Questions tagged [infinite-impulse-response]

Infinite impulse response (IIR) is a property of signal processing systems.

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How do I prepare a input signal that consists continuous sinusoidal signals of two frequencies?

As the title suggests, how do I prepare a input signal that consists continuous sinusoidal signals of two frequencies in MATLAB?
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Resources for learning about filters from scratch?

Topic of filters is very important in signal processing So i want to learn about filters from scratch and then eventually reaching FIR and IIR filters I have some idea about low pass,high pass,band ...
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what rule has coefficients to follow for an IIR filter to be stable? [duplicate]

I'd like to play with IIR filters, but not by designing them with algorithm but rather play with the coefficients directly. i got a stability problem though, because of course IIR filters are ...
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Calculating IIR Filter gain at given frequency

Let's consider an IIR filter with transfer function: $H(z)$. Given the sampling frequency $F_s$ how can I calculate gain at say $F$ ? When I was dealing with analog systems when I wanted to calculate ...
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Direct form 1 filter equation for a biquad filter

In general, we all know that the direct form 1 equation for a biquad filter is given by $$y(n) = b_0x(n) + b_1x(n-1) + b_2x(n-2) - a_1y(n-1) - a_2y(n-2)$$ But when it comes to practical applications ...
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3 dB cut-off frequency of first-order IIR high-pass filter

As descipbed in this great answer (thank you Matt L.), the suggested exact formula was very precise. I need a first order high-pass with similar precision. EDIT: (clarification) The low-pass filter ...
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changing filtering “speed” (cutoff frequency) of an IIR filter knowing only its coefficients

i got an IIR filter bu I have only the coefficients. now i'd like to be able to change the filter characteristics of the low pass filter (the "cutoff" frequency) but all i got are a and b ...
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Coefficient Scaling of IIR filter to obtain unity gain response

I am designing a 2nd order IIR digital filter : My tf equation with coefficients is ...
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How to apply band-pass filter and get the filtered back from frequency to time domain in python?

I know this is basic for signal processing, but, I am not sure what is wrong about my approach. I have a signal that behaves as damped sine signal with a sampling frequency of 5076Hz and 15,000 number ...
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calculate fft convolution for an LTI system given its input (in time domain) and its poles and zeros

I have considered taking the fft (MatLab) of the input (x) and create frequency bins for the first half (problems with an odd number of samples, tried solution zero paddings) and evaluate the transfer ...
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How to improve accuracy while converting floating point coefficients to fixed point in the case of an all pole IIR filter

I am having an all pole IIR filter of order 5 with floating point filter coefficients ...
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Is there a simpler way to calculate the amplitude response of the following filter

I would like to calculate the amplitude response $|H(z)|$, $z=e^{j\omega}$, of the following filter: $$H(z)=\frac{\frac{b}{2}+z^{-2}}{2+bz^{-2}}$$ and I would like to avoid using Euler's formula and ...
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Calculating the true values of biquad filter coefficients from normalized form

I have a C code in which the IIR filter(BiQuad) uses only 4 (normalized) coefficients per stage (a2/a0,a1/a0,b2/b0,b1/b0) instead of 6 coefficients (a0,a1,a2,b0,b1,b2). I know that the value of a0 is ...
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A question about the Commutativity Property in discrete signals block diagrams

According to the Commutativity Property of block diagrams, we can place b0 at the entrance or at the exit of the block diagram, it wouldn't matter. My question is, if we placed it at the entrance, we ...
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Comparison of results with Direct form1 and Direct form2 implementation of IIR filters

The results obtained from Direct form1 and Direct form2 implementations (in C language) of IIR (BiQuad) filters are a little different. In the implementation, i have made the b0 coefficient as 1. So, ...
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Droop compensation - How to do it?

Lets say i have a LPF response that has some kind of droop (some attenaution in the passband, usually could be due to cic filter how to make CIC compensation filter,,,, or can also be due to large ...
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Calculating Transfer function numerator and denominator from the rationalfit model

I have a frequency response data called 'AC_data' which is a vector of complex numbers (real and imaginary part) at different frequency points. I have calculated a rationalfit model for the AC_data ...
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IIR filter relaxation time computation

Let's define the relaxation time of a filter as the delay needed for the impulse response of a filter to reach and remain under an amplitude threshold. Is there a closed-form solution to the ...
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Trouble showing Time Invariance of recursive system

The system is described with the following recursive differences equation: $$y[n]-4y[n-1]+4y[n-2]=20x[n]+10x[n-1]$$ now lets say the input is delayed by k, then: $$y[n]-4y[n-1]+4y[n-2]=20x[n-k]+10x[...
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Polynomial division to separate FIR and IIR in cascade

I have a FIR filter $L(z)$ and an IIR filter $H(z) = \frac{B(z)}{A(z)}$ which are cascaded together as $L(z)H(z) = L(z)\frac{B(z)}{A(z)}$. For specific reasons I want to calculate a parallel topology ...
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Why can't realisable IIR filters have linear phase?

I am studying IIR Filter Design and came across this arbitrary statement in my textbook which says that 'physically realisable and stable IIR filters can not have linear phase'. Would really ...
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Is this the correct solution for finding the samples of phase delay at a given frequency of an IIR BiQuad filter?

I want to calculate the number of samples of phase delay at a given frequency of an IIR BiQuad Filter. I believe I have solved this, but I would like to confirm I have done it correctly. My work is as ...
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Invertibility of an ideal differentiator

Is the system $y(t)= dx(t)/dt$ invertible or not? If yes, please determine the inverse system for it.
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What's wrong with this implementation of my IIR filter?

I posted this originally in the electronics stack exchange, as it's for an electronic purpose (digitally controlled boost) but it was pointed out to me that this would be the more appropriate place - ...
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what is matlab function is taking as sign of second order IIR filter?

I am getting confused from the implementation regarding matlab function filter([b0,b1,b2],[a1,a2],x) and other function similar as ...
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Can I set a constraint on the first tap of an FIR filter such that its inverse is stable?

Let's say I have the following FIR filter $h[n]$, so the output $y[n]$ for an input $x[n]$ is $$ y[n] = \sum_{k=0}^{m-1}x[n-k]h[k] $$ The inverse of this filter is given by the IIR difference ...
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How would you put this “IIR Approximation of FIR Filters Via Discrete-Time Vector Fitting” into Matlab? [closed]

https://www.eee.hku.hk/~culei/publication/ISCAS-0590.pdf This paper talks about a way to approximate FIR filters using IIR via a method known as Discrete-Time Vector Fitting. I am confused on how I ...
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IIR coefficients that simply boost the signal

Is there a way to get IIR coefficients that only amplify a signal, nothing more? I suppose some phase shifting would be ok as well as long as it's not too noticeable. Background: I am using a MiniDSP ...
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Examples where non-linear phase filters are used

I stumbled apon this old question: Why is a linear phase important? There the explanation of why linear-phase processing (filtering) is important is very clear. Also the effects on waveforms due to ...
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Real-time audio processing FIR vs IIR

My project consists in filtering an audio signal from the microphone, in order to remove noise, and find the time distance between two peeks with the highest precision possible. I understood that an ...
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Is there a way in MATLAB to approximate an FIR filter using an IIR Filter? [duplicate]

I am a student trying to understand how this is possible. I've done some research on the web with not many sources showing up with solutions to this problem that are usable. What techniques are used ...
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What is the need of IIR filter? When FIR have generally good/desirable characteristics?

FIR filters are generally stable and have linear phase response. These two characteristics are often desired in dsp So why do we need and use IIR filters,despite the fact that IIR filters often have ...
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I am stuck on a problem that only has a center frequency of $\pi/2$ for an IIR filter pole-zero plot of this using 2 poles and 4 zeros [duplicate]

Using a pole zero placement method, design an infinite impulse response band-pass filter with center frequency of $\pi/2$ radians per second. Hint: Use two poles and four zeros.
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Meaning of Phase response of a filter? In simple words?

What is meant by phase response of a filter? Often it is associated with restoration of signal shape,so if a filter has linear phase response, its output looks like input otherwise output is ...
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Implementation of Filters in Python

I've implemented 2 filters in Python I would like to know if they look OK or not.. I've implemented an lowpass FIR Hann Filter and an lowpass IIR Chebyshev type 1 filter. My plots look like the ...
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Can't implement correctly Python IIR and FIR Filters

I'm trying to implement 2 lowpass filters and see the difference between them from plots( one FIR filter that needs to be designed with the Hann window method and another IIR filter using Chebyshev ...
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Filter: IIR Filter

How IIR Filter coefficients formula derived? for LPF, HPF, BPF, BSF there are coefficients formula for a0, a1, a2, b0, b1. How it came? I would like to know the derivation for all those coeffs w.r.t ...
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Approximate IIR filter with FIR filter with energy restrictions

Hi I was presented with this problem I would like some guidance to solve: I am given the following DT channel model: $$C(z) = 1-0.3z^{-1}$$ I am first asked to design an IIR linear zero forcing ...
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Single pole IIR filter, fixed point design

We want to do a fixed point implementation of the single pole IIR filter: $y[n] = a\cdot x[n] + (1 - a)\cdot y[n-1] \quad ;\qquad 0<a<1$ What are the main design considerations to think about ?...
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IIR - How the gain is calculated?

I try to extend my understanding of digital filter design, so I play around with some YouTube videos and the MicroModeler DSP with the following IIR design (based on a video): I use the following ...
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Gain at critical frequency for Butterworth and Chebishev filters

In Chebyshev filter the critical freq occurs with gain Gp But in butterworth filter it is always at -3dB; why does this happen? Can anyone explain intuitively on this?
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Why does this parallel IIR filter have such a weird form?

Referring to "Parallel 1st-order IIR filters" on this wikipedia page, the structure of a 4-parallel IIR filter is discussed. However, the format in which it is implemented seems very odd. Why is it ...
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Difference in results between iirj and mkfilter with Butterworth filter in BandPass

When I generate a filter on www-users.cs.york.ac.uk/~fisher/mkfilter/trad.html and another iirj (github.com/berndporr/iirj) these are not the same results. Configuration (mkfilter): Type : ...
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constructing and initializing a normalized lattice filter using scipy

I'd like to implement a 2nd order bandpass filter in scipy using a normalized lattice architecture. (I'm choosing a lattice because it's guaranteed stable even when changing the coefficients on a ...
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Output length of an IIR Filter

In general, the output length of an FIR filter is given by (N+M-1) samples, where N stands for signal length and M stands for the number of filter coefficients. Can the same formulae be applied for ...
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Adaptive equalization vs inverse of transfer function

I have the following equalization problem as shown in the figure below: Now I can compute the coefficients for my adaptive FIR filter c (dim(c) = N) the following: $\mathbf{c_{opt}} = (\mathbf{H}^T\...
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Adaptive interference calcellation

I've got a question regarding an adaptive filter for interference calcellation: Here, the interference is a periodic signal: $x[n] = \cos(\pi/4\cdot n + \varphi_1) + \cos(3\pi/4\cdot n + \varphi_2)$ ...
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How do I normalize a predesigned IIR filter?

Obviously my question here is very similar to this previously asked question: How to normalize predesigned IIR filter coefficients to have unity gain? Unfortunately, in the responses available to ...
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Draw a structure for IIR Filter given H(z)

This is the transfer function for the Direct Form 1 of the IIR Filter: I'm trying to understand the rules to convert $H(z)$ into its corrispondent structure I've just understood how to draw $H_1(z)$,...
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Can I get some help plotting an IIR filter frequency response in Python?

The problem I'm trying to solve is described here. In my script, I used Euler's identity to calculate z^-n, such that z^-n = cos(omegan) - jsin(omegan). I find the magnitude of these values from a ...

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