Questions tagged [fourier-transform]

The Fourier transform is a mathematical operation that decomposes a function into its constituent frequencies, known as a frequency spectrum.

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What are the statistics of the discrete Fourier transform of white Gaussian noise?

Consider a white Gaussian noise signal $ x \left( t \right) $. If we sample this signal and compute the discrete Fourier transform, what are the statistics of the resulting Fourier amplitudes?
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Using the Inverse Filter to Correct a Spatially Convolved Image

As part of a homework assignment, we are implementing the Inverse Filter. Degrade an image then recover with an Inverse Filter. I convolve the image in the spatial domain with a 5x5 box filter. I FFT ...
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Phase shift and phase spectrum terms in multidimensional signal

I know about phase of a 1D signal. But when I go into higher dimensions like 2D,3D etc, it becomes headache to grasp the concept. What are the terms phase shift and phase spectrum mean in case of ...
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Example of Fourier Transform not existing for real-life signals?

I got curious based on this question here, but basically, is there ever a real-life signal that exists where its Fourier transform does not exist? If a signal is not finite energy, then its Fourier ...
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Complex conjugate and IFFT

I asked a question over on stack overflow. I'm having a slight problem however. As suggested by Paul R I am mirroring my lower $n/2$ bins into the upper $n/2$ bins. I have a few questions however. ...
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What are the units of my data after an FFT?

Magnetometer measures the derivative of the magnetic field, or dB/dt, with an output in microvolts (mV). The Sampling rate is 128 Hz, so if we collect data for 2 minutes, $2 \times 60 \times 128=...
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Is the discrete Gaussian kernel an eigenfunction of the DFT?

So the Gaussian function is an eigenfunction of the Fourier transform because it transforms into itself, right? But this isn't true for the sampled Gaussian in the DFT because the tails of the ...
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How one apply correctly FFT in image denoising

I'm writing program (Qt widgets/c++) for removing noise from images. As denoising method, i selected non local means method. This method has incredible quality of restored images (that's why it's the ...
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Converting raw I/Q to dB

I am getting I/Q data from a software-defined radio. I want to do some stuff on signals in the data, but only if it exceeds a certain range. What is the general procedure to get dB (dBm, or anything)...
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How to generalise the Fourier transform?

The Fourier transform takes a signal and splits it into a series of sine and cosine waves. I am told that it's supposed to be possible to split a signal into some other set of functions. My question ...
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Signal processing techniques for an accelerometer signal?

I am running some tests where I am recording accelerometer measurements. I am looking to use elements of signal processing on this signal, but I am unsure about where to begin, or what my approach ...
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Effect of windowing on noise

I understand that truncating a signal in time 'smears' the frequency response depending on the window chosen. In general, the shorter the signal duration, the more 'flattened' the frequency response, ...
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what is the difference between $X(j\omega)$ and $X(\omega)$ notation

I am trying to understand Fourier Transform and Laplace Transform. What is the difference between $X(j\omega)$ and $X(\omega)$ notation? what is the meaning of $j\omega$ ? Is it represent frequency? ...
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Why are there so many windowing functions?

Many windowing functions are listed here in the Mathematica documentation. I tried using a few to reduce leakage when computing a Discrete Fourier Transform. From what I could tell it made little ...
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Why is a negative exponent present in Fourier and Laplace transform?

could anyone explain why there is a need of negative exponent in fourier and laplace transform.I looked through the web but I couldn't get anything.Does anything happen if a positive exponent is ...
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Deriving 2-D discrete Fourier transforms

I have a problem in DFT. It was one of my past-year exam papers questions. Question: Let $F(u,v)$ be the 2-D Fourier transform of a 2-D continuous function $f(x,y)$. Derive in terms of $F(:,:)$ ...
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Fourier transform artifacts

My starting point in what follows is a radially symmetric random field. Taking the Fourier transform of this (and plotting it in logarithm to highlight the patterns), I obtain the following image in ...
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DFT and multiplication/convolution equivalence

Is there a simple or potentially intuitive explanation for, with the DFT, vector multiplication in one domain being equivalent to circular convolution of the transforms of the vectors in the other ...
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Difference between DFT and Z-Transform

I have searched this question but couldn't find the answer in this network. I know this is very confusing question for DSP beginners. Both DFT and Z-transform work for Discrete signal. I have read ...
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Sense of zeropadding in a time domain

I have the task related to Radon transform which contains a subtask which uses resampling by means of DFT. Let's consider the non-periodical discretized signal (Fig.1) (for example the string of ...
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Phase correlation vs. normalized cross-correlation

I asked this over at Mathematics Stack Exchange, but since this sort of lies on the border of the questions normally asked over there and the questions you see over here I'll ask it here as well. (As ...
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Removing a sinusoidal artifact from a set of movie frames

I am doing some post-hoc analysis of a dataset consisting of a series of movie frames that are contaminated by a strongly periodic artifact. I would like to remove this artifact from my frames. For ...
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Choice of Gaussian kernel parameters when lowpass filtering before image resampling?

I need to decimate a signal by a factor of q. More specifically my signal is a 3D "image": $\ I(x_i,y_j,z_k)$, which I need to downsample by a factor of two in the z direction. I want to do lowpass ...
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Fourier transform of cosine to the power of 3

How can I find the Fourier transform of $$ f(x) = ( \cos(x) )^3$$ I know that for $ g(x) = \cos(x) $ $$\mathcal F \Big\{ g(x) \Big\} = \mathcal F \Big\{ \cos(x) \Big\} = \pi \Big [ \delta(w-\pi / 2)...
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Conceptually, how does a Fourier transform differ from an autocorrelation?

I realize the two are derived using different algorithms, and the units are different, but from a conceptual standpoint of the information they provide how do they differ? I'm thinking here about the ...
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Mathematically inclined Signal and Systems/Signal Processing book?

I'm an electronics engineering student with high inclination to analysis and pure mathematics. I was just wondering if there was any book ( or any resource ) that treats signal and systems and signal ...
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Comparison between Fourier transform, short time Fourier transform and wavelets

What is the difference between the Fourier transform, short time Fourier transform and wavelets?
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Intuition behind the scaling property of Fourier Transforms

The Fourier transform of $f(ax)$ is $\frac{1}{|a|}F(\frac{u}{|a|})$. So the frequencies are scaled horizontally but the magnitudes are also scaled when the graph of $f$ is scaled horizontally. On the ...
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How to combine a rotation matrix and a stretch matrix into a single matrix for easy Fourier Transform

For full disclosure, this is related to homework. I have to find the Fourier Transform of a function that I've boiled down to the following. I have a function $f(x,y)$ that I can think of as another ...
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RMS calculation in frequency domain after windowing

I can calculate RMS in frequency domain as derived from Parseval's Theorem. But what if I have applied a windowing function before doing the FFT (in my case a Hann window)?. Now the RMS values are ...
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How do I construct input to neural network from audio signals?

Input: Microphone recordings of digits from 0 to 9 from different speakers. Output: The digit from 0 to 9. I am doing this for fun. So first I will train my neural network using some samples and ...
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How to compute the main lobe width of generalized Hamming windows (i.e. Hann, Hamming, etc.)?

Is there a way to compute the main lobe width of windows of the generalized Hamming window family (i.e. Hann, Hamming, etc.)? By main lobe I mean the first zeros left and right of the center of the ...
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FFT of random binary data

I am trying to make sense of FFTs and binary data. Say I have a series of random binary data, which is measured with a repetition rate of 400Hz (interval time of 0.0025s). I have a total of 12489 ...
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Fastest implementation of fft in C++?

I have a MATLAB program that uses fft and ifft a lot. Now I want to translate it to C++ for production. I used OpenCV but I ...
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Why idft(dft(a) * dft(b)) not equal to convolve(a, b)?

I'm a little confused... I always thought the DFT of a convolution was equal to a product of DFTs, but when I tried this in Python: ...
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Effects of linear interpolation of a time series on its frequency spectrum

Situation In order to synchonisize different time series i have to apply linear interpolation on them. After the interpolation and synchronization the signal is transferred into its frequency domain ...
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Difference between DC component and zero frequency component of signal

We know that Fourier Transform of a signal exists if it is absolutely integrable and it exists for periodic signals if impulse functions are allowed. If we consider the fourier transform of $\text{...
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What is an Intuitive Explanation of the Phase of a Signal

I understand that the meaning of the phase response of a system is simply how much the system delays a frequency component. However, I do not find an intuitive explanation for the phase of a signal. ...
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Fourier transform 4 times = original function (from Bracewell book)

I was glancing through "The Fourier Transform & Its Applications" by Ronald Bracewell, which is a good intro book on Fourier Transforms. In it, he says that if you take the FT of a function 4 ...
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What happens if we change the limits of integral in Fourier transform?

By definition of Fourier transform $$X(\omega)=\int_{-\infty}^\infty x(t) e^{-j\omega t} dt $$ Now what will happen to the answer of transform for example in case of $x(t)= \cos(\omega_0 t)$ if ...
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DFT of a complex sinusoid

I'm attending this course (Coursera: Audio Signal Processing for Music Applications) in which the professor derives a general equation for Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) for a complex sinusoid. The ...
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Why is not Fourier Transform Good for Non-linear Processes

I was reading through slides about Hilbert Huang Transform. In slide 14, which talks about the motivations of a new method instead of Fourier Transform (FT), the author provides those two reasons in ...
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Coherent Sampling And The Distribution Of Quantization Noise

I have a question concerning the distribution of noise in the frequency domain in case of Coherent Sampling. I read up about Coherent Sampling and understood that in order for a frequency $f_{in}$ to ...
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What is $F(0)$ is “dc” component in the context of image processing?

It has always been said that $F(0)$ is the "DC component" in fourier transform. However, I don't get what it means to say that $F(0)$ is "DC" in the context of image processing. The zero in this ...
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WAV encoding problem

When processing wav files, I encounter this problem: the what I extract PCM from a 8-bit encoded .wav file, I got a sequence of integers. However, when verifying my implementation with ...
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Is my transform the essence of DFT?

I'm someone just learning DSP, and want understand its essence. My transform is the simplest possible. Input signal is just one frequency: $256\textrm{ Hz}$. Sampling frequency is $2560\textrm{ ...
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STFT: why overlapping the window?

For STFT, we impose window of certain size onto the original signal, then we perform fft on each window. The uncertanty about frequency and time is determined by the width of the window, however, I ...
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Fourier Transform with both Time Delay and Frequency Shift

I know that the Fourier transform of a function with time delay can be written as: $$\mathscr{F}\big\{x(t-t_0)\big\}=X(f)e^{-j2\pi f t_0}$$ The Fourier transform of a function with frequency shift ...
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How do I convert a real baseband signal to a complex baseband signal?

I have radio telescope observations that have resulted in two real-valued signals (corresponding to the right- and left-handed circular polarizations). The signals are sampled at rate $2B$, and ...
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Is interpolation of an audio signal to increase frequency resolution possible?

I apologize if some of what I ask is not entirely correct, I'm new to this field, but extremely interested. I have an Audio signal of sample rate 44.1 kHz that I want to segment into 30 frames, and ...