Questions tagged [fourier-transform]

The Fourier transform is a mathematical operation that decomposes a function into its constituent frequencies, known as a frequency spectrum.

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288 views

Is there any optimised algorithm to calculate 2D fourier transform

I m trying to implement my own code for finding the 2D fourier transform of an image in MATLAB using the formula for it, but it take toooo much time to come up with the answer, is there a defined fast ...
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635 views

DFT of time reversed signal

I was looking into proof and find something strange: The last part we obtain from DFT definition. $$X[k] = \sum^{N-1}_{n=0}x[n]W^{kn}_N, \quad\text{Where}\quad W^{kn}_N = e^{-j\frac{2\pi}{N}nk}$$ ...
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Problem identifying the analytic expression of such determined signal

I came across this problem I am supposed to find the Fourier transform of $g(t)$, but I am not able to find the analytical expression of such signal. The teacher suggests that I should consider ...
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839 views

Convolution in spatial domain is multiplication in frequency domain

I have to prove convolution in spatial domain = multiplication in frequency domain using two matrices. $$ x(m, n) = \begin{bmatrix} 1 && 2 \\ 3 && 4 \end{bmatrix} $$ $$ h(m, n) = \...
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Discrete time inverse fourier transform of cosine squared

$$ X(\omega) = \cos^2(\omega)$$ I tried this problem, and I ended up getting $0$, which doesn't make any sense. I integrated: $$ x(n) = \frac{1}{2\pi}\int_{0}^{2\pi} \cos^2(\omega)e^{j{\pi}n} d\...
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1answer
224 views

How does a Hermitian FFT work in Numpy?

Say, I create a Hermitian complex signal using, import numpy as np t = np.arange(-4, 4) z = np.exp(1j * t) Here z should be a ...
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287 views

Mathematical relationship between highpass and lowpass filtering

Let $g, h_{HP}, h_{LP}: \mathbb{R} \rightarrow \mathbb{R}$ and $G, H_{HP}, H_{LP}$ denote their continuous Fourier transforms under the Fourier operator $\mathcal{F}$. Let $*$ denote the continuous ...
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266 views

Windowed Fourier Transform

I need some help with applying the properties of Fourier Transform. We define the windowed Fourier Transform of $f \in L^2(R)$ as $$Sf(\mu,\xi)=\int_\mathbb{R}f(t)g(t-\mu)e^{-i\xi t}dt$$ Prove ...
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1answer
127 views

FFT of resultant of signals

If one has two signals (say, two acceleromters mounted perpendicularly) and a piece-wise resultant acceleration signal is determined, it appears that frequency content information cannot be determined ...
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1answer
238 views

Finite moving average filter

I am trying to solve this problem but I need a lot of help. Below are my answers for the separate parts, please check and tell me where I am wrong because I am weak on the fundamental concepts of this....
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2answers
326 views

Relation between samplingrate and frequency

I am working on Fourier Transformation, and applying this for recognizing an audioclip. I have a 9 second long audio clip of a guitar strumming an A-Minor. The audioclip has a sampling rate of 44100 ...
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277 views

How to calculate multiplication of two discrete series

Short version: How to multiply two discrete sequences? Long version: Convolution of two discrete sequences is weighted sum. For instance, convolution of two sequences: ...
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1answer
103 views

Plotting a sampled signals DTFT using its CTFT

So I know the connection between the DTFT and the CTFT is the following: Where the left-hand side is the discrete time fourier transform. I need to choose a sampling rate which won't cause any ...
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1answer
331 views

Confused on the difference between the frequency spectrum of an entire song, and the frequency spectrum of a point in time

I am very much a beginner in this field - but find it really interesting. However I am a little confused on a certain area of knowledge. If I have understood correctly: At any point in an audiosignal,...
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1answer
264 views

Why do wavelets integrate to 0 and how do they match a signal?

I have been reading about the Wavelet transform recently and its relationship to the Fourier transform. From what I understand the wavelet transform represents signal data with many short-lived ...
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2answers
499 views

Combining spectrograms with different windows to getting arbitrary time and frequency resolution

Spectrograms convert an amplitude-time signal into a frequency-time signal using Short Time Fourier Transform (STFT). The window size L used in STFT is a design choice. As L increases, you get higher ...
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1answer
2k views

How to do simple extrapolation with Fourier transformation?

I have 1024 sample points, and I would like to do really simple extrapolation using Fourier transformation. First I apply Fast fourier transformation on the data. My first intuition was that I just ...
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Difference in Interpretation: $ω$ (rads/s) vs. $ω$ (rads) and $X(ω)$ vs. $X(e^{jω})$

The fourier transform of a continuous time signal $x(t)$ is $X(ω)$ where the unit of $ω$ is radians/second. And for a discrete signal $x(n)$, the DTFT is $X(e^{jω})$ where the unit of $ω$ is radians. ...
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1answer
264 views

Parseval's Theorem for discrete series

I need to use Parseval's Theorem to find \begin{equation} S\:=\:\sum _{n=-\infty }^{\infty }\:\left[\left(\frac{\sin\left(\frac{\pi }{4}n\right)}{2\pi n}\right)\left(\frac{\sin\left(\frac{\pi \:}{6}n\...
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3answers
86 views

How can a changing signal be Fourier transformed?

Fourier transformation is used to split a periodic signal into frequencies, and calculate the phase and shift for each frequency. But what if we would like to record an audio, which is changing, for ...
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1answer
494 views

Significance of an impulse in the frequency domain

I know that $X(f)$ gives the amplitude associated with the frequency component $f$ of a signal $x(t)$. Now, a sinusoidal signal in time $x(t) = A \cos (2 \pi f_0 t)$, has a Fourier transform $X(f) = \...
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207 views

Phantom harmonics when using cosine windows why do they appear and how to avoid them?

Given an L order cosine window, it is possible to show that the width of the main lobe is given by: $$\omega_w = \frac{2 \pi L}{(2N+1)}$$ Where $L$ is the order of the window, $N$ is the maximum ...
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1answer
55 views

Computing real signal with minimum absolute values from even magnitude spectrum

I want to derive a real audio signal from an arbitrary even magnitude spectrum. The phase spectrum affects the values of the signal in the time domain; for example, a phase of 0 for all frequencies ...
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3answers
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Periodicity of a constant signal!

This can be a very silly question, but I'm quite confused: If we take the Fourier transform of any constant signal, we get an impulse at zero, which says that its frequency is zero and, hence, it is ...
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728 views

Signal reconstructed using IFFT: amplitude scale larger than input

I am trying to test reconstruction of signal from IFFT. Below is the python program. I break the signal into overlapping windows and do FFT after multiplication with window function. Then I apply IFFT ...
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516 views

Separation of overlapping frequencies

I have a signal with multiple frequencies, and two of them, one of which is my main frequency, overlap. Are there any techniques that could separate two frequencies that almost overlap? I can ...
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1answer
612 views

Discrepancy between Gaussian FFT and its Fourier Transform

I am trying to do the FFT of a Gaussian signal and comparing it to the theoretical Fourier transform. For infinitely small time step $dt$ and infinitely long signal length $T$, the 2 should become ...
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1answer
49 views

How to find out amplitude of harmonic after diff type of FT?

I am new in DSP, so I apologies if it's dump questions but I didn't find needed information on the Internet. So the questions is: Assume that we have simple harmonic signal described by next function ...
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1answer
190 views

Finding audio signal time delay: cross-correlation vs. impulse response?

I need to find a time delay between the two audio signals, one comming from one set of speakers, and the other being the source signal that is initialy sent to speakers. I send some noise through ...
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2answers
119 views

Does MatLab's `ftt` function gives a Fourier Transformed signal in terms of frequency $f$ or angular frequency $\omega$?

When we use MatLab's fft function to Fourier transform a time signal, do we obtain a Fourier space signal in terms of frequency $f$, or angular frequency $\omega$? ...
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1answer
83 views

Spectrum analysis of a function

I asked this on Math SE but received no replies. I hope this is a relevant forum to ask in. I would like to analyze the spectrum of the following function: $$f(t)=\cos(t\cdot a(1+b\cos(ct)))$$ with $...
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118 views

Fourier Transformed a signal $f(t) = \cos(2\pi*4t)*5\cos(2\pi*0.4t)$ but did not get expected results. What went wrong?

I created a signal with two sinusoidal components by specifying $$ f(t) = \cos(2\pi*4t)*5\cos(2\pi*0.4t) $$ I expected with I used MatLab's fft function on this that signal that I would see a peak ...
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213 views

Inverse Fourier Transform of the real part of fourier transform, and inverse transform of the imaginary part of fourier transform [closed]

How can I calculate the inverse fourier transform of the real part of the fourier transformation?
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945 views

Show That the Power Spectrum Density Matrix Is Positive Semi Definite (PSD) Matrix

Given a Wide Sense Stationary Multi Variate (Vector) Random Process $ \boldsymbol{x} \left[ n \right] $ it Auto Covariance Matrix Function is given by: $$ {R}_{x, x} \left[ m \right] = \mathbb{E} \...
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What will be the filtered output?

I tried to solve this question from basic Here is my work Image 1 Image 2 But the correct answer is Option $(B)$.What is the mistake i am doing?
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What is the physical meaning of Fourier Transform having only $\delta(\omega)$ functions?

While calculating the Fourier Transform of the signal $$x(t) = 1 + \cos(6 \pi t + \pi/8)$$ I found that its Fourier Transform is purely in terms of Dirac Delta $\delta(\omega)$, that is its transform ...
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2answers
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A system that perfoms Fourier Transform operation - is it an LTI system?

If a system takes input as the time domain signal and outputs the frequency domain signal, is such a system an LTI system? For if the input time domain signal can be represented as a linear ...
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1answer
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Prove the dirac delta contains all frequencies

I'm looking for a mathematical proof that the dirac delta contains all frequencies. I just read in a text book that the frequency spectrum of a dirac is just a horizontal line of amplitude 1, whereas ...
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1answer
593 views

Find the nyquist sampling rate?

I have a signal $x(t)$ for which I want to find the Nyquist frequency : $$ x(t) = \frac{\sin{\pi t/2}}{\pi t/2} \ast \sum^\infty_{n=-\infty}\delta(t-10n)$$ I am trying to solve this in the time ...
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1answer
200 views

Inverse DTFT of left-sided sequence

I am pretty new to inverse Fourier transforms and I would like to ask a question. Does anyone know how to bring back to the "sequence domain" this relation below? In other words, get the inverse DTFT ...
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1answer
427 views

Meaning and unit of frequency in Laplace (Fourier) transform

Imagine transfer function obtained by Laplace transform, for example: $G(s) = \dfrac{1}{s+1}$ Now, I would like to do some frequency analysis, so I replace the $s$ with $\omega i$ (let's consider ...
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What happens when we reconstruct a signal after its Fourier transform is done and some frequencies are altered? [closed]

Since we loose time information when we take a Fourier transform, what happens if we alter a few frequencies from the transform and then reconstruct the signal, do we get the altered frequency at the ...
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1answer
246 views

Why do signal have mirror signal after pure frequency shift?

In my Matlab code I have a simple simulation of FPGA with the ability to simulate doppler shift, and after I and Q components plugged into IQmod with some carrier freq. In my Matlab code when I ...
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115 views

Question related to Deconvolution and Fourier Transform

Currently I am completely new to Signal Processing and I am about to kick off a project related to the system identification. The general idea is given a pair of sent and received signals, I have to ...
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Normalised magnitudes in sliding dft

I am new to signal processing. I am trying to use the output of a sliding DFT to analyse frequency peaks. Take for instance this implementation: https://github.com/bronsonp/SlidingDFT/blob/master/...
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1answer
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Differences between FFT from acceleration, velocity and displacement data of a dynamic system

I am new to vibration mechanics and signal processing. Recently, I’ve performed an experimental test with an accelerometer mounted on a plate (shaker). The plate vibrates with exact frequencies 10 and ...
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2answers
433 views

Why phase information is usually ignored after Fourier transform?

Why phase information is usually ignored after Fourier transform? I have read in a tutorial [ref: FFT Tutorial] that interpretation of phase is usually challenging, so scientists do not show it or ...
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1answer
93 views

Phase error correction for Fourier transform basis vectors

I was wondering what is the best way to account for phase noise in a set of basis vectors? Example: I have a measured signal, say $f'(x)$ that should be related to a desired spectrum $f(\nu)$ through ...
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203 views

How to filter out everything but a single frequency in the time domain?

I'm new to signal processing and would like some insights about the best way to filter simple data without being too computationally intensive. I have an audio signal and I want to extract a single ...
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1answer
959 views

How do I convert a real baseband signal to a complex baseband signal?

I have radio telescope observations that have resulted in two real-valued signals (corresponding to the right- and left-handed circular polarizations). The signals are sampled at rate $2B$, and ...