \frac{z-1}{z}...
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2answers
67 views

Laplace Transform of $f(t+a), a>0$ where $f(t)$ is not periodic

For $a > 0$, is there any known representation of the Laplace transform of $f(t+a)$ in terms of the Laplace Transform of $f(t) $ Note: In my application, $f(t)$ is not a periodic function and the ...
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1answer
1k views

First derivative analog filter

I'm reading about fault detection via signal processing in time domain. One possibility is to check that first derivative of the signal is in some predefined bounds. The text says that to obtain the ...
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1answer
2k views

Find transfer function from root locus and step response diagram?

I am given the response of a step of magnitude of 3 and the root locus and I have to find the transfer function of the system. The function I find gives me the step response(magnitude of 3 again) of ...
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2answers
1k views

A question about the meaning of pole in time domain

Lets say I have a transfer function $H(s)$ of a system defined in $s$-domain as: $$H(s) = \frac{1}{s - (-1-j)}$$ So I conclude that the pole on the $s$-plane is where $s = 1+j$. So far so good. Now ...
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1answer
1k views

How can I plot a 3D graph of a given Laplace Transform of a function?

Let's say I have a function called $f(t)$ in time domain as: $$f(t) = \exp(-3t)\cos(5t)$$ And the Laplace transform of this function call it $F(s)$ becomes: $$F(s)=\frac{(s + 3)}{(s + 3)^2 + 25}$$ ...
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4answers
3k views

On the meaning of s-plane and it's link to a transfer function

Considering Fourier analysis and let's say I'm walking on the blue frequency axis in the below 3D plot from zero towards infinity: So each time I encounter a non zero blue bar, I check the frequency ...
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2answers
2k views

Laplace transform of product of signal and impulse train

I'm reading 'Discrete Time Control Systems' book by Ogata and came across a few statements (specifically, (3-1) and (3-2)) which I have not been able to understand. It is said that any continuous ...
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1answer
1k views

Causal Signal - Fourier Transform or Laplace Transform

I am dealing with a physics problem which is related to signal processing. The problem requires me to calculate the instantaneous force acting on a body which depends on some physical parameter $x$. ...
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1answer
54 views

Why do these 2 methods give different solutions?

I need to solve what is underlined in red for $x_i$, nut currently I'm interested in the right side of the equation only. On the left I sarted by doing the Laplace transform of $x_u'$ and $x_u$, and ...
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1answer
45 views

Laplace transform of $f\left(\frac{t - b}{a}\right)$

Consider the function $f\left(\frac{t - b}{a}\right)$. We want want to calculate its Laplace transform. There are two approaches: Firstly, let $g(t) = f\left(\frac ta\right)$. Then $\mathcal{L}\...
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1answer
332 views

How to find analytic description of filtered signal

I am looking for an exact analytic description of a filtered signal. I have an electronic circuit whose input is a monoexponential decay. First (1) the signal gets filtered by a simple RC-Lowpass. ...
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1answer
346 views

Control systems and convolution

I think i am not understanding the concept of convolution well. Lets say we are given a system impulse response in the S-domain, and we have implemented a controller $G_c(s)$ that will adjust the ...
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2answers
216 views

Feedback systems & oscillations

The transfer function of feedback system is: $$ \frac{V_{\rm out}}{V_{\rm in}} = \frac{A}{1+Af} $$ Where $A$ is the open loop gain, and $f$ is the feedback gain. Now for oscillation to happen, $Af$ ...
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2answers
1k views

Laplace Transform of Cosine, Poles and Mapping to Frequency Domain

I am trying to understand the connection between Laplace transform ($s$-plane), and frequency domain calculation. Let's take the Fourier transform of $\cos(\omega_0t)$, which equals to $\pi[\delta(\...
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1answer
192 views

Find state space model from transfer function

Let's suppose we have: G(s) = (s+1)/(s^2-2s+1) how can we find the state space representation of the transfer function: x_dot = x2 x2_dot = 2*x2-x1+u where u is an arbitrary input. I am very new ...
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1answer
3k views

Why does the separable filter reduce the cost of computing the operator?

A separable filter in image processing can be written as product of two more simple filters. Typically a 2-dimensional convolution operation is separated into 2 onedimensional filters. This reduces ...
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1answer
468 views

How can a system be unstable if $L(j\omega)$ is never exactly $-1$?

Say we have a linear system with unity feedback, with loop transfer function $L(j\omega)$. The closed-loop transfer function from reference to output is $T(j\omega) = \frac{Y(j\omega)}{R(\omega)}=\...
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0answers
66 views

Why are we still using Continuous Time Fourier Transform when we have Laplace Transform? [duplicate]

I've read that Laplace Transform is more versatile and can cover a broad range of signals compared to Continuous Time Fourier Transform. Then why are we still using Continuous Time Fourier Transform ?
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1answer
147 views

Laplace transform of averaging operator

I am studying dc-dc converter now. I got a problem with Laplace transform of the averaging operator as in the image below. Can anyone help me derive the Laplace transform result $G_{av}(s)$ as in the ...
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1answer
120 views

How to calculate the steady state response $y_{ss}(t)$ of a LTI system given the Laplace transform $Y(s)$?

I am given the Laplace transform of the output of a LTI system: $$Y(s) = \frac{1}{s((s+2)^2+1)}$$ Asked is what the steady state response $y_{ss}(t)$ would be. I think that $y_{ss}(t) = \lim_{t\to\...
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3answers
836 views

Why are all real frequencies located on the Imaginary axis of the s-plane. I'd like to understand intuitively why this is true?

so my question is the following : "Why are all real frequencies located on the imaginary axis of the s-plane. I'd like to understand intuitively why this is true?" My guess would be that any "real" ...
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3answers
2k views

Why Fourier transform is not sufficient and we have to use Laplace transform? [duplicate]

Is there an easy way to explain the motivation behind the use of Laplace transform instead of Fourier transform? Isn't that any periodic function can be represented by sines and cosines? - Why to ...
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1answer
740 views

Converting poles/zeros to differential/difference equation solutions

Does anyone have a reference handy on how to convert poles and zeros of a system to differential/difference equations. Here is a quick draft of math, but I am not sure if it's at all correct. First, ...
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2answers
1k views

How to modify an LTI differential equation to be acausal or anti-causal?

I'm trying to wrap my head around causality in LTI-systems. Considering continuous time only, I'm happy with the fact that the system is causal iff the impulse response function $h(t)=0$ for $t<0$. ...
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3answers
352 views

Can use of Fourier transform be minimized completely with the help of Laplace and Z transform?

Fourier transform has different types like continuous Fourier transform (CFT), Discrete time Fourier transform (DTFT) and Discrete Fourier transform ( DFT). CFT can be used in case of continuous ...
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1answer
6k views

What are the advantages and disadvantages of Laplace transform over Z transform?

Laplace transform for continuous signal $x(t)$ is given by $$ X(s) = \int\limits_{-\infty}^{+\infty} x(t) e^{-s t} dt. \quad (1) $$ Z-transform for discrete signal $x(n)$ is given by $$ X(z) = \...
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1answer
949 views

LTI system response to periodic input

I'm trying to find the zero-state response (ZSR) of an LTI system to a one sided periodic input, like a square wave that is equals to zero for $t < 0$. I know that I can use the Fourier series of ...
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1answer
5k views

Inverse Laplace transform Using Inversion Formula

Use the complex inversion formula to calculate the inverse Laplace transform $f(t)$ of the following Laplace transform: $$F_L (s) = \frac{1}{(s+2)(s^2 +4)}.$$ When the region of convergence is: ...
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3answers
2k views

What's the meaning of a complex zero/pole?

I have been studying signal processing and control for a while now, and I use Laplace and Fourier transforms almost everyday. Also another tools such as Nyquist or Bode plots. However, I had never ...
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3answers
4k views

Is $y[k] = y[k-1] + x[k]$ an integrator?

It looks exactly like an integrator to me. Since $$y[k] = y[k-1]+x[k] = y[k-2] + x[k-1] +x[k] = \sum{x}$$ Applying the Z-transform gives \begin{align} Y(z) &= Y(z)\cdot z^{-1} + X(z)\\ \...
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1answer
66 views

Differentials - Differences: Non causality in the system

I'm still learning DSP and referring to Oppenheim video lectures. In that lectures, differential difference equation is obtained for IIR filter design, in Lecture 14. $$\mathcal{L}[\frac{\mathrm d}{\...
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1answer
11k views

Relation between Laplace and Fourier transforms

I know that $\ X_L(s=j\omega)=X_F(\omega)$ if $\ x(t)$ is one sided and absolutely integrable and hence, imaginary axis of the Laplace transform is the Fourier transform. But Fourier transform also ...
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2answers
2k views

DFT/FFT Transfer function

I want play and record a sine sweep. When i have both signals the recorded one and the send one i can create a Transferfunction. That is what i know so far. $$ H_0 = \frac{OUT}{IN} = \frac{Y}{X} $$ ...
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2answers
1k views

Question regarding transfer functions and prerequsities for finding the real impulse response

The transfer function of a system is given by: $$\large H(s) = \huge \frac{V_{out}(s)}{V_{in}(s)}$$ In digital domain the principle is of course the same, just replace laplace transform with z-...
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2answers
757 views

Response of a system to a step function (heaviside)

I'd like to compute the response to a step function of a electrical/thermal system. Generally I can "easily" compute the transfer function $H$: $$H(\omega) = \frac{V_{out}(\omega)}{V_{in}(\omega)}$$ ...
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1answer
100 views

Finding Laplace Transform without ROC

While studying Laplace Transform i found that region of convergence (ROC) is important because for some problems we have same Laplace Transform but different ROC helps us to take correct inverse ...
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1answer
269 views

Confusion in proof of Inverse Laplace Transform

For the proof of inverse Laplace transform, we change the integral from $\omega$ to $s$. I want to know the reason why we need to change the integral?
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0answers
217 views

Laplace Transform of $-e^{-at}u(-t)$

I have found a problem in applying Laplace Transform to $-e^{-at}u(-t)$ I am doing these steps: $$ = - \int_{-\infty}^{+\infty} e^{-at}u(-t) e^{-st}dt$$ $$ = - \int_{-\infty}^{0} e^{-at} e^{-st}dt$$...
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2answers
73 views

Why we take Laplace Transform of functions which converged using Fourier Transform

There are several functions for which we know that Fourier Transform will exist but still we calculate its Laplace Transform. Can I know the reason why we need to take Laplace transform for which we ...
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1answer
509 views

Questions related to Laplace Transform

While studying Laplace transform, I also some questions which I want to understand: a) We used to say that Laplace transform include both real and imaginary part whereas in Fourier transform we ...
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1answer
126 views

Confusion in basics of Laplace Transform

I have few confusions while starting Laplace Transform. So far I have studied, Fourier series and Fourier Transform. The basic difference which I found from different books is Fourier Transform is ...
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1answer
172 views

Can I use Fourier transforms instead of Laplace transforms (analyzing RC circuit)?

I don't study electrical engineering or something related but I was assigned a problem on transfer functions, impulse responses, and in general, everything related to this post. (Specifically, I'm ...