Questions tagged [fourier-transform]

The Fourier transform is a mathematical operation that decomposes a function into its constituent frequencies, known as a frequency spectrum.

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1answer
119 views

Why DFT is used for approximating CTFT when you can approximate CTFT-integral itself?

I was using MATLAB for approximating FTs. Why DFT is used if we can approximate the transform-integration using summation.
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Impulse invariance vs. DT representation of a CT system: Where is the inconsistency?

Suppose you have a continuous-time (CT) system $h_c(t)$, bandlimited to $B$. Your goal is to represent the system as a discrete-time (DT) system $h[n]$, sampled at $f_s \leq 2 B$. Clearly $h[n]$ won't ...
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29 views

Log derivative interpretation

In the origin paper on Synchrosqueezing Wavelet Transform, the phase transform, used to extract the instantaneous frequency of a signal $f(t)$, is defined as $$ \omega (a, b) = -j[W_\psi f(a, b)]^{-1} ...
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22 views

Calculation of eigendecomposition of a signal in its Fourier domain?

I want to find the eigendecomposition of a 3-dimensional discretely sampled signal $X$, where each sample $X_{i,j,k}$ is treated as a vector $\langle i, j, k\rangle$ (with the origin at the middle of ...
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24 views

Right discrete cepstrum implementation in python

I know that the cepstrum is mainly computed as follow: $ C_{r}={\mathcal {F}}^{-1}\left\{\log({\mathcal {|{\mathcal {F}}\{f(t)\}|}})\right\} $ What I am wondering is if I should take the whole fourier ...
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2answers
88 views

Unclear time-to-frequency integration step

From here; $\hat f=\mathcal{F}(f)$, bar = complex conjugate: Time-shift property: $x(t-b) \Leftrightarrow e^{-j\omega b}{\bf X} (\omega)$, so why is it $+$ (red)? What at all is happening? Looks like ...
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98 views

Output of a stable LTI system

Let $\mathcal{L}$ be a stable LTI system. Is it true that if input has finite energy then output also has finite energy? I'm not sure about that. We know that $$\int_{-\infty}^{+\infty}|h(t)|dt\lt\...
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190 views

Autocorrelation for periodic signals

Autocorrelation for power signals is defined by $$R_x(\tau)=\lim_{T\to\infty}\frac{1}{2T}\int_{-T}^Tx(t)x^*(t-\tau)dt\tag{1}$$ Is it true that for periodic signals $(1)$ can be computed by $$R_x(\tau)=...
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26 views

FFT followed by SVD leads to topography?

I am implementing the localizer method from this paper. One of the steps is not hard to understand and implement, but I don't understand why it is applied or what is the rationale behind it. Each data ...
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63 views

Fast Fourier Inversion: Functions of a Complex Argument $f:\mathbb{C} \rightarrow \mathbb{R}$

I originally posted this question on math stack exchange, but I think it may be better suited for this community. I'm interested in functions $f: \mathbb{C} \rightarrow \mathbb{R}$ with associated ...
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33 views

Discrete representation of a signal that has unevenly spaced samples in frequency

I'd like to describe a problem that I've been struggling with for a while. I want to apologize in advance due to the long text. I just want to be as clear as possible in my first post. Consider the ...
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63 views

Windowing function for Inverse Fourier Transform

It is a common practice to apply windowing function, such as Hann or Hamming, to a time domain signal before FFT, in order to reduce spectral leakage. Often, we do 1) Windowing, 2) FFT, 3) frequency ...
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128 views

Alternative convolution theorem?

Instead of padding $x_1[n]$ and $x_2[n]$ then taking $$ \text{iDFT}(\text{DFT}(x_1[n])\cdot\text{DFT}(x_2[n])), \tag{1} $$ assuming we know $x_1(t)$ and $x_2(t)$, and their FT's, what if we do $$ \...
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DFT of pure sinusoidal wave

I'm writing a program in which you can synthesize waves by adding to a sound's Fourier transform, and then inverse the transform to get the modified sound. In order to do this, I need to know what to ...
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How do I calculate the correct amplitudes of a discrete Fourier transform (DFT)?

I have a set of samples values in time domain. I know they are uncorrelated and I have to extract the correct amplitudes. However, the values are only ~88% of what they should be. As a test see the ...
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1answer
111 views

How is signal to noise ratio actually measured by receiver equipment?

This sounds like quite a basic question but it surprised me, how is SNR actually measured? You have the incoming signal: It seems like the SNR is just the visual comparison of the peak signal '...
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2answers
68 views

Why is Fourier space not adequate for (theoretical or digital) filters?

As far as I have seen, almost all theoretical filter design occurs in Laplace or Z-space. Also, there is a pervasive connection to real life analog filters in the design. If one is just thinking in a ...
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33 views

DFT algorithm designed for a “sample-by-sample” senario

Suppose I have a system that wants to take an input signal (audio in this case) and wants to output a Discrete Fourier Transform of it in real time (ie every sample). My initial thought is that if you ...
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Find CT Fourier transform of $ \left[ \frac{ \sin(\pi ~ t) }{\pi ~t} \right] \left[ \frac{ \sin(2\pi ~ (t-1)) }{\pi ~(t-1)} \right] $using properties

Use properties of Fourier Transform to solve the question. The question is in the imgur link below. I got $f_t$ of $\frac {sin(pi \cdot t)} {pi \cdot t}$ as rectangular pulse with value $1$ from -pi ...
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1answer
63 views

What is the DFT of $[x_1 -x_2 x_3 -x_4…x_n]$

If DFT of $[x_1 x_2 x_3... x_N]$ is $Y(k)$, what is the DFT of $[x_1 -x_2 x_3 -x_4,....x_N]$ in terms of $Y(k)$? I have tried to formulate it but I cannot get a simplified expression for DFT of ...
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42 views

finding power spectral density from a vector

I have been given a vector: \begin{equation} v= \:\begin{pmatrix}\frac{1}{\sqrt{2}}&\frac{1}{\sqrt{2}}\end{pmatrix} \end{equation} my job is to find the power spectral density from this vector \...
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1answer
43 views

Bandwidth of a bandpass signal

If the Fourier transform of an aperiodic continuous time signal has signal components between the minimum frequency w1 and the maximum frequency w2, but not all the frequencies between w1 and w2, is ...
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1answer
64 views

Why is the continuous time Fourier series of DC signal an impulse?

In case of continuous time Fourier transform(CTFT), I can easily calculate the Fourier transform of DC signal by using Fourier duality or inverse CTFT. But I don't know how to calculate the continuous ...
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3answers
182 views

Does zero-padding distort the spectrum?

It's said to "sample the DTFT", revealing what "DFT fails to see". And I fail to see how this sampling isn't distortion. The "spectrum" aims to provide the sinusoidal ...
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1answer
87 views

Find the length of the impulse response for the given output and input

Homework Question: Consider a signal $x[n]=\alpha e^{j \omega_{0} n}+\beta e^{j \omega_{1} n}+\gamma e^{j \omega_{2} n} .$ What is the length of impulse response $h[n]$ of a system (non-trivial) such ...
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48 views

Why does upsampling in the frequency domain produces replicas of the signal in spatial/time domain [duplicate]

The experiment is the following: Given a 1d signal, e.g., a vector of values $f$. Let $F$ be its DFT, i.e., $F=fftshift(fft(f))$, shift is just to have DC centered. Then we upsample $F$ as $uF=...
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2answers
102 views

Can I sample at Nyquist rate if I know that my samples are taken only at the signal's maxima or minima?

I know that in general the sampling rate, $f_s$, must be greater than twice the highest frequency of the signal, $f$. If I sample at the Nyquist rate, it can lead to the following: However, if the ...
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4answers
144 views

what is the relationship between a spectrogram and the uncertainty principle heisenberg? [closed]

what is the relationship between these two things Perhaps more resolution in a spectrogram is equivalent to knowing more the position of the electron and less resolution is knowing the velocity of the ...
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In computed tomography (CT), why is 'Inverse Problem of Radon transform' studied?

As I know, the Radon transform is a very important tool in CT by Beer's law. Thus, finding $f(x)$ of Radon transform $Rf(L):=\int_{L} f(x)dl(x)$ is helpful in CT. Nowaday, the Filtered back-projection ...
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expression for the FT of the frequency response of a system

I am trying to find an expression for the Fourier Transform of the frequency response of the cascade system seen here: Here is my approach: $(-1)^n = (-1)^{-n}$ $v[n] = x[n]e^{j\pi n}$ $V(e^{jw}) = X(...
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23 views

Is there anyway to find the frequency of DFT eigenvectors (basis) from its eigenvalues?

I've read this document which talks about the DFT. It describes that DFT bases are the eigenvectors of a circulant matrix. I know that every basis has a frequency in it, but I don't know what is it? ...
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60 views

Zero Padding in image reconstruction

I need to zero-pad the image for a better reconstruction but according to my project details, I will be given a Fourier-transformed image so can someone tell me how to pad the image in such a ...
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1answer
61 views

Bluestein's algorithm to evaluate the DFT from $f_o$ to $f_o + k\Delta_F$

Briefly, the convolution between $x(nT) e^{-j2\pi f_o nT} e^{-j \pi \Delta_F Tn^2}$ and $c(nT) = e^{j \pi \Delta_F T n^2}$ multiplied $e^{j \pi \Delta_F T k^2}$ allows me to find the DFT $X(f_k = f_o +...
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3answers
443 views

DFT coefficients meaning?

What "are" they? What's a sensible way to interpret the coefficients (and what isn't)? To pose specifics: DFT coefficients describe the frequencies present in a signal They describe the ...
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1answer
56 views

What do different Cepstral or MFCC coefficients represent intuitively?

I understand the explanation for separating slow and rapid changing log spectral components but i need to understand: Why lower coefficients have higher and mostly positive magnitudes? Why Higher ...
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34 views

Power spectrum of modified process

Suppose there is a process $x(t)$ with power spectrum $$S_x(\omega)=\lim_{T\to\infty}\frac{1}{T}\left|\int_{-T/2}^{T/2}\mathrm{d}t\,e^{j\omega t}x(t)\right|^2,$$ ignoring the expectation value for ...
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117 views

Why does time-domain convolution correspond to frequency-domain multiplication? (visual)

I seek a visual explanation of this. I've already seen the maths, and can derive the proofs - they amount to nill for an intuitive understanding. Any amount of math is welcome, as long as serving to ...
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Why is the Periodogram Used as an Estimate of PSD?

Why is the periodogram method as given by Schuster (1898) - which is not a consistent estimate of the PSD - still used, as opposed to consistent non-parametric methods for estimating the PSD like ...
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1answer
113 views

Fourier Transforms, Convolution, Cross-correlation: what is their physical unit exactly?

Let us assume we are talking about real, deterministic, electrical signals $x(t)$ and $y(t)$ (magnitude in Volts). There are different kind of Fourier Transforms. I made a table to summarize: NB: By ...
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40 views

Deriving Fourier Transform of Time-Windowed Discrete Signal

I'm trying to derive the Fourier Transform of a finite-length discrete signal to show the effect of windowing,e.g. spectral leakage and resolution, but I can't seem to arrive at the same answer. Just ...
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2answers
119 views

Correction of amplitude after zero padding for upsampling purposes

I have time sequence in which the data is sampled at 0.8 Hz. The data is related to chromatography (chemical analysis), that is why the sampling frequency is relatively low. The instrument cannot ...
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Morlet wavelet: DFT vs Fourier Transform

I find what seem to be contradictions between the two. "Morlet" defined here, and its Fourier Transform (FT) below it. DFT's imaginary component zeroes with large ...
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5answers
516 views

DFT derivative property?

Does it have one? The continuous variant does, $f'(t) \rightarrow j \omega F(\omega)$ - but $jkX[k]$ definitely isn't it for DFT. To find it there must be a useful simplification of $\text{DFT}(x[n] - ...
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1answer
30 views

Heterodyne modeling confusion in SDR

I've been reading this lab sheet which explains the signal processing math of the RTL-SDR radio dongle. http://www.eas.uccs.edu/~mwickert/ece4670/lecture_notes/Lab6.pdf In pages 5 and 6, the local ...
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2answers
65 views

How to determine the sine Fourier coefficients of discrete data?

The following relation gives me the measurements of interest $w$ at equally distanced locations $x_j$ in space: $$w_j=\sum_{m=1}^{11}A_m\sin\left(\frac{mπx_j}{L}\right)$$ where $A_m$ are the Fourier ...
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How to plot thermal noise in the “time domain”?

$P = 4kT$ (where $k$ = Boltzmann’s constant, and $T$ = temperature of the instrument ($K$)) And the mean voltage is thus, of course, $V^2/R = 4kT$ And the voltage is distributed as a Gaussian around ...
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59 views

How much zero padding I should do to an audio signal before fft?

I was working on project and I need to do fft to my audio signal. I was going through a code and found following line. Can anyone explain me the line of code. ...
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1answer
135 views

how to plot fft with imaginary and real part in 3d or calculate the degree of rotation

I would like to make a plot like 1 and see the real and imaginary part in a 3d space. I dont want to make exactly the same plot. for me it is okay if i see the peak for both signals shifted. it is ...
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1answer
49 views

Applying fourier transform twice (DSP course)

I stumbled upon a question in a DSP course (coursera) which I don't understand, shown below is a screenshot of the question and answer. The part which I don't understand is circled. Why is it equal ...
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1answer
51 views

The impact on the frequency of adding zero samples and non zero samples

Can someone give me a brief explanation of what is going on in here? I struggle to understand the full differences between the impact on the frequency of added zero samples and adding samples which ...

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