# Questions tagged [frequency-modulation]

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### CFO Estimation in LoRa Chirp Signal (Preamble part)

I am trying to estimate CFO in LoRa chirp signal (preamble part). I have seen the discussion about CFO on this forum but it is mainly related to CFO estimation in OFDM. I want to estimate the CFO in a ...
77 views

### How to Eliminate Clicking Sounds in WAV File Generated from NFM Demodulation using FFTW?

I am working on a Digital Signal Processing (DSP) project where I am processing signals received from an SDR (Software Defined Radio) device. I am using the SoapySDR library to interface with the SDR ...
68 views

### I don't understand which signal I should use as a carrier in my excersise

$\DeclareMathOperator{\sinc}{sinc}$ Given 3 signals $x_1(t) = \sinc(t) , x_2(t) = 10\cos(2\pi f_2t)$ and $x_3(t) = 5\cos(2\pi f_1t)$, where $f_2 = 100\text{ kHz}$ and $f_1 = 1\text{ kHz}$. I must ...
1 vote
44 views

### request pointers on beginner DSP board for making an EQ simulating hearing aid prescription with TV sound

I want to make an equalizer set to similar frequency cut-boost according to the results from the graph from hearing test, where an audiometrist will play tones of various frequencies at various ...
123 views

### How can I apply a phase shift to an LFM pulse?

I am modelling radar scenarios in python and am trying to make a model which retains phase information. To do so, I'm envisioning something which works like this: Generate samples of an LFM waveform ...
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1 vote
131 views

### FMCW Radar - What's wrong with the transmitted signal model?

I am new to FMCW radar and trying to plot the transmit signal over time. As you know, the transmitted signal is modelled as: $$s(t) = cos(2\pi f_c t + \pi S^2),$$ where $S = BW/T_{chirp}$ is the slope,...
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1 vote
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### Properly FM Demodulation & Display baseband FFT in QT using QTCustomPlots

I am having trouble trying to display the baseband signal because it looks incorrect. How do I properly display the baseband signal? Should I be doing a float to complex transformation? Am I doing ...
1 vote
176 views

### Analog FM & IQ modulation

I am exploring the possibilities of IQ modulator. I want to do analog FM modulation (range $0$ to $5 ~ kHz$) using IQ modulator. So far, I can modulate the signal digitally inside of the STM32 ...
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127 views

### Why can FM be used to encode a message, intuitively?

I am reading about FM.Suppose the message signal $m(t) = \frac{1}{2}cos(t)$ and the frequency of the carrier signal is twice the frequency of the message signal and its amplitude is 1.The resulting ...
• 295
75 views

### FFT on SDR FM Radio Signal

I recorded a simple FM signal using my SDR (centered at 100.3e6 hz and sample rate of 2.048e6 per second). Without any transformation, I ran an FFT on the signal and it showed a signal with some width ...
• 101
910 views

### Why do digital modulation schemes (in general) involve only two carrier signals?

In my digital communication, class we have covered the various modulation schemes, namely QAM and its derivatives (B(A/P)SK, PAM and (Q/M)PSK) as well as BFSK. These two schemes have one or at most ...
134 views

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### FSK: Selecting center frequencies and Carson's Rule

I'm implementing 2FSK and 4FSK modulation schemes for an experimental system. I'm using GNURadio, although that shouldn't affect the question. I'm trying to figure out how the center frequency should ...
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133 views

1 vote
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### FM and PM waves

I have to find the FM and PM waves corresponding to this sawtooth signal: I have found out the PM wave as: I am getting the FM wave as this : I have plotted this using Python. Can anyone please ...
581 views

### Digital Selective Calling (DSC) Decoder in GNU Radio

I’m attempting to develop a GNU Radio FSK decoder for Digital Selective Calling on marine VHF but I seem to be stuck. I got my hands on a Standard Horizon handheld marine VHF unit with DSC capability ...
135 views

### MSK receiver for ultra-low SNR

I am designing a low-rate DSSS communication system (~1ms chip period, Spreading Factor 128/256 bits long) for using at ultra low SNR scenarios (~0dB SNR). Due to the problems related to clock ...
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1 vote
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### Difference between FFSK and FSK modulation schemes

Can somebody explain to me what is the difference between FFSK (Fast Frequency Shift Keying) and FSK (Frequency Shift Keying) modulation schemes?
1 vote
508 views

### How to Frequency Modulate an Audio Signal

I've started to learn about FM and I followed this guide to FM a sine wave. I have managed to do it and here is the result: And the code: ...
• 169
6k views

### Python- FM Modulation

I am trying to Frequency modulate a sine signal using Python. I have written the following code that should do it: ...
• 169
141 views

### Real-time FM demod results in clicking and strangely-shaped output

hardware engineer here dipping his toes into software DSP and running into some issues. I'm attempting to demodulate in realtime a simple narrowband FM signal with samples from an RTL-SDR, and play ...
• 111
251 views

### How to Modulate down a hidden message after filtering base signal from audio file

I have an audio file that is 6 seconds long. The file has a message hidden into it in the ultra high frequency range. I plot the Mel Spectrogram with a sample rate of 44100 and use a high-pass filter ...
49 views

### Transmitting an approximate CW with an FM modulator

Imagine we had an FM modulator with carrier frecuency $f_c$. My doubt is about the optimal approach to use it for transmitting a tone (CW) of a frequency $f_c+\Delta f$. Let $x(t)$ a and $y(t)$ be the ...
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927 views

### What is the advantage of using a Stepped Frequency waveform over FMCW?

What is the advantage of using a Stepped Frequency Waveform instead of a traditional linear FMCW ?
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I have a time-varying signal: $$y(t) = g(t) + a(t) \sin(2 \pi f_m t)$$ $g(t)$ and $a(t)$ are varying with time.. I have both of them as 2D arrays of [time value] I need to perform VCO for $y(t)$ in ...