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Questions tagged [integration]

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2answers
50 views

z-Transform Methods: Definition vs. Integration Rule

The definition of the z-transform is defined as $z = e^{sT}$ where "s" is complex frequency for continuous-time systems and "T" is the sample period. Why are rules such as the forward rectangular ...
0
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1answer
29 views

How to model state space for complex valued system correctly in SIMULINK (MATLAB)?

When trying to use the default state-space model block, if there is a complex number valued in the matrices, there will be an error To resolve that, firstly I need to look at pseudo reference model ...
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1answer
37 views

Difference between these two integrators

I am an electrical engineering student but new to digital signal processing. However while searching references for my senior project I came across following two different discrete integrator blocks ...
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0answers
28 views

Rocketry : Combine two accelerometers to reduce noise?

I am designing an IMU for an experimental rocket. I'll be using the BN055 9DOF that has sensor fusion - orientation quaternion - and gravity compensation. My main goal is speed computation, and I was ...
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0answers
26 views

Estimating a discrete summer with constrained input bandwidth

I have a discrete-time system which can be described as: $$ Y_m = \sum_{r=-N_g}^{R-1+N_g} c_r x[R(m-1) + r] $$ The unknowns are $c_k$ but I know that they have the following approximate behavior: $$...
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1answer
23 views

The computation procedure problem of calculating the BER

Here is the processing of calculating the BER average \begin{align} P_e &=\int^\infty_0Q(\sqrt{2uSNR})e^{-u}du \\ & =\frac{1}{\sqrt{2\pi}}\int^{\infty}_0\int^\infty_{\sqrt{2uSNR}}e^{-\frac{t^...
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2answers
325 views

Why is the Fourier transform valid only for absolutely integrable signals?

Why is the Fourier transform valid only for absolutely integrable signals? For example, why can't we do the Fourier transform of exponential order functions?
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1answer
53 views

Finding the output of a system where the input is a sum of complex exponentials

So, I have to find $H\{ x(t)\})$ (which is an LTI system), where $$x(t) = \sum_{k=0}^{\infty} a_ke^{ \ jw_kt}$$ and where the impulse response of the system is given by: $$h(t) = \frac{\delta(t+\tau)-\...
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3answers
93 views

Causality as applied to capacitors

This question stems from a point of confusion that I still have about the causality, linearity, and time-invariance in LCCDEs. I wanted to use the capacitor as an example. Consider a capacitor with ...
1
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1answer
52 views

How to model a generic low frequency signal?

I'm trying to apply Fourier analysis to a specific problem I have. I have essentially an integral like the following $$ \int_{\Omega} f(t) g(t) dt $$ And I'm trying to assume that $g$ is a narrow ...
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2answers
87 views

Deriving the integration property of the Fourier Transform

I want to derive the property of the Fourier Transform that states that if $X(j\omega) = \mathcal{F} (x(t))$ then $$\mathcal{F} \left( \int_{-\infty}^{t} x(\tau) \mathrm{d} \tau \right) = \frac{1}{j\...
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1answer
57 views

How to differentiate a time domain signal in the complex transfer function?

I have an input-output data set where the input is current and the output velocity. I am interested in the transfer function from current to acceleration though. So suppose: $H(s) = \frac{I(s)}{V(s)}$ ...
3
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1answer
61 views

Dimensional analysis of integrated white noise process

This question is somewhat related to this post. Let us consider we have a white noise current source $i_n(t)$, with a variance $\sigma_i^2$, and mean, $\mu_n=0$. Assume that this current is passed ...
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2answers
655 views

How to calculate the displacement from the measured acceleration data?

I have an acceleration data which is collected from a vehicle. I do also have a displacement measurement. I would like to calcuate the displacement vector from the measured acceleration data, but no ...
1
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1answer
131 views

How to convolve an arbitrary signal with a causal decaying exponential?

I need to simplify the following convolution $$x(t)\star [e^{-2t} u(t)]$$ where $u(t)$ is the unit step function. I'm very confused with this. Using the definition of convolution of continuous-time ...
3
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3answers
86 views

Derivative of delta function

I've come across the below. Can you please help me understand the proof for this? $$\int_{-\infty}^{\infty}x(t)\delta'(t-2.5)dt=-\frac{dx(t)}{dt}{\Big |}_{t=2.5}$$
1
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1answer
308 views

Differential Equation and Transfer Function of Multiple Summer Integrator Block Diagram

I've been working on this more than 5 hour, I know how to solve feedback, summer, but was not able to solve this one, I've tried to simplify it by choose A(i) to be the first output of first summer ...
0
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2answers
338 views

BIBO stability of $y(t)=\int_{-\infty}^{t}{x(\tau)d\tau}$

How can I prove that the LTI system with (output $y(t)$, input $x(t)$) $$y(t)=\int_{-\infty}^{t}{x(\tau)d\tau}$$ is BIBO (bounded-input/bounded output) stable?
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0answers
14 views

Autocorrelation of an ECB process

While I was reading through a content for Signal Processing, the formula for evaluating autocorrelation for an Equivalent Complex Baseband Stochastic Process is given as: I want to know how to write ...
0
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1answer
88 views

Amplitude value after a Discrete-Time integration calculation?

I am using Matlab block Discrete-Time Integrator on Simulink and I would like to know in advance, what output of that block regarding to its amplitude and the current sampling frequency would be. ...
4
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1answer
102 views

Numericaly computing an integral in MATLAB [closed]

I have the following integral $$\int_{-\infty}^{\infty} g(t-\tau) \, \mathrm d\tau$$ where $g(\cdot)$ is a known function, e.g., $g(t) = \sin(t)$, and I want to evaluate its value with MATLAB. How ...
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0answers
134 views

How use FIR filter for simulating an integral implemented using the trapezoidal integration?

Suppose I have this equation $$ \phi = \frac{60}{T^5} \int_0^T \left( T^2 - 6T \tau + 6\tau^2\right) y(t-\tau) d\tau - \frac{30 \alpha}{T^5} \int(T-\tau)^2\tau^2 u(t-\tau) d\tau $$ and I want to use ...
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1answer
472 views

Eigenfilters in Matalb [closed]

I have to implement an eigenfilter for an arbitrary frequency response in MATLAB. I have this algorithm: $N$ - order of the filter $M = N/2$ $c(\omega) ...
3
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1answer
109 views

Orthogonal signal generator using integer arithmetic

I have a problem with implementing an orthogonal signal generator (OSG) algorithm on a microcontroller using integer arithmetic. I use this algorithm for a single-phase phase-locked loop (PLL) ...
0
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2answers
184 views

Determining time variance of integrator

Say we have an integrator $y(t)= \int_{- \infty}^{t} x(t) dt$ It is incorrect to use the following method to determine if it is time variant/invariant? First, when we have input signal $x(t),$ $...
1
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1answer
114 views

Verlet integration first step

I'm trying to implement color-to-grayscale method from this paper. And they use Verlet's integration as: $$L^*(t+\Delta t)=\frac{F(t)}{m}\Delta t^2+2L^*(t)-L^*(t-\Delta t),$$ for computing new ...
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2answers
186 views

What does the $n$ do in $1/(j \omega)^n$

I'm currently working through a research paper on beam forming. In this paper a magnitude compensation is introduced to compensate for frequency dependency. Due to other calculations low frequencies ...
1
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1answer
78 views

Integrating over an image?

I am currently trying to implement the method described in this paper. In short we have a system of the form $a=B\times c$. Where $$a_i = \int d^3r \space w(r)f_i(r)t(r)\quad\text{and}\quad B_{ij} = ...
1
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1answer
530 views

The essential bandwidth of a rectangular pulse

The problem is to estimate the essential bandwidth of a rectangular pulse \begin{equation} g(t) = \Pi(t/T), \end{equation} Where the essential bandwidth must contain at least $90\%$ of the pulse ...
3
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1answer
2k views

Removing drift from integration of accelerometer data

I am trying to get a positional data from the accelerometer data using the following steps: Re-zero the accelerometer value Removing mean from accelerometer value First integration of accelerometer ...
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0answers
358 views

Filter and integrate

I have a bit of a strange question about numerical filtering and integrating. Given a numerical function, let us call it $f(x)$. I can compute it for different values of x, and create tabulated data, ...
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1answer
2k views

Cancel Drift after numerical integration

I am trying to integrate angular acceleration obtained from a set of accelerometers positioned specifically at opposite corners of a cube, based on the paper EcoIMU: A Dual Triaxial-Accelerometer ...
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0answers
122 views

The summation of sampling points in frequency domain and relation to the integral of the spectrum

Suppose $h_t$ is a zero padding of a $n$-dimensional vector $h'$, such that $h_i = h'_i$. Now assume that $\hat{h}$ is the Discrete time Fourier transform (DTFT) of $h_t$ and $\tilde{h}$ is the $n$-...
1
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1answer
99 views

Graph of $[u(\tau)-u(\tau-4)]\cdot[u(t-\tau)-u(t-\tau-4)]$

I'm trying to visualize what would the following signal be like $$[u(\tau)-u(\tau-4)]\cdot[u(t-\tau)-u(t-\tau-4)]$$ Consider that $\tau$ is the independent variable here, $t$ is the shift variable. ...
3
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2answers
173 views

Why is $\int^\infty _{0^-}\delta(t-nT)e^{-st}dt = e^{-nsT}$?

I'm currently in the process of going over the $\mathcal Z$-transform and more specifically its derivation. I understand and I am able to follow it up until the final step whereby involving the ...
0
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1answer
236 views

Double Integrating Gaussian Noise

My question has to do with integrating gaussian noise. Let us assume we have samples of discrete gaussian white noise with mean $\mu = 0$ and variance $\sigma_{th}^2$. These noise samples are passed ...
2
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1answer
183 views

Mutual information of $ \infty $-PAM

I'm trying to compute using matlab the mutual information for an $ \infty $-PAM input (the limit of a very dense PAM constellation) for a range of snr and I got stuck. I'm working with a real-valued ...
2
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2answers
777 views

Integration of square wave

trying to program an integrator. My input is a square wave and my expected output should be a triangle wave. However, whenever I pass it through my low pass filter algorithm (just a 2nd order ...
1
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1answer
92 views

Evaluating the inverse $\mathcal Z$-transform on the unit circle

I am trying to understand the math. The inverse $\mathcal Z$-transform is given by: $$x[n] = \displaystyle\frac{1}{j2\pi} \int_cX(z)z^{n-1}dz$$ where $\displaystyle \int_c$ is a contour integral. ...
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1answer
154 views

Integral of an upsampled signal, without actually resampling it

Given a signal X which is sampled at a certain frequency. The value we currently compute is given as the integral of the upsampled signal. Thus: Y = X but 100 times upsampled, by means of sinc ...
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1answer
763 views

Inverse z transform - contour integration

Here is my task: Find inverse z transform of $X(z)=\frac{1}{2-3z}$, if $|z|>\frac{2}{3}$ I need to find it using definition formula, $x(n)=\frac{1}{2\pi j}\oint_{C}^{ } X(z)z^{n-1}dz$. How can I ...
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1answer
94 views

Change of discrete summation to definite integral

The Exponential Fourier Series for a signal is written as, $$x(t) = \sum_{n=-\infty}^{\infty} X_n e^{jnw_0t}\tag{1}$$ and, Fourier Coefficient, $X_n$, is written as, $$X_n = \frac{1}{T} \int_{t_0}^{...
1
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1answer
354 views

Filter wrap-around to avoid dealing with settling time? Using a Butterworth

I've been using a Butterworth high pass filter to correct the low frequency distortion of an acceleration waveform integrated to a velocity waveform. I throw out a small number of the first data ...
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0answers
238 views

Why does my overlap-add integrator in frequency domain result in distorted signals?

With help from the dsp guide and DSP-Related, I tried to implement a leaky integrator in octave/matlab. It seems to work in general, but there are a few problems. So that's what I do: Calculate the ...
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0answers
140 views

Designing a practical integrator

One way to describe a practical integrator ("leaky integrator") is $$ H(s) = \frac{g R}{1 + sRC} $$ I am trying to understand how to choose the values $g$, $R$ and $C$ because in practice, I will ...
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2answers
1k views

How to compute the Fourier Transform of this ramp-like signal?

I have the following signal: and this as the solution to the problem: $$\begin{align} X(j\omega) &= \int_{-\infty}^{+\infty}x(t)e^{-j\omega t}dt \\ &= \int_0^\tau \frac{E}{\tau}t\; e^{-j\...
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1answer
3k views

Determine spectrum amplitudes for half-wave rectified sine

I am trying to learn how to solve a bunch of digital signal problems and I have trouble understanding the solutions provided by this book I'm using. Basically, this problem asks me to determine ...
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1answer
360 views

what are and why are sine and cosine modulated integrals used?

I have found the definition of the following formulas in a paper regarding active vibration control, where they are called sine and cosine modulated integrals. $y$ is measurement signal with a strong ...
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0answers
160 views

One of the best ways to numerically integrate a signal?

I need to get position $x$ (integration) from velocity $v$. One could use 1st order Euler integration as $x_{t+1} = x_t + \Delta v_t$ However, doing so leads to errors proportional to sampling time ...
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1answer
63 views

problem with Fourier transform

I am reading some paper, and I am having some trouble with some Fourier transform, Suppose that $F(\omega)$ is the Fourier transform of $f(x)$, i.e. where $$F(\omega)=\int_{-\infty}^{\infty}f(x)e^{-...