# Questions tagged [frequency]

Frequency in signal processing is the number of cycles (of the signal) per second.

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### How to decipher this Microphone sensitivity Chart for Choosing a SPL meter

I have a mic having sensitivity chart as below which has relative dB on y-axis showing 1V/0.1Pa what does this convey how to read my mic's sensitivity a document on microphone sensitivity from ...
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### Is there anyway to find the frequency of DFT eigenvectors (basis) from its eigenvalues?

I've read this document which talks about the DFT. It describes that DFT bases are the eigenvectors of a circulant matrix. I know that every basis has a frequency in it, but I don't know what is it? ...
23 views

### UWB Indoor Positioning

I am trying to understand the UWB technology and how it can be used for localization. Are there any resources where I can study about the algorithms it uses to calculate the direction? Also why does ...
142 views

### Difference between OFDM and FDM

In Frequency Division Multiplexing we provide one channel to one user. Example like BandWidth of user1's voice is 200Khz. I provide one channel of 200KHz in FDM for uplink as shown in the figure. ...
64 views

### Why does this transfer function estimation not work? System identification

Goal: I have an unknow dynmical system $G(s)$ and I want to find it from measurement data, output $y(t)$ and input $u(t)$. The data is frequency responses. Method: I begun first with creating the ...
48 views

### How harmonics happens when you mix two signals?

Doing a search in quora about Why does Amplitude Modulation have sideband frequencies? i found an answer and within it, a user answered with the following statement: "When you try mixing two ...
17 views

### FSK technique to superpose the digital communication on top of 4–20 mA signals

I start a working with HART devices and I really try to understand how digital data is transferred trough 4-20ma current loop. I start read this article: https://instrumentationtools.com/hart-...
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### How to calculate PSD if i have power vs freq spectrum?

i have a signal something like this how to calculate PSD? i have freq from 191000200 to 196500000 time gap or delta t = 1 or 2 sec, (what i mean is [tn] - [tn-1]) i will be computing in python any ...
40 views

### Frequency Estimation Using Multiple Signal Classification Algorithm (MUSIC)

I'm working on side research that deals with signals and data in the time domain. currently, I want to use the multiple signal classification algorithm (MUSIC) which is mainly used for frequency ...
839 views

### Distribution of energy in frequency bands

On my wav-file (music), I do a short-time Fourier transform (STFT). I have spectrum, which spans from $0\textrm{ Hz}$ to $f_s/2$. I took out the range between $1$ and $1000\textrm{ Hz}$, which I ...
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### DFT and integer valued basis functions'sf requencies

In Matlab the function W=dftmtx(N) gives the DFT matrix of size N. Each row is computed for an integer frequency k. $W_{k,n} = e^{-i2\pi kn/N}$, k-th frequency, ...
706 views

### When listening in to an AM signals of various frequencies, how do we exactly tune in?

Alright, so I read on AM and Double Sideband AM, but I don't the more fundamental idea - the frequencies. Frequency is just: $\frac{1}{T}$, where T is period So difference between 5 Hz and 30 Hz ...
120 views

### Break a signal into segments, add them together and then perform an FFT on the result

If you break a 4 second signal into 0.5 second segments, add them together and then perform an FFT on the resultant 0.5 second data. Will the FFT / frequency spectrum be the simlar to an FFT on the ...
50 views

### Frequency Support of Window Functions

All window functions, which go from zero amplitude, up, then back to zero amplitude, are all base-band signals. Why is this? Are all functions that have this behavior always band-band aka low-pass?
274 views

### How to see the amplitude of each frequency?

do you know software that exports spectrograms to images of 500x22000 pixels? all the spectrograms that I know show diffused frequencies and it does not look very good I just want to see the amplitude ...
43 views

### What is a speaker behaviour for out of range frequencies?

I was watching this video. The experiment is to create a square signal and record what is outputted by a speaker. We see two diracs signal (+ and -) that looks like the derivative of the signal. Can ...
271 views

### Why does dot product return zero at non-harmonic frequency

If I understand correctly, dot product between two sinusoids should return zero if they are orthogonal. Since dot product is at the heart of the DFT, we can only clearly compare the frequencies that ...
47 views

### Frequency Domain Distribution

I have a complex signal in the time domain normally distributed. What will be its distribution in the frequency domain? I assumed since the frequency domain is a linear transformation the distribution ...
66 views

### How to do Frequency Scaling on an Audio File

Please excuse me if my terminology is wrong. I'm from a music production background and have no experience in signal processing. I was wondering if it was possible to stretch out the overtones (...
35 views

### What's the relation between frequency band of $X(j\omega)$ and $\Phi_{xx}(j\omega)$?

in which: $x_{c}(t)$ is a continuous-time signal $X(j\Omega)$ is the Fourier Transform of $x_{c}(t)$ $\Phi_{xx}(j\Omega)$ is the Power Spectrum Density of $x_{c}(t)$ which defined as Fourier ...
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### Fundamental frequency in DFT [duplicate]

I was looking into the fundamental frequency in DFT and I noticed many sources mention that the fundamental frequency is $1/N$, where $N$ is the number of samples. (When doing the DFT, we have $k/N$, ...
35 views

### Match an Equalizer Curve

I’ve passed a sine sweep wave file into an equalizer plugin I have, now I want to model it in matlab so that I can ‘copy’ the equalizer setting sound. I’ve both in.wav and out.wav audio files and ...
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### Why does toning up a piano make it sound similar to that a string instrument

I have a .wav file of a piano being played at 220 hertz. When I tone this up to 880 hertz, it begins to sound "stringy". However, if I were to use the piano plugin in fl studio and play it ...
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### Coding an LFO in C

I want to know how I could implement a Low Frequency Oscilator on a simple synth I've coded in C. First in order to understand how to make this happen I would like just to modulate a sine wave by a ...
13k views

### Simple and efficient algorithm to detect frequency and phase of a sine signal

I need an algorithm to detect frequency and phase of a pure sine signal. The frequency of the input signal changes between 0 and 100 Hz. The value of the signal gets captured with a frequency of 20 ...
11 views

### Which equation for analyzing mixed mode sparameters?

I am reading about converting single ended sparameters to mixed mode here. "As shown by Equation 43, single-ended S-parameters can be converted into mixed-mode S-parameters with the [M]-matrix (...
33 views

### Accelerometer sensor's data analysis [closed]

Here is a sample data that I got from the accelerometer sensor: The first selected area shows the acceleration of the IMU device to right side and the second shows the movement to left side. I am ...
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### Interpretation of Complex modes in Frequency Domain Decomposition

When I do a Frequency Domain Decomposition (FDD) I always get mode shapes with significant imaginary components. Let's say I see a strong modal response. Still have strong complex nature. When I do a ...
185 views

### How do I remove “jitter” when detecting frequency of Sine Wave

Input: Sine wave of any frequency centred at 1.66V Output: Square wave with a frequency equal to input I have been working on implementing a common DSP problem -- Detect the frequency of a Sine Wave. ...
52 views

### How does one interpret an element of the “transfer matrix” used to calculate frequency domain granger causality (via VAR models)?

I am attempting to gain a better mathematical understanding for how autoregressive models can be used to infer frequency-domain granger causality. All freq. domain measures of causality that utilize ...
52 views

### Is pitch detection for bass instruments a solved theme?

I would like to know if pitch detection is a solved theme for an instrument like a bass (bass tones). Is it, or there is always a percentage of error rate on the detection?
23 views

### modulation depth

When a value for the power dissipated by an AM signal is given, and the depth of modulation is also given. Then you are told to find the modulation depth required to increase the power to a higher ...
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### Continuous frequency vs discrete frequency? [closed]

I have understood idea of discrete time and continuous time but I am feeling difficult to comprehend this idea in regard to frequency. As for example the DFT output is discrete and the DTFT output ...
19 views

### A-GPS frequency (fd) search ranges

A-GPS is able to reduce the fd search range from several kHz (GPS search range) to several hundred Hz (a-GPS search range). I know the GPS search range has a center at 0 Hz. What is the center ...
10 views

### What is role of BW and frequency in internet speeds?

First the bandwidth (BW): It is the amount of data that can be transferred simultaneously.just like more no. of highway lanes so that many cars can travel side by side simultaneously. Frequency It ...
61 views

### Group delay of non differentiable unwrapped phase

As we know group delay as a function of frequency, computed as differentiation of unwrapped phase, but what happen at those frequencies where unwrapped phase is non differentiable?how to calculate ...
21 views

### Does it make sense to apply convolution in the frequency dimension of a fourier transformed signal?

What I have is more likely a theoretical question. Since I am not from a signal processing background it is hard for me to grasp the issue in using convolution in the frequency dimension of a Fourier ...
14 views

### Perceptual Based Adversarial Audio Attacks

I am reading this paper Perceptual Based Adversarial Audio Attacks I have a doubt what is meant by weighting in the frequency domain and what does Section 3.4-equation-4 wants to convey .Please refer ...
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### Frequency response Test (Bode Diagramm) on system controlled with a PLC

i have to perform frequency response test on a pump system with servo Motor controlled by a PLC von ALlen Bradley (Logix 5156). I not sur how to proceed and will like to know if someone did such work ...
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### What is the Effect of Multiplying a Function by the Unit Impulse Function in the Frequency Domain? [duplicate]

I know about the the shifting property of the impulse function in the time domain as can be seen in the picture. But what is the effect of multiplication of a function by the impulse function in the ...
26 views

### Existence of finite output of a system [closed]

1.If frequently response of a LTI system exist and finite then can we say that, for a periodic or non periodic input signal, output is also finite? 2.if responses(output) of LTI system for ...
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### Error in measuring wavelength/frequency using autocorrelation

I am currently using these two fonctions to compute to autocorrelation of a signal in order to measure the wavelength: ...
27 views

### Why is the frequency measured in radians in filter design?

This is my first time posting a question, so sorry if my articulation is not proper. I'v just started out with FIR filter design and I see the domain being -$\pi$ to $\pi$. Now I understand that ...
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### RF Downconversion using Heterodyne Principle

after a RF down-conversion using heterodyning principle, will there be an information loss? If we translate to a fixed IF frequency, is there is an intuitive way of explain that the information can be ...
439 views

### How do I find a 50Hz sin/cos signal in a measurement among other frequencies and noise?

I measure magnetic fields with high precision, in a gradiometer setup with fluxgate magnetometers, sampling at 2000Hz. I can have big data sets if I want to - one is 600000+ samples long. I need to ...
71k views

### time in Sine Wave equation

According to Wikipedia, The sine wave or sinusoid is a mathematical function that describes a smooth repetitive oscillation. The formula for the Sine wave is, A = Amplitude of the Wave ω = the ...