Questions tagged [frequency-modulation]

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Advice on generating stable FMCW waveform

I am trying to derive parameters for a triangular FMCW waveform such that the phase of the signal has consistency from one period to the next. Perhaps this is arbitrary and feel free to tell me so, ...
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37 views

Frequency modulation: which algorithm for discrete signals (Java, Swift, etc.)

I'm writing an audio app in Swift - and one task consists in frequency modulation of a given signal (microphone input or sound file) - thus I'm iterating through all frames of a buffer like ...
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1answer
2k views

difference between GMSK (Gaussian Minimum shift keying) and GFSK (Gaussain frequency shift keying) [closed]

I am unable to differentiate GMSK and GFSK. How do the modulation techniques differ in Tx? How do their receiving techniques differ..?
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45 views

FM modulation - recovering bits

I'm trying to complete one task: Download some FM modulated signals from page http://www.w1hkj.com/modes/index.htm. Calculate their spectrograms, i.e. short-time Fourier transform. Observe different ...
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1answer
78 views

Spectrum of FM signal?

If a carrier ($f_c$) is FM modulated by a single sine wave ($f_m$), its spectrum is composed of frequencies at $f_c + kf_m$ ($k \in \mathbb{Z}$) whose amplitudes are weighted by $J_n(\beta)$, the $k$-...
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1answer
46 views

Convert old computer cassette signal into binary

Completely new to this but keen to learn :) I have an old BBC Micro computer cassette which I've recorded into unsigned 8-bit pcm wav file format. The file comprises tracks separated by virtual ...
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1answer
202 views

Question about FMCW range-velocity plot

I am working on plotting range-velocity heatmap of the receiving FMCW signal. I actually have already plotted. However, I do not really understand the mapping relationship between Doppler FFT bin and ...
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1answer
415 views

Digital FM Demodulation

I have created a Common Lisp Library to receive samples of an FM signal from BladeRF1 SDR. I want to write a subroutine to implement FM demodulation. The input should be in the format of IQ data. ...
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1answer
974 views

How to generate IQ component for transmitting 2FSK

I am trying to generate IQ components for 2FSK modulation. I have started off from this thread FSK and IQ modulation , but I don't quite understand the IQ TX components plotted in the example there by ...
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6k views

Why can so little digital information be stored on a cassette tape?

I had heard that tape is still the best medium for storing large amounts of data. So I figured I can store a relatively large amount of data on a cassette tape. I was thinking of a little project to ...
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0answers
139 views

Wideband FM bandwidth estimation

In the book Modern Digital and Analog Communication Systems by B. P Lathi, there is a section for the estimation of WBFM bandwidth. First, the staircase approximation of $m(t)$ is constructed by the ...
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2answers
103 views

Power of an angle-modulated wave

Let $$\phi(t) = A\cos(\omega_c t + km(t)) \tag{1}$$ be an angle-modulated wave(FM or PM). What's the power of $\phi(t)$? Intuitively, it seems that the answer is $$P = \frac{A^2}{2} \tag{2}$$ since ...
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40 views

What does the variable $\tau$ mean in frequency modulation?

Frequency modulation formula: $$ x_{FM}(t) = A_{c}\cos\left(2\pi f_{c} t+ 2\pi k_{f}\displaystyle\int_0^{t}m(\tau)d\tau+\phi_{0}\right) $$ Its change from $m(t)$ to $m(\tau)$. What is $\tau$? I wonder ...
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39 views

Non-coherent FSK and Orthogonality and square-law detectors

This is a basic figure that explains how Non-Coherent FSK actually works. The incoming signal $ r (t)=\sqrt{2 P}{Cos}(2 \pi t (\text{fc}+\text{fi})+\text{n(t)}$ where P denotes the signal power in ...
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3answers
55 views

Can the intelligence message of an FM signal be cross-modulated to another center frequency due to non-linearities?

Can the intelligence message of an FM signal be cross-modulated to a a different frequency by non-linearities, but with the FM modulating message remaining (relatively) intact on the new frequency? ...
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39 views

Why does sampling chirp at peak frequency yield correct frequency response?

Followup; setting Fs = bandWidth in accepted answer's code yields the "correct" frequency response of an LFM chirp: constant magnitude, parabolic phase. ...
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1answer
27 views

Signal distortion under non-linear channel

The channel is given to have these characteristics, and its required to study the affect on Frequency Modulated signal and its demodulation. Since there are no sharp corners (like during clipping) ...
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26 views

Wideband FM generation problem

What I found out: The order of the multiplier would be $n=5$. The two LO frequencies can be 90 MHz and 80 MHz. The bandwidth is given by $BW = 2(B_f+1)W $ Where W is the modulation bandwidth given ...
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22 views

Pre-envelope of an FM signal $s(t) = A\cos[\omega_ct + B\sin(\omega_xt)]$ [duplicate]

I want to ask a question about pre-envelope of an FM wave: $$s(t) = A\cos[\omega_ct + B\sin(\omega_xt)]$$ Can someone explain briefly how we calculate the pre-envelope of this signal?
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33 views

Instantaneous frequency, PLLs, frequency mixing, cross-correlation and the cross-correlation matrix

This is as much a request for comment and critique as anything else. I am looking at tracking how a system perturbs an input that is a (real) sinoid of varying frequency. ...
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1answer
27 views

RF Downconversion using Heterodyne Principle

after a RF down-conversion using heterodyning principle, will there be an information loss? If we translate to a fixed IF frequency, is there is an intuitive way of explain that the information can be ...
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1answer
97 views

How to demodulate PM modulation

I'm using a sin wave $s_{sc}(t) = d(t)\cos(\omega_{sc}t + \varphi_{sc})$ to modulate a carrier using phase modulation. I'm working on Matlab so I use the pmmod function to do so. It is not too ...
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1answer
101 views

DSP based FMCW radar

I have an SDR receiver I'm interested in making into a FMCW radar. The bandwidth is somewhat narrow as it only samples at 64 MSPS. There is a problem in that without a bunch of embedded programming ...
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18 views

Representing the signal $ u(t)=A_c \cos (2 \pi f_c t + \beta \cos 2 \pi f_m t) $ in terms of Bessel function

I want to represent the signal $ u(t)=A_c \cos (2 \pi f_c t + \beta \cos 2 \pi f_m t) $ in terms of Bessel function. I have done the exercise. I want someone to check whether what I have done is ...
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15 views

Demodulating FM Signals. Understanding text from “Communication Systems Engineering” by Proakis

Please help me understand the following text from "Communication Systems Engineering" by Proakis. Text: What I was not able to understand: 1) Why is the transfer function of the FM demodulator ...
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1answer
158 views

How to generate WBFM from NBFM?

An FM signal is given by $$ s_{FM}(t) = A_c \cos [\omega_C t +k_f \int _{-\infty}^t m(\alpha)d \alpha] $$ Let $ \int _{-\infty}^t m(\alpha)d \alpha] = a(t) $ Therefore, $ s_{FM}(t) = A_c \cos [\...
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1answer
76 views

How to generate WBFM from NBFM

A narrowband FM is approximately given by: $ x(t)= A[\cos w_ct - k_f a(t)\sin w_ct] $ where $ a(t)= \int _{ -\infty } ^t m(\alpha) d\alpha$ How does frequency multiplying $x(t)$ by a desired ...
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1answer
57 views

What is the Fourier Transform of $\DeclareMathOperator{\rect}{rect} \rect(2Bt)\cos[{\omega}_Ct + k_fm(t_k)t] $?

What is the Fourier Transform of $\rect(2Bt)\cos[{\omega}_Ct + k_fm(t_k)t] $? I got the following as the solution: $$\DeclareMathOperator{\sinc}{sinc} \frac{1}{2} \frac{1}{2B} \sinc(\frac{\omega+{\...
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1answer
273 views

What's the relationship between the parameters of this noise generator and the gaussian curve it produces in the frequency domain?

This algorithm produces a sequence $y$ having a magnitude spectrum that resembles a normal distribution, peaking at frequency $\omega$: $$b[n]=(1-\sigma)b[n-1]+\frac{\sigma}{\omega} C$$ $$p[n]=p[n-1]+...
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1answer
27 views

Doubt in Frequency Modulation code

While searching for something FM, I came across this code. I am not able to understand a particular line of code. I have written a comment against that line of code. ...
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2answers
163 views

Frequency modulation in MATLAB

I am trying to frequency modulate a cosine signal(for assignment). I have written the following code but not getting the required output. ...
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1answer
37 views

FM: Do rational ratios of carrier to modulator signals really produce harmonic spectra?

I've read that in FM, all rational ratios of the carrier frequency to the modulator frequency produce harmonic spectrum in the FM signal. Link to what I read. I don't understand why this is. If for ...
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2answers
166 views

IQ signal FM descrimination using phase derivative

I'm trying to demodulate an FM signal recorded as IQ samples from RTL-SDR at 2.4Msps with RTL-SDR centered on an FM station's frequency. So the input signal is 8 bit IQ baseband at 2.4MSps. The data ...
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1answer
126 views

Frequency response of FM modulation/demodulation chain with phase derivative demodulation

Frequency modulating a carrier by white noise and then demodulating the complex signal using discrete derivative of phase it appears that the discriminator is acting as a low-pass filter. How do I ...
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2answers
682 views

Why do we integrate the modulating function in FM?

I've been reading about FM and I keep coming to an expression, where the instantaneous phase $$\Theta=2\pi f_it+\phi\text, \tag1$$ where $$f_i=f_c+k_fm(t)\text,\tag2$$ ($f_c$ being the base carrier ...
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1answer
267 views

Demodulating wideband FM signal in Octave from recorded baseband IQ samples

Assuming I have a baseband recording of 8 bit IQ samples at 2.4MSps centered on an FM station is it correct to say that after low pass-filtering the complex signal to 240KHz, taking discrete ...
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1answer
83 views

Positive slope of BER with a greater frequency deviation?

I am trying to implement a frequency-modulated communication channel on MatLab. However, there is something I don't understand about the sensitivity of the frequency modulator (or the frequency ...
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1answer
2k views

FM demodulation with arctan

I am trying to demodulate a FM signal with a RTL-SDR and python using the arctan method. From here I know that $$ \frac{d}{dt}\arctan(\frac{q(t)}{i(t)}) = \frac{i(t)\frac{d}{dt}q(t)-q(t)\frac{d}{dt}i(...
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2answers
1k views

Impact of modulation index in FM

If I have the spectrum of a FM modulation, does the frequency of the carrier disappear when the modulation index is too big? Does the amplitude of any side band depend from the modulation index? And ...
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116 views

Which equipment to use for testing performance of AM, FM, and DAB

I want to test the performance of AM, FM and DAB radio in RTL-SDR. I want to measure sensitivity, adjacent channel selectivity, cross-modulation/blocking, and third-order intermodulation to be some of ...
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1answer
245 views

What is the mixed numerology in OFDM

In order to meet the user requirements in the next generation radio access technology, the ongoing standardization within 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) offers flexibility in terms of ...
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1answer
247 views

Equation of wave in Linear frequency modulation?

We know that we have the following equation for wave. $$g(t)=A\cos(\omega t+\theta_0)=A\cos(2\pi ft+\theta_0)$$ The equation of frequency with respect to time will be: $$f(t)=\frac{Bt}{\tau}+f_c-\...
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0answers
42 views

Help in identifying low speed image transmission protocol over RF

In the seventies I worked for Muirhead on press fax machines that used to transmit pictures over radio and landline as I recall two FM systems were used a carrier 800 Hz modulated +- 150 Hz and 1900Hz ...
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25 views

Is there a software/application that shows the FM base stations nearby us?

I want to collect a list of FM base stations near me. I have found apps/software for finding LTE base station but found no success in finding an app for FM base station.
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1answer
130 views

Fourier transform of frequency division

I need a mathematical description of what happens to the spectrum of a signal when that signal is processed to divide its frequency. As an example, construct an input signal as the sum of two sine ...
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1answer
180 views

Frequency modulation audio synthesis: clicks/pops when changing modulator frequency dynamically

I'm very new to DSP and working on a FM VST. It's mostly up and running, or at least it generates FM-like sounds. I want to be able to change various parameters dynamically while audio is generated, ...
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454 views

Spectrum of WBFM signal for triangular message signal spectrum

We Know: Frequency Modulated signal is given by: $$s_{FM} (t)=A_{c} \sin \{ w_c t + 2 \pi k_f \int m(t) \, dt \}$$ Now, if $ \quad m(t)= A_m \cos(w_m t)$ , i.e, its spectrum $M(f)$: then, $$s_{FM} (t)...
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1answer
353 views

How is frequency related to data rate?

How does (if it does) frequency affect/relates to Data Rate. Why for example using the same modulation, LoRa (in the physical layer), you get somewhere around 250kbps at 2.4Ghz and only 20kbps at ...
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1answer
177 views

FM synthesis algorithm is not very efficient

I have very little knowledge of DSP, I'm trying to implement an FM synthesis algorithm in code / software. So far I've successfully implemented a FM algorithm using the following: ...
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430 views

Best Way to Extract Frequency from Signal [closed]

I want to send signal that compound from 16 different frequency over GSM. The problem is the GSM network is very noisy and I have only 400-3400 hz frequency available for use. I try using fft ...