# Questions tagged [integration]

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### Integral over power spectral density

The Wikipedia entry on Spectral Density (PSD) has one confusing line: Summation or integration of the spectral components yields the total power (for a physical process) or variance (in a statistical ...
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1 vote
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### Convolution Integral of Harmonic Signal (Cosine) with the Sinc Function

I was asked to show that this convolution integral results in the answers also given in the image. Not quite sure how to approach this integral, everything seems to be coupled together. Does anyone ...
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### integration property of fourier series

Please help me sort this issue out. The integration property in Fourier series is as follows: So, for proving the above property, i took this approach: This is where my doubt is. Some books and ...
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### I am trying to convert a signal into another unit, but the error keeps increasing during each iteration

I have a signal, A, and I want to convert it into another unit by using a formula: $$s_i = \frac{(1+x_i)}{(1-x_i)}\cdot s_{i-1}$$ where $x_i$ is each sample of ...
1 vote
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### Absolute and Square Summability & Integration of sinc function

Is the sinc function both absolutely summable (L1 norm for Continuous time signals and l1 norm for Discrete time signals) and square summable (L2 norm for Continuous time signals and l2 norm for ...
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### Area under waveform in t-domain including 2 delta functions

question: my attempt: $(a)$ $\displaystyle\int_{-\infty}^{\infty} f(t) dt=2 u (t)+r(t)-r(t-T)+Ku(t-T)$ then we draw it's diagram and found it was unbounded so,we doubt how area can be zero for any ...
312 views

### Reconstructing band-limited signal's integral from discrete samples [closed]

I'm thinking about building an e-bike consumed power meter. I'm planning on sampling a low-pass filtered current sensing and voltage analog signals on the battery to e-bike controller connection, ...
• 237
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### z-Transform Methods: Definition vs. Integration Rule

The definition of the z-transform is defined as $z = e^{sT}$ where "s" is complex frequency for continuous-time systems and "T" is the sample period. Why are rules such as the forward rectangular ...
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### How to model state space for complex valued system correctly in SIMULINK (MATLAB)?

When trying to use the default state-space model block, if there is a complex number valued in the matrices, there will be an error To resolve that, firstly I need to look at pseudo reference model ...
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1 vote
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### Difference between these two integrators

I am an electrical engineering student but new to digital signal processing. However while searching references for my senior project I came across following two different discrete integrator blocks ...
• 113
1 vote
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### Rocketry : Combine two accelerometers to reduce noise?

I am designing an IMU for an experimental rocket. I'll be using the BN055 9DOF that has sensor fusion - orientation quaternion - and gravity compensation. My main goal is speed computation, and I was ...
1 vote
33 views

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### Causality as applied to capacitors

This question stems from a point of confusion that I still have about the causality, linearity, and time-invariance in LCCDEs. I wanted to use the capacitor as an example. Consider a capacitor with ...
1 vote
85 views

### How to model a generic low frequency signal?

I'm trying to apply Fourier analysis to a specific problem I have. I have essentially an integral like the following $$\int_{\Omega} f(t) g(t) dt$$ And I'm trying to assume that $g$ is a narrow ...
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1 vote
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### The essential bandwidth of a rectangular pulse

The problem is to estimate the essential bandwidth of a rectangular pulse $$g(t) = \Pi(t/T),$$ Where the essential bandwidth must contain at least $90\%$ of the pulse ...
15k views

### Removing drift from integration of accelerometer data

I am trying to get a positional data from the accelerometer data using the following steps: Re-zero the accelerometer value Removing mean from accelerometer value First integration of accelerometer ...
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### Cancel Drift after numerical integration

I am trying to integrate angular acceleration obtained from a set of accelerometers positioned specifically at opposite corners of a cube, based on the paper EcoIMU: A Dual Triaxial-Accelerometer ...
1 vote
220 views

### Graph of $[u(\tau)-u(\tau-4)]\cdot[u(t-\tau)-u(t-\tau-4)]$

I'm trying to visualize what would the following signal be like $$[u(\tau)-u(\tau-4)]\cdot[u(t-\tau)-u(t-\tau-4)]$$ Consider that $\tau$ is the independent variable here, $t$ is the shift variable. ...
217 views

### Why is $\int^\infty _{0^-}\delta(t-nT)e^{-st}dt = e^{-nsT}$?

I'm currently in the process of going over the $\mathcal Z$-transform and more specifically its derivation. I understand and I am able to follow it up until the final step whereby involving the ...
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### Double Integrating Gaussian Noise

My question has to do with integrating gaussian noise. Let us assume we have samples of discrete gaussian white noise with mean $\mu = 0$ and variance $\sigma_{th}^2$. These noise samples are passed ...
400 views

### Mutual information of $\infty$-PAM

I'm trying to compute using matlab the mutual information for an $\infty$-PAM input (the limit of a very dense PAM constellation) for a range of snr and I got stuck. I'm working with a real-valued ...
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### Integration of square wave

trying to program an integrator. My input is a square wave and my expected output should be a triangle wave. However, whenever I pass it through my low pass filter algorithm (just a 2nd order ...
• 209
1 vote
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### Evaluating the inverse $\mathcal Z$-transform on the unit circle

I am trying to understand the math. The inverse $\mathcal Z$-transform is given by: $$x[n] = \displaystyle\frac{1}{j2\pi} \int_cX(z)z^{n-1}dz$$ where $\displaystyle \int_c$ is a contour integral. ...
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### Integral of an upsampled signal, without actually resampling it

Given a signal X which is sampled at a certain frequency. The value we currently compute is given as the integral of the upsampled signal. Thus: Y = X but 100 times upsampled, by means of sinc ...
1 vote
Here is my task: Find inverse z transform of $X(z)=\frac{1}{2-3z}$, if $|z|>\frac{2}{3}$ I need to find it using definition formula, $x(n)=\frac{1}{2\pi j}\oint_{C}^{ } X(z)z^{n-1}dz$. How can I ...