Questions tagged [fourier-transform]

The Fourier transform is a mathematical operation that decomposes a function into its constituent frequencies, known as a frequency spectrum.

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Unit of Energy Spectral Density

The continuous-time Fourier Transform (CTFT) of a signal $x(t)$ (with unit $unit$) is: $$X(\omega)=\int_{-\infty}^{\infty} x(t)e^{-i\omega t}dt$$ which should be in $unit\cdot sec$ or $\frac{unit}{...
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Phase response of $H(f)=e^{-j2{\pi}ft_0}$

Given is the impulse response: $$h(t)=\delta(t-t_0)$$. I calculated $$H(f)=e^{-j2 \pi ft_0}=|H(f)|\cdot e^{j\varphi(f)}$$. Now, the magnitude response of $H(f)$ is: $$\begin{align} |H(f)| &=\...
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Python FFT outptut

I have a (real) array of data and am trying to analyze its frequency components. I've been using NumPy's FFT routines, but I realized there is something I don't quite understand: why does the output ...
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How to normalize PSD to get the same magnitude as FFT peak

I am trying to use FFT and power spectra density estimation with python (np.fft.fftand scipy.signal.periodogram). And trying to ...
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Symmetry in Lomb-Scargle transformation

I'm observing weird symmetry and repeating pattern on my unevenly sampled time series data after Lomb-Scargle transformation. I used astropy lomb-scargle. ...
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Correlation/anticorrelation as a function of frequency

I am tracking the values of two fluctuating quantities as a function of time and am trying to analyze possible correlations between the two as a function of frequency. The application is experimental ...
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38 views

Effect of Nyquist frequency on Fourier transformed data

Upper plot is the original data's plot, and the bottom plot is Fourier transformed data. For the bottom plot, x-axis is the frequency and y-axis is the amplitude. I don't understand the weird behavior ...
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56 views

fftshift in MATLAB with even number of data points in double sided spectrum

I have a question with reference to this Table. With even N, the frequency axis extremes should be $\pm$Fs/2, where Fs is the sampling frequency. However in the array we have only one value ...
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85 views

Frequency Axis of Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) with Odd Number of Data Points

I am trying to understand the logic behind making a frequency axis in DFT. I am using for time based light absorbance. When we have even number of data points (N= even integer), collected over a ...
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36 views

Fourier Transform within a certain Limit

I want to evaluate fourier transform within a certain limit in MATLAB,the expression of which is $$X(f) = \int_{1}^{4}{x(t)e^{-i2\pi ft}}\,dt$$ I have to find value of the above expression ...
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Is there any way that we can perform speech recognition without using Fourier transforms?

I am trying to research about speech recognition and why everyone uses Fourier transforms in going about the topic. I know that we get information related to the frequency of each sound uttered which ...
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35 views

Is there a generalized method to get the input with the given output and the impulse response?

$y(t)=y(t+12), y(t) = x(t) \ast h(t)$ The continuous time signal output $y(t)$ is a periodic square wave, 50% duty cycle pulse. The impulse response is a box function.($A = 1, T = 2$) By using ...
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166 views

inverse discrete fourier transfor with plain python

I am trying to calculate inverse discrete fourier transform for an array of signals. I am using the following formula: And my python code looks as follow. ...
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Plot Frequency Spectrum of Binary Sequence in Matlab

I am new to Matlab and I am trying to implement a section of a published paper, the basic idea of the part that i am implementing is to show the frequency spectrum of camera aperture. The shutter ...
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189 views

Basic difference between Fourier transform and laplace transform? [duplicate]

I have read few links about difference between Fourier transform and Laplace transform but still not satisfied Please correct me if i am wrong Simply put, the main difference between Fourier ...
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Why does subbing $s = j\omega$ into the Laplace transform of a cosine wave yield a purely imaginary result?

The Laplace transform of a cosine starting at $t=0$ is given by $$F(s) = \frac{s}{s^2 + \omega_0^2}$$ If I sub in $s = j\omega$, I get the Fourier transform of a cosine starting at $t=0$: $$F(j\...
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2-d circularly symmetric low-pass filter

For a square pixel grid, the ideal 2-d low-pass filter with a horizontal and a vertical cut-off angular frequency $\omega_c$ in radians has an impulse response (kernel) $h_{\small\square}(x, y)$ that ...
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Applicability of Fourier transform to periodic signals? [duplicate]

Can we use Fourier Transform for periodic signals or only we can use fourier series with periodic signals? I am asking this question because I read on page 301 of alex palamides as shown highlighted ...
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Difference between CTFT and DTFT?

I have tried to read different articles but still confused in difference between continuous time Fourier transform and discrete time Fourier transform?
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Inverse Fourier of Two-Pole Transfer Function

I would appreciate if someone could walk me through this derivation. I have a transfer function in the frequency domain, which has two poles $$\tilde{H}(\omega) = \Big(\frac{1}{1 + i \omega \tau_1}\...
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1answer
119 views

Output of an LTI system given its transfer function and input

Given the transfer function $$T(s) = \frac{100}{1 + \frac{s}{10^{6}}}$$ and the input $$v_i(t) = 0.1 \sin(100t)$$ find the output, $v_o(t)$. My approach was to use $v_o(t) = \mathcal{L^{-1}}\left\{T(...
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146 views

Cepstrum Calculation of Rational Function H(z)

I am trying to solve my first problems at cepstrum calculation. I want to calculate the complex cepstrum $\hat{h}[n]$ of a signal $h[n]$ with Z-Transform: $$H(z)=\frac{(1-0.5z^{-1})(1+4z^{-2})}{(1-0....
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Intuitive understanding of Fourier transform of images [duplicate]

I am trying to have an intuition about the Fourier transform of images For example the image on the right is the Fourier transform of the image on the left, my question is : 1)Why are the ...
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Why am I not getting the intended coefficients in this 2D Fourier demonstration?

I am trying to demonstrate how the 2D Fourier decomposition of an image works with Matlab and a very, very simple example. I create a 4 x 4 pixel image with cosine basis vectors as such: ...
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What is the type number of a discrete time system given $H(z)$?

Given a continuous time impulse response $h(t)$, if I take the Laplace transform and count the no. of poles at origin, that gives the type number of the system. For e.g., $$H(s) = \frac{2}{s(s+2)}$$ ...
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Overlapping in real time fourier transform?

I have an algorithm and I need to record audio and perform short time Fourier transform to obtain which frequency is the most common. I am using a Hanning window to try and reduce spectral leakage as ...
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What is the interpretation of Fourier Transform containing only imaginary part?

The FT of a unit step function is taken as: $$ X(\omega) = \int_0^\infty e^{-j\omega t}dt = \frac{-1}{jw}e^{-j\omega t} \Biggr |_{0}^{\infty} = \frac{j}{\omega} $$ The transform only has the ...
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39 views

Why is the ROC of Laplace transform independent of imaginary part of s?

An integral is defined as converging if it yields a finite value upon application of limits of integration. It is divergent otherwise. Now sticking to the mathematical notation of Laplace transform, ...
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Fourier Transform of the Hilbert Transform of cos(t) (using Fourier time-shifting property)

If $x(t)=cos(t)=\frac{1}{2}e^{jt}+\frac{1}{2}e^{-jt}$, then $X(\omega)=\pi \delta(\omega-1)+\pi \delta(\omega+1)$. If $y(t)=cos(t-\frac{\pi}{2})=\frac{1}{2}e^{j(t-\frac{\pi}{2})}+\frac{1}{2}e^{-j(t-\...
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Multiply signal $x[k]$ with $\cos(2\pi\nu_0k)$, then given $X(\nu)$ draw resulting function in frequency domain?

Let $$y[k]=x[k]\cdot \cos(2\pi\nu_0k) .\tag{1}$$ Then, given a signal $x[k]$ with the DTFT $X(\nu)$ according to the following figure what will the frequency domain for $Y(\nu)$ look like for a ...
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Matlab FFT not producing symmetric spectrum

I am plotting a FFT of a sampled RC pulse but my resulting spectrum isn't symmetric - it's offset. ...
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120 views

What is the physical interpretation of the absolute value of a fourier transformed signal, $\left| F(t)\right|$?

If one has some oscillating voltage signal, for example: $$V(t) = V_{max}\cos(2 \pi \nu_{0}t) e^{-\gamma t}$$ and you take the Fourier transform of this in the usual way to get: $$\hat{V}(\nu) = V_{...
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Fourier transform pair for $ln(ln(…))$ cascade?

I need to analyze real signals $y_i$ in the frequency domain. $y_i$ are defined like: $y_1 = ln(ln(x))$ $y_2 = ln(ln(ln(x)))$ $y_3 =~ ...$ $...$ Are there Fourier transformation pairs for this ...
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Why do the two methods give different answers for the Fourier transform of $Y = \cos(\omega_0 t + \phi)$?

Why do the following two methods give different answers (or are they the same) for the Fourier transform of $Y = \cos(\omega_0 t + \phi)$, with respect to $t \to \omega$ ?
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Using MATLAB to plot the input and the magnitude spectrum of the signal

I have an aperiodic signal $v_{out} = e^{-t} u(t)$ (real exponential signal) from discharging capacitor. I was trying to plot using MATLAB 15 seconds of this signal in time domain? I am thinking how ...
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How is the decay of a signal exemplified in a Fourier Transform?

Is there any way to tell if a signal is decaying from its fourier transform?
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What is a periodic signal in image processing?

In the context of image processing (and computer vision), the concept of convolution comes up a lot. Convolution is quite related to the concept of Fourier transform and DFT. In the context of image ...
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62 views

DTFT frequency range

$$X(e^{j\omega}) = \sum_{n=-\infty}^\infty x[n] e^{-j\omega n} $$ The frequency term $\omega$ in DTFT is normalized as $\omega = \frac{\Omega}{f_\mathrm{s}}$ $\Omega= 2 \pi f$ is the angular ...
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How Much Zero Padding Do We Need to Perform Filtering in the Fourier Domain?

Consider an $M\times N$ image $f$ and an $G \times K$ filter $h$. Given that convolution in the spatial domain corresponds to multiplication in the Fourier domain, then we can perform a convolution of ...
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Applying duality property to fourier transform of unit step function

For Continuous time aperiodic signals, the duality property of Continuous Time Fourier Transform (CTFT) is following $$\mathscr{F}\Big\{x(t)\Big\} = X(f), \qquad\text{then} \quad \mathscr{F}\Big\{X(t)...
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“Dirac Comb” vs “Ones Comb”

While learning sampling theory - I noticed that examples of continuous signal sampling always achieved the goal via multiplying the signal with a "Dirac Comb". I was intrigued by the requirement to ...
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Ideal sampling using sinc funcion

Let $ x(t) $ be a bandwidth limited signal such as $ \forall |\omega|>\frac{\pi}{T} : X^F(\omega)=0 $ while $ X^F(\omega)$ is the signal's Fourier Transform. Let us denote $y[n]=\int_{-\infty}^{\...
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Why Does 2D FFT of Gaussian Looks More Sharper than Gaussian Itself?

I am trying to understand why 2D FFT is done on a Gaussian process in a particular code. From my understanding from these posts: https://www.researchgate.net/post/...
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How to get descrete fourier tarnsfom [closed]

Could anyone explain me please how to produce descrete fourier transform of such signal? There are no anymore information besides the picture in this task.
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Reconstructing a signal from FFT by adding individual signal components

I'm attempting to reconstruct a signal from the DFT of the signal. I tried to do it by extracting the individual sinusoids and adding them up, but the answer I get is incorrect. ...
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2answers
117 views

From Fourier transform to Laplace Transform

It's well known that you can estimate the Fourier Transform $X(f)$ of a signal $x(t)$ via its Laplace Transform $X(s)$, just by setting $s = j2\pi f$ to the latter, as long as the region of ...
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Fourier Transform of Alternating Periodic Rectangular Pulse

I'm having trouble determining Fourier transform of signal. I have 2 ideas on how to solve this problem. Given the signal is periodic I could use formula for Fourier transform of periodic signals: $$...
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1answer
64 views

Applying frequency-domain filters on a centered Fourier transform

I understand why we shift the Fourier transform such that the 0-frequency is centered for visualization. In the shifted DFT(u,v) of an M*N 2-dimensional image, the top-left corner of the 4th quadrant ...
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Finding the input from the impulse response and output

I have $y,h,x$ which are all vectors. From $y[n]=x[n]*h[n]$ which is basically how I got $y[n]$. I also know $h[n]$. I put this through a Fourier transform. Let's assume that the capitalized ...
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What should my reference value be when converting FFT bin amplitudes to dB?

I want to transform my FFT output values into a dB scale, but I'm struggling to determine the function I should run each bin amplitude through. My understanding of the decibel scale is that a value ...