# Questions tagged [frequency]

Frequency in signal processing is the number of cycles (of the signal) per second.

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### Very basic question about how we define frequency in signal processing

When talking about general periodic continuous-time signals for which $$x(t + T_0) = x(t)$$ where $T_0$ is the fundamental period we define the fundamental frequency $\omega_0$ as $\omega_0 = 2\pi/T_0$...
24k views

### What is the bandwidth of human speech?

What is the actual frecuency bandwidth of human speech. I know there is variation for gender, age and so, but what is the general range... I seem to find different ranges. Like here http://...
5k views

### Hilbert-Huang Transform Implementation

I am looking for a implementation of Hilbert-Huang Transformation. Ideally, in Java, but any language with similar syntax would prove useful. Could someone point me to a specific implementation, ...
968 views

### Frequency detection

What I have: A digital signal sampled at Fs composed of a QPSK modulation at Fmod plus some additive white gaussian noise. ...
981 views

### How to calculate the energy levels of frequency intervals of an audio signal?

Using the Fourier transformation I can translate a signal from the time-domain to the frequency-domain. If I divide the frequency axis into intervals, how can I calculate the audios signals energy for ...
2k views

### Frequency Response Error for IIR Butterworth in GNU Octave

I'm wondering why the following code for GNU Octave appears to be incorrect in the frequency domain by a magnitude of 2. For example, in Figure 1. (Sorry, I'm apparently not allowed to post images!) ...
243 views

### Scaling Function in Wavelet Analysis

I was watching a YouTube tutorial on wavelets https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wgRgodvU_Ms, where the presenter showed that if we multiply a Gaussian with a sine wave (and follow some other conditions),...
123 views

### Tracking a sine wave with noise

This will probably be an extremely simple question for some one with any background in signal processing(not my background) Let say I have signal $$x(t)=A\sin(\omega t)$$ where A is known and $\omega$...
79 views

### Is there a good method to extract a reference sin/cos from a group of signals?

For the removal of a pure interference from a group of sampled signals, if I know the exact frequency of the interference I can simply use an I/Q demodulation technique (i.e., a phasor projection) to ...
699 views

I am not too familiar with phase-related problems so I need some suggestions or corrections in a problem that might be an old but easy one. Here is my problem: given a complex signal: $$y(t) = e^{j\... 2answers 102 views ### 12kHz sine or square. I can hear the difference - why? I can hear 12kHz sinewave but not 22kHz. A 12kHz squarewave has the fundamental and harmonics I think. But the first harmonic is outside my hearing range, so how come I can hear the difference ... 2answers 145 views ### Sub-band partitioning of filter-banks In ECE-700 Filterbank Notes the partitioning is  \Delta = \frac{2\pi}{M} with center-frequencies at  \omega_k = \frac{2\pi}{M}k which makes me wonder, considering that frequencies in the range ... 1answer 306 views ### Why LFO should be alias-free? I'm really tripping about this point! I try to reason with you and explain what's my trouble. Consider a scenario with Sample Rate 44100hz and a LFO square wave that will modulate some internal ... 2answers 826 views ### How to detect decaying oscillations in a signal I have a sampled signal which contains (among other things) some damped oscillations. From the underlying theory I have reasons to believe that it can be characterized by some specific frequencies of ... 2answers 1k views ### Compressing a time-domain signal in the frequency domain Matlab I'm new to frequency domain analysis. Let's say I have a frequency domain representation from a time domain signal. What I want to do is taking frequencies with a low amplitude out of this frequency ... 2answers 6k views ### Frequency Shifting in MATLAB I am currently attempting to demodulate an audio file using MATLAB. After taking the fft of the signal, I receive this: After some more coding, I found the following values: Fs = 44100; Window ... 1answer 203 views ### Magnitude value of filter frequency response Can someone help me with this problem: Suppose we filter signals with the below pre-emphasis filter:$$y[n]=x[n]-0.8x[n-1]$$I have to calculate the impulse response of the filter (ok easy) and ... 2answers 11k views ### Bandpass Filter Implementation in C I've been googling for a while and came across the audio cookbook and Bjorn's blog explaining it further Link Here. Background info: I've modified the rtl-sdr open source code to tune to a VOR ... 1answer 2k views ### Signal matching: How to quantify the difference between two signals of varying frequency I have two waves, and I would like to quantify the difference between them. They are exponential sine waves where the frequency decreases with time. I'm interested in the difference in decay ... 1answer 2k views ### Numpy fft2 frequency shift I don't understand how to make frequency shift in fft2 or higher dimensions. Could anyone explain it, please? import numpy as np import matplotlib.pyplot as plt from mpl_toolkits.mplot3d import ... 1answer 2k views ### Difference between Fine and Coarse Frequency Offset in OFDM I need to explain for a project the difference between Fine and Coarse Frequency Offset in OFDM signals. I know what the frequency offset is and what it does to the carrier frequencies but I cannot ... 1answer 121 views ### Deciding on the FFT length for water waves in flume (wave facility) Soon I'll be conducting experiments in a wave facility (flume) for my MSc thesis. And I would like to analyse wave spectra (amplitude and energy density). The time step (or 'accuracy') of the wave ... 2answers 168 views ### Are there accepted ranges of “high”, “medium” and “low” visual spatial frequency? I have an image and have been able to quantify its power across spatial frequencies, using Python. What I am interested in doing is creating some measure of how much of the image's information is low, ... 1answer 654 views ### Difference between these frequency response curves I am thinking about a simple mass-damper system response. Most single DOF systems show a frequency response plot that looks like this: Note how increasing the damping ratio always reduces the output ... 2answers 775 views ### How to pick a sampling frequency for Matlab fft I am recording vibration data using an adxl335 accelerometer.I have ~50ms delay before i save a reading from this sensor so most probably each second i have ~20 readings. I verified that by checking ... 1answer 440 views ### Sampling bandpass signal with spectral replications I want to clear my thinking on how to approach problems of the type characterized below. I guess what we want to do is select a sample rate of a sufficient size such that this signal can be fully ... 1answer 129 views ### Standard representation of FFT of an Image? Statement 1 : When we take DFT of an image matrix, we get DFT co-efficient matrix. What does the DFT Co-efficients tells about the image? (For example, take the 1st co-eff in the DFT matrix, what ... 2answers 776 views ### Frequency domain confusion I'm a bit confused with some details about frequency domain or studying systems with Laplace and Fourier analysis. Let's say we have a system with a transfer function H(s) with no poles and zero's ... 1answer 3k views ### Doppler effect on phase I am struggling to find or derive the relationship between Doppler frequency and the associated phase shift. Let's say I have a signal transmitted at a given frequency f_c. I then down convert ... 1answer 59 views ### Detection Bandwidth for Noise Power Calculation I am trying to calculate the P_{noise} in an experimental setup, such as given below. The DUT is excited at a predefined frequency, f , with power P_\text{in}. The total power is measured by the ... 0answers 36 views ### Is it possible to create a causal filter with a positively-sloped phase response? I am currently prototyping a set of noise-cancelling headphones that utilize active EQ to modify the noise-cancelling signal, allowing the user to modify the frequencies that they hear or don't hear. ... 0answers 200 views ### Frequency translation with FFT I'm new to DSP and I would like to make an SDR receiver. For this I want to shift bins in the frequency domain in order to bring to 0Hz any portion of the base band spectrum (I know that there are ... 0answers 95 views ### Does anyone recognize this modulation? I'm trying to extract the code of my garage remote, but i have some difficulty to find witch modulation has been used. At first I thought it was a simple digital modulation, but there is some strange ... 0answers 82 views ### Periodic signal filtering: transform from frequency domain doesn't meet expectation The signal in question is:$$x(t)= \sum_{n=-\infty}^{+\infty} \text{rect}\left(\frac{t-4nT}{2T}\right)+\text{trian}\left(\frac{t-n4T}{T}\right)\quad\text{with}\quad T=1\,\textrm{ms}$$Passes through ... 0answers 29 views ### Does frequency shifting double needed bandwidth? [duplicate] Suppose we have a low pass signal and it's spectrum is like this: If we define bandwidth as the difference between signal minimum and maximum frequencies, above picture says that the signal has a ... 1answer 1k views ### VIbrato (pitch variation) function I'm looking for an algorithm for Vibrato audio effect for a cross-platform C++ program of audio processing. Now I use the realization from Chaotic-DAW sources. The problem is that Chaotic-DAW has a ... 1answer 556 views ### Why is the magnitude of the second component of my FFT spectrum always the largest one? While working with FFT, I have a strange case with a current experimental setup. I am working with beat frequencies (intermediate frequency output) and using a standard FFT algorithm (complex to ... 1answer 197 views ### Time-varying waveform My situation is as follows: i am trying to generate a waveform the hard way, by constructing the samples one by one and then saving the result to a .wav file using Python. When the frequency is ... 0answers 562 views ### Doppler shift using PLL I am trying to apply phase lock loop to calculate phase shift due to doppler effect and finally calculate the doppler frequency(\Delta f). I am assuming that the received wave is of the form, r(t) =... 0answers 2k views ### How are the time scales of an exponential decaying autocorrelation related to the duration of peaks? I'm reading a biology article (full text here) that analyzed the variation of a cell parameter over time at different stimulus intensities (calcium concentration). The frequency of peaks increases at ... 0answers 257 views ### Is there any problem with my FFT method? I am trying to analysis a system by Fourier Transform. my system has 3 dominant modes. (1,0.05) (0.51,0.01),(0.46,0.01) the pairs are defined as (freq,damping_ratio) I've got those result with ... 0answers 613 views ### why wavelet (CWT) doesn't show accurate results always? hmm any one can help please? I have a signal that contains some modes in it. I've run a CWT transform but I haven't got my desired results. so I implement a test signal that contains freqs [0.1,0.3,0.... 1answer 80 views ### Finding Frequency Differences In Differing Amplitude Signals I have two audio signals, both with supposedly matching frequencies at each time window. What I would like to do is to verify that the frequencies are identical. However, one was created at a higher ... 0answers 70 views ### Varying signal bandwidth with two signal generators I would like to emulate a signal with bandwidth (like BPSK) for some testing, but the two signal generators I have access to do not have any BPSK options installed. If I know the frequency (2462MHz) ... 0answers 2k views ### Calculating a filter's attenuation at a certain frequency from the Q-factor I'm using the Web Audio API to make a graphic EQ with four BiQuad filters; a highpass, two bandpass and a low pass: You can see each node representing each filter's frequency. It's working nicely but ... 0answers 9k views ### Maximum Frequency deviation in Frequency Modulation I am writing a script to frequency modulate the stereo audio signal, and later calculating the modulation index wrt time. As we have to modulate the stereo audio signal, I have to first synthesize ... 2answers 1k views ### If low frequency travels longer distance, why our speech is not travelling longer distance? It is know that low frequency signals travel longer distance that of high frequency signal. If so, our speech signal is low frequency signal, why it is not travelling further? 2answers 252 views ### Estimating the amplitude of a particular frequency I am relatively new to DSP and have been reading a lot on the internet. I have a couple of questions. I have a signal in the form of a function$$ f(x) = A_0 + A_1 \cos(\omega_1 x) + A_2 \cos(\...
it could be a donkey question but I'm a little confused. I have this signal $w(t)=sin({\pi}0.1f)$. I have to calculate the period of this signal. $w(t)=sin(2{\pi}\frac{1}{20}f)$ the period of this ...
Lets say I receive the signal $$x(t)\cos(\omega_c t)$$ and I want to change the the carrier frequency $x(t)\cos(1.001\omega_c t)$ How can this be done? If I modulated it with a complex exponential, ...