Questions tagged [frequency]

Frequency in signal processing is the number of cycles (of the signal) per second.

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Estimation of the amplitude of a frequency component in a signal

I'm working on a device that produces a signal with sampling rate of 100 kHz. Every 40 ms, I receive 16000 points, from which I have to extract a frequency close to 3.55 kHz. I have developed a method ...
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649 views

Spectral Leakage, Phase and other questions about FFT

I'm currently implementing a voice recognition algorithm using FFT and now some questions came up to me: Spectral Leakage: I know what it is, why it appears and how to solve it using a Windowing ...
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254 views

Do Fourier frequencies actually exist in real life in form of “fundamental frequency”?

For me, this is a very awkward question to be asked, as at this point in my studies I'm supposed to be quite expert with elementary mathematical tools like Fourier transforms, but this has always ...
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285 views

How can I get the power of a specific frequency band after FFT?

I need help with my matlab code. I have recorded EEG data and now I want to analyse it in matlab. I want to find the mean power of specific frequency ranges (theta: 4-8 Hz,alpha: 8-12Hz etc.). For ...
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79 views

Plot spectrum of $X(-k)$

Assume FFT of $x[n]$ is $X(k)$ and I would like to find $X(-k)$. I have implemented two techniques: I am calculating the X(k) = fftshift(fft(x)) and then find <...
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Frequency Analysis (DFT / FFT) of a Signal Without a Constant Sampling Frequency (Non Uniform Sampling in Time Domain)

I'm a stack exchange user for some time and now I'm registering to ask a simple question (I think!). I have a vibration signal with an amplitude and time (sampling frequency not constant) in a $...
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479 views

Zero-frequency response of an IIR transfer function

I have a question about the zero-frequency (DC) response of a IIR filter. The coefficients of the 3rd order IIR filter are as follows, ...
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269 views

What is the frequency of $\cos x -\sqrt 2\cos\sqrt 2 x$?

Question Considering that $1\over{2\pi}$ is the frequency of $\cos x$ and also of $\cos x - 2\cos 2x$, what is the frequency of $\cos x - \sqrt 2\cos\sqrt 2 x$? Thoughts Perhaps "frequency" isn't ...
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Remove a frequency and all its multiple (harmonics)

In a soundfile, I'd like to remove a frequency and all its harmonics. What is the best solution in your opinion ? Do a loop with 20 notch filters, one after another. // f is the fundamental ...
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pitch vs playback rate

Let's say I have an audio sample, whose pitch is known to be C4 (don't wanna go in detail here, let's say I just sampled a tuned piano playing the C4 key). The rules of the game are: I can only ...
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87 views

Counting shape changing pattern in signal

I need to count the number of 'patterns per second' in a signal. The problem is that the signal changes 'shape' a lot and unpredictably. It is still easy for a person to see the the pattern, but I don'...
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Comparing Image FFT with Sine wave FFT

So, When we take the FFT of any Composite or Single Sine Wave we get exact frequency on x-axis of the plot. The point where we get the original frequency in FFT is depend upon the Sampling Rate and ...
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Understanding FFT of an Image

I am having trouble identifying the frequency components of an image, Here i simply generated, 256x256 binary-image. ...
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221 views

Why is discrete cosine preferred to FFT in neuroimaging GLM

High-pass filtering is often used in neuroimaging data analysis. Commonly, whenever a general linear model is fitted to the data (as for instance in statistic parametric mapping) a number of columns ...
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1answer
167 views

Codec Output has “Wavy” Amplitude on Chirp Input

I am sending a chirp that sweeps form 20Hz to 500Hz to an audio codec, CS42L52, connected to an MCU, STM32F405, and I am receiving a "wavy" amplitude output. There is no processing on the MCU, I pass ...
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Algorithms for finding fundamental frequency based on ACF result

I am developing a software for fundamental frequency tracking. For this purpose, I have designed a function which calculates autocorrelation over the signal and a second function which, based on ...
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1answer
197 views

Missing harmonics (power-line)

I have some biomedical signals. If I calculate their magnitude spectrums, I see power-line interference at 50 Hz. I was excepting a harmonic at 100 Hz, but it turns out there is none. However, there ...
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654 views

How we do frequency shaping and amplitude shaping in hearing aid

My project name is Digital Hearing Aid with frequency shaping and amplitude shaping using adaptive noise cancellation DSKC6713 DSP kit . Almost I have done this noise cancellation using code studio ...
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379 views

Detecting a low frequency cue in audio recording

I am hoping to find a linux program or library for a language like perl or python (open to ...
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249 views

Detecting frequency when frequency is not sufficiently greater than baud rate

I'm writing software this software for decoding audio samples of FSK data back to bits (ASCII, etc). The software is working really well at this point for decoding FSK when the mark and space ...
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187 views

Down sampling in the frequency domain

I would like to down sample a signal from it's original sampling rate of 2,000,000 samples per second to 48,000 (or 44100) starting from the output of an FFT. This FFT delivers 16384 data points (...
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625 views

Incorrect Frequency results when using Multiple Signal Classification (MUSIC)

I am using MUSIC (Multiple Signal Classification) to determine Direction Of Arrival (DOA) and frequency of signals impinging on an Antenna Array. I am using a function ...
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Global Transforms besides the DFT?

This is a simple question. Fourier analysis gives us the DFT, which is known as a global transform of a signal. In contrast, the Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) has a plethora of wavelets, all of ...
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570 views

Instantaneous Frequency Estimation by Hilbert Transform - Theoretical Justification and Proof

I would like to better understand why the instantaneous frequency estimation by Hilbert transformation works (and especially why it doesn't work / lead to precise results in many cases). The ...
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If Digital Signal has frequency components then why we don't use it

As we know there are two kinds of signals: analog signals and digital signals. And there are two common techniques for multiplexing the signals: Time Division Multiplexing (TDM) and Frequency ...
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783 views

What features describe audio signals? (Besides frequency and amplitude)

I recorded sounds with a microphone and I try to distinguish them in my Java program. The frequency works quite good, but if I look at the fourier transforms it seems like there should be more ...
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Fundamental frequency

Can someone help me: I have a signal which consist of three frequencies; for example, $f_1=800\,\text{Hz}$, $f_2=1050\,\text{Hz}$, $f_3=1600\,\text{Hz}$. How can i compute the fundamental frequency? ...
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instantaneous frequency for a sum

In the literature, the instantaneous frequency for a signal $s(t)=e^{-j \phi(t)}$ is given by: $$f(t)=\tfrac{1}{2\pi}\frac{d\phi(t)}{dt}$$ This my problem: I have a signal $$u(t)=e^{-j \alpha_1 \phi(...
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Can the instantaneous frequency be always derived from an analytic signal?

Instantaneous frequency can be defined as a derivative of an instantaneous phase of an analytic signal which can be nicely seen in practice in this example from Scipy's documentation. But it seems ...
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Intuition for how a Fourier transform handles signals where the frequency varies with time?

I created a discrete signal sampled at 44.1kHz that is 330Hz for 1 second, 360Hz for 0.5s, and 390Hz for 0.25s. I did an FFT transformation of this, and got the magnitude graph below: I don't ...
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210 views

Pitch perception - Why does our ear not directly detect the missing fundamental frequency?

My motivation for this question is related to biological phenomenon of our inner ear, so I initially posted in the biology community, but I suspect the answer has a DSP explanation, so I figured this ...
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1answer
410 views

A very basic question about processing high frequency signals

A standard frequency for a modern computer processor is 1-3 GHz. The frequency of a GPS signal is ~1.5 GHz. My question is how is it possible for a computer to do anything at all with a signal that it ...
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How do I perform the sifting process in empirical mode decomposition?

I am programming a voice activity detection algorithm and I found a paper that recommends the use of HHT. I have been trying to program it and understand how to calculate $m1(x)$, but the shifting ...
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244 views

Modeling spring oscilliations with electric noise (50 hz)

I have Analog to Digital converter from which I get data of measurements of 1kg load. The aim is to model the simple spring-damper system, so that after entering correct initial data (x[0] = a, x'[0] =...
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3answers
71 views

Why does dot product return zero at non-harmonic frequency

If I understand correctly, dot product between two sinusoids should return zero if they are orthogonal. Since dot product is at the heart of the DFT, we can only clearly compare the frequencies that ...
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Am i performing Sinesweep correctly?

I am bit unsure whether i am doing i sine sweep correctly. I am feeding my system a sine wave with f hertz within a given time interval and log its output. And then i do the same for another ...
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1answer
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Sampling frequency of modulated signal

A very naive question... A signal with bandwidth of 20 MHz is modulated using a carrier of 1 GHz. What will be the sampling frequency? I was asked this question during an interview. I answered 2 GHz ...
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2answers
186 views

Generating a sound where end frequency is 1/2 of the start frequency

I am very very new to signals, and I am trying to generate sounds based on some parameters from a database. So, the database stores the following: startFrequency endFrequency startAmplitude ...
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4answers
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Estimate frequency and peak value of a signal's fundamental

How can I find out frequency and peak value of a signal's fundamental? Please do consider the following: The peak value of some harmonics might be higher than that one of the fundamental The ...
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1answer
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Orthogonality of FSK modulation for non-coherent detection

For an FSK modulation with coherent detection, in order to ensure orthogonality, the frequency separation between symbols is $ \Delta f=f_2 - f_1 =1/2T$. However, in case of non-coherent demodulation, ...
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1answer
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Performing classification based on FFT results

It is perhaps important to start with the fact that I am a complete beginner in DSP. I have got a number of audio recordings (of sampling rate 22 kHz) - of bird songs - which I have been trying to ...
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2answers
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Extract frequencies from PCM signal

I have an PCM (pulse-code modulation) signal. If I want to work out the frequency of a sample $ x $ long, I count the number of peaks/troughs of the sample, and divide by $ x $. The equivent dB of ...
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807 views

Detect presence of a specific frequency (or lack thereof)

I know very little DSP beyond an intro undergrad course. I was looking to write a C algorithm that takes ADC samples and determines if a specific frequency is present (in the range of 100KHz); not ...
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What is difference between frequency and pitch?in nutshell and simple words?

Although both are some how directly related Such that when one increases,the other one also increases I have read different Google results but couldn't understand . I want to know what is exact ...
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The relationship between downsampling and frequency resolution

I am having trouble understanding a concept that I have seen in many published papers. For example, in this paper (http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0082748) they wrote ...
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259 views

Is the book wrong? — How to sketch frequency response obtained from H(z)?

This question is directly related to digital signal processing, so I am asking here. How to sketch frequency response obtained from $H(z)$? I'm adding an example and its solution below. I did not ...
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Frequency vector and fft

I have got a question concerning the definition of the frequency vector for an fft operation. Generally, I work with a frequency vector, f, with power of 2 ...
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FFT Zero Padding - Amplitude Change

I'm just learning about Fourier Transforms and as an input I'm using a WAV file (Matlab) and taking one channel of it and performing a quick Fourier transform. I've zero padded the input, as I've been ...
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792 views

How to Shift Carrier Frequency in QAM Signal?

If I wanted to apply a 100Hz frequency shift to a QAM signal with a 500MHz carrier frequency, I would Demodulate it at the carrier frequency Apply a frequency shift to the original signal Modulate it ...
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What Is the Bilateral Filter Category: LPF, HPF, BPF or BSF?

I`m reading about Bilateral filter with images, I knew that it uses Gaussian filter (which is a LPF) as a domain filter plus a range filter and it is used to preserve edges(high freq component). Can ...

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