Questions tagged [fourier-transform]

The Fourier transform is a mathematical operation that decomposes a function into its constituent frequencies, known as a frequency spectrum.

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How do I construct input to neural network from audio signals?

Input: Microphone recordings of digits from 0 to 9 from different speakers. Output: The digit from 0 to 9. I am doing this for fun. So first I will train my neural network using some samples and ...
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1answer
5k views

How to compute the main lobe width of generalized Hamming windows (i.e. Hann, Hamming, etc.)?

Is there a way to compute the main lobe width of windows of the generalized Hamming window family (i.e. Hann, Hamming, etc.)? By main lobe I mean the first zeros left and right of the center of the ...
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1answer
360 views

Why idft(dft(a) * dft(b)) not equal to convolve(a, b)?

I'm a little confused... I always thought the DFT of a convolution was equal to a product of DFTs, but when I tried this in Python: ...
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3answers
509 views

Why do we get different imaginary parts of a zero centered Gaussian for the the same number of data points N?

Suppose we have a total number N= 2048 points in a data and we wish to have zero centered Gaussian. There are two possibilities that we use the x-axis as ...
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5answers
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Effects of linear interpolation of a time series on its frequency spectrum

Situation In order to synchonisize different time series i have to apply linear interpolation on them. After the interpolation and synchronization the signal is transferred into its frequency domain ...
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2answers
7k views

How does shift and scaling inside of a function affect its Fourier Transform?

The properties aren't entirely clear to me, sorry for the basic question. I know the Fourier Transform of one function. Say, $\text{rect}(x,y) \Leftrightarrow \frac{\sin \pi u}{\pi u} \frac{\sin \...
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What is an Intuitive Explanation of the Phase of a Signal

I understand that the meaning of the phase response of a system is simply how much the system delays a frequency component. However, I do not find an intuitive explanation for the phase of a signal. ...
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Is the Laplace transform a special case of Fourier transform? (Not the other way around)

Always had a thought about why Laplace transform reveals the transient properties of the system? My doubt is based on the following fact, Fourier transform is given as  \begin{equation} \mathscr{F}\...
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What is $F(0)$ is “dc” component in the context of image processing?

It has always been said that $F(0)$ is the "DC component" in fourier transform. However, I don't get what it means to say that $F(0)$ is "DC" in the context of image processing. The zero in this ...
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2answers
967 views

DFT of a complex sinusoid

I'm attending this course (Coursera: Audio Signal Processing for Music Applications) in which the professor derives a general equation for Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) for a complex sinusoid. The ...
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2answers
659 views

WAV encoding problem

When processing wav files, I encounter this problem: the what I extract PCM from a 8-bit encoded .wav file, I got a sequence of integers. However, when verifying my implementation with ...
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1answer
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Zero Padding of FFT

There are many question related to the zero padding a time domain signal to get more frequency bins after performing Fourier transform. As I understand this process is equivalent to trigonometric ...
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Compressive Sensing Incoherence Principle

As people acquainted with Compressive Sensing would know, incoherence and sparsity are two main principles. I've been reading about compressive sampling and developed an interest into the topic. What ...
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2answers
341 views

Is my transform the essence of DFT?

I'm someone just learning DSP, and want understand its essence. My transform is the simplest possible. Input signal is just one frequency: $256\textrm{ Hz}$. Sampling frequency is $2560\textrm{ ...
5
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1answer
417 views

Why the unilateral Laplace transform?

Why is the Laplace transform commonly taught as the unilateral Laplace transform? I mean, for the Fourier transform, we commonly have the bilateral transform... if the signal is 0 for $t<0$, then ...
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1answer
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How do I convert a real baseband signal to a complex baseband signal?

I have radio telescope observations that have resulted in two real-valued signals (corresponding to the right- and left-handed circular polarizations). The signals are sampled at rate $2B$, and ...
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Image Processing and applicability of 2D Fourier Transform

As a newbie in the world of signal processing, I am having a hard time in appreciating image 2-D fourier transforms. I am fully able to appreciate the concept of 1-D Fourier transform. Essentially, ...
5
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1answer
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Is possible reach the DFT if I have the DTFT?

My teacher told me that DFT is DTFT sampled, i.e.: $$X[k] = X(e^{j \omega})\Bigg|_{\omega = \frac{2\pi k}{N}}$$ But, if I have the sine $$ x[n] = \sin(\omega_0 n) $$ the DTFT is: $$X(e^{j \...
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1answer
143 views

Is sampling a Fourier transformed signal and fourier transforming a sampled signal the same?

I'm having a hard time understanding an assignment that states: Draw the complex spectrum of the sampled signal $f(t)$ (periodic and continuous). Do this, by first calculating the Fourier ...
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4answers
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Is interpolation of an audio signal to increase frequency resolution possible?

I apologize if some of what I ask is not entirely correct, I'm new to this field, but extremely interested. I have an Audio signal of sample rate 44.1 kHz that I want to segment into 30 frames, and ...
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336 views

What does the uncertainty principle say about recursive filters?

The uncertainty principle is usually stated as a relationship between a continuous signal and that signal's Fourier transform, and says that $$ \int_{-\infty}^{\infty} \! x^2 f(x) \ \mathrm{dx} \int_{-...
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Implementing Convolution in Frequency Domain?

Suppose, we have a bitmap image represented as a 2D integer array, int [,] image2D; whose FFT is Complex[,] fftImage2D; ...
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1answer
600 views

2-d circularly symmetric low-pass filter

For a square pixel grid, the ideal 2-d low-pass filter with a horizontal and a vertical cut-off angular frequency $\omega_c$ in radians has an impulse response (kernel) $h_{\small\square}(x, y)$ that ...
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784 views

Fourier Transform of Alternating Periodic Rectangular Pulse

I'm having trouble determining Fourier transform of signal. I have 2 ideas on how to solve this problem. Given the signal is periodic I could use formula for Fourier transform of periodic signals: $$...
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1answer
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Discrete Time Fourier Transform (DTFT) for an unstable system (Ideal Low Pass Filter)

The Dirchlet conditions state that if the signal is absolutely summable then it the DTFT of the signal definitely exists. This is a sufficient condition but not necessary condition. There are ...
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3answers
163 views

Window functions with rippleless spectra

On Wikipedia I found the Hann-Poisson window, and the article claims the spectrum is smooth, but it isn't theoretically smooth, as it turns out. In practice you achieve partial smoothness by jacking ...
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1answer
250 views

What are the uses of those three types of wavelet transformations?

In my studies of wavelets, there appear to be 3 different families of them: The Continuous wavelet transform The Discrete wavelet transform The Redundant wavelet transform They are all based on the ...
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607 views

How to combine bins of my DFT

I have a time series and apply the FFT to get a spectrum. Let's assume that my sampling frequency and the length of the time sample are chosen such that I end up with a $\Delta f = 0.1$ Hz. As this ...
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3answers
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MP3 Filterbank + MDCT: Why?

What is the rationale for the two-step process the MP3 format performs, first decomposing the input into 32 subbands of 6/18 samples each then performing MDCT on each subband individually? Why not ...
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1answer
932 views

Why do we discard imaginary part of the phase spectrum?

Suppose I compute phase spectrum from the fftn function in MATLAB as ...
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2answers
895 views

Kernel Convolution in Frequency Domain - Cyclic Padding

I don't know whether this is the right place to post this, but I suppose it is. I know that frequency multiplication = circular convolution in time space for discrete signals (vectors). I also know ...
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1answer
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Correlation filter output range normalization

I'm developing correlation filters based image recognition. I implemented MACE correlation filter in matlab: training code: ...
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4answers
187 views

redundancy of sin and cos waves with real data

I have the following question. Isn't it true that when applying a fourier transform to a real function (i.e. computing a characteristic function for a density), we only ever need one of the two waves: ...
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149 views

Transfer function and deconvolution

Forewords This question is about methodology references and numerical application. I am posting on Signal Processing because I think this question belong to this place. I am new to the stack, feel ...
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550 views

Fourier domain: temporal versus spatial

I am little bit confused over these two. As per my understanding, spatial domain is the usual method we did in matlab by using the function fft2, which will return ...
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1answer
969 views

2D Fourier Transform of Rotated Discrete Domain Signal

Assume we know that the Fourier transform of a signal $x(n_1,n_2)$ is $\mathcal{F}(x(n_1,n_2))=X(\omega_1,\omega_2)$. What is the Fourier transform of the signal after being transformed by a rotation ...
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516 views

Is Gabor uncertainty a feature of the Fourier transform, or of nature?

By Gabor uncertainty, I mean the principle of uncertainty as applied to signals — with the result that you can't have arbitrary time and frequency localization. By way of background to my question, ...
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Minimum statistics noise estimate - how to calculate the underestimation factor?

I have implemented a basic noise estimator using the minimum statistics method. Noise power estimate is obtained as a minimum of the short time power estimate within a window of subband power samples. ...
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Impulse Response / Frequency response Question [closed]

I have a major question. Please take a look. I have this differential equation (DE): $$ \frac{d^2y(t)}{dt} +\frac{dy(t)}{dt} +4y(t)= \frac{dx(t)}{dt} +2x(t) $$ And I have to find impulse response (...
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4answers
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Removing values from FFT result same as filtering?

I don't quite understand why the textbooks say it is impossible to implement an ideal low pass filter. If I was to take the FFT of a discrete signal x[n], with Matlab's fft function I'd be returned ...
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4answers
977 views

Is Fourier series a sampled version of Fourier transform?

I recently learned about dtft and how dft/dfs is the sampled version of dtft. I was wondering if Fourier series is also obtainable by sampling Fourier transform? I am a noob in the subject so sorry if ...
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3answers
708 views

FFT of input length 1536

Does anyone knows can i find a FFT of 1536 length input. Its a specification given in 3gpp Lte and we need a transform of 1536 input size which is neither a power of any number i would say. I just ...
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Proof of complex conjugate symmetry property of DFT

According to the Proof : \begin{align} X_n &= \sum_{k=0}^{N-1}x_ke^{-j\frac{2\pi k n}{N}}\\ X_{N-n} &= \sum_{k=0}^{N-1}x_ke^{-j\frac{2\pi k (N-n)}{N}}\\ &=\sum_{k=0}^{N-1}x_k e^{-j 2\pi ...
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4answers
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About Discrete Fourier Transform vs. Discrete Fourier Series

I am new to the field of signal processing. I am wondering what is the difference between DFS(Fourier Series) vs. DFT(Fourier Transform). For common applications, usually we get a segment(length <...
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Energy calculation in frequency domain

I was just wondering... The formula I learned to calculate the energy of the signal is expressed in the time domain: $$E_x^{\text{time}} = \sum_{n=-\infty}^{\infty} |x[n]|^2$$ Then, what does the ...
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1answer
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Analysing 2500 frequencies using FFT with an input vector of 2048 samples?

I am currently reading the paper A Highly Robust Audio Fingerprinting System and on page 4 one can read about the technical parameters they use: Sampling rate of 5000 Hz, frames of 2048 samples as ...
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Books that explain DSP well to those not directly in engineering?

I do work with computer graphics and am dipping my toes into ray tracing. That field involves a good number of the subjects covered in DSP (Fourier transform, time vs frequency space, etc) but I was ...
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611 views

Finding maximum using DFT

I'm trying to find an efficient way to compute maximum of a signal using its DFT. More formally: $$\max\left\{ \mathcal F^{-1}\left(X_k\right)\right\}, X_k\text{ is the DFT of the signal and } \...
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2answers
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Why are Fourier analysis and transform only applicable for LTI systems?

Why are Fourier analysis and transform only applicable for LTI systems? What if the system is not LTI, won't Fourier analysis or transform be possible?
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About Fourier transform of periodic signal

In Fourier transform for periodic signal, I checked different books and I found a different explanation in each book. Let's take the explanation in Signals and Systems by Rajeshwari & Rao: The ...

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