# Questions tagged [filters]

In signal processing, a filter is a device or process that transforms a signal by selectively choosing specific frequencies and leaving others with appropriate gain or as it is.

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### Why is it a bad idea to filter by zeroing out FFT bins?

It's very easy to filter a signal by performing an FFT on it, zeroing out some of the bins, and then performing an IFFT. For instance: ...
66k views

### What is the difference between phase delay and group delay?

I'm studying some DSP and I'm having trouble understanding the difference between phase delay and group delay. It seems to me that they both measure the delay time of sinusoids passed through a ...
48k views

### Simplest way of detecting where audio envelopes start and stop

Below is a signal which represents a recording of someone talking. I would like to create a series of smaller audio signals based on this. The idea being to detect when 'important' sound starts and ...
61k views

### Understanding the Matched Filter

I have a question about matched filtering. Does the matched filter maximise the SNR at the moment of decision only? As far as I understand, if you put, say, NRZ through a matched filter, the SNR ...
32k views

### What is the true meaning of a minimum phase system?

What is the true meaning of a minimum phase system? Reading the Wikipedia article and Oppenheim is some help, in that, we understand that for an LTI system, minimum phase means the inverse is causal ...
35k views

### What is the advantage of MATLAB's filtfilt

MATLAB's filtfilt does a forward-backward filtering, i.e., filter, reverse the signal, filter again and then reverse again. Apparently this done to reduce phase ...
46k views

### Filter order vs number of taps vs number of coefficients

I'm learning DSP slowly and trying to wrap my head around some terminology: Question 1: Suppose I have the following filter difference equation: $$y[n] = 2 x[n] + 4 x[n-2] + 6 x[n-3] + 8 x[n-4]$$ ...
16k views

### What should be considered when selecting a windowing function when smoothing a time series?

If one wants to smooth a time series using a window function such as Hanning, Hamming, Blackman etc., what are the considerations for favouring any one window over another?
31k views

### Why is a linear phase important?

If symmetry conditions are met, FIR filters have a linear phase. This is not true for IIR filters. However, for what applications is it bad to apply filters that do not have this property and what ...
17k views

### What Is the Best First Order IIR (AR Filter) Approximation to a Moving Average Filter (FIR Filter)?

Assume the following first order IIR Filter: $$y[n] = \alpha x[n] + (1 - \alpha) y[n - 1]$$ How can I choose the parameter $\alpha$ s.t. the IIR approximates as good as possible the FIR which is ...
17k views

What differences or other criteria can be used to help decide between using overlap-add and overlap-save for filtering? Both overlap-add and overlap-save are described as algorithms for doing FFT ...
40k views

### Applying filter in scipy.signal: Use lfilter or filtfilt?

I saw in a SO thread a suggestion to use filtfilt which performs backwards/forwards filtering instead of lfilter. What is the ...
19k views

### Peak detection approach

What are the peak detection algorithms in existence? I have noisy data, and I would like to implement peak detection for this data. Data is in reverse, actually I am trying to determine the bottom. ...
35k views

### How many taps does an FIR filter need?

I am looking to design a set of FIR filters to implement a low pass filter. I am also trying to reduce the latency of the signal through the filter so I am wondering what the minimum number of taps I ...
29k views

### What is the Gabor filter? And what are its main uses?

I'm doing research on the Gabor filter. When I Googled it, I found very long and complicated articles. Can anyone help me to find a simple explanation about it, or recommend a website or article to ...
12k views

### How do I interpret the DCT step in the MFCC extraction process?

In most audio processing tasks, one of the most used transformations is MFCC (Mel-frequency cepstral coefficients). I mostly know the math that's behind the MFCC: I understand both the filterbank ...
4k views

### Why would I leave a signal oversampled?

I can't think of a better way for asking this question so I will start with an example. Suppose that I have an input signal with a max frequency of 50Hz (sampled at 100Hz). Now the signals of interest ...
4k views

### Fast / Efficient Way to Decompose a Separable integer 2D Filter Coefficients without the SVD

I would like to be able to quickly determine whether a given 2D kernel of integer coefficients is separable into two 1D kernels with integer coefficients. E.g. ...
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### FIR Filter Design: Window vs Parks McClellan and Least Squares

Are there any advantages to use a window approach over Parks-McClellan (further abbreviated here as PMcC) or Least Squares algorithms for FIR filter design of a low pass filter? Assume with today's ...
11k views

I'm trying to implement an 8th order IIR filter and every application note and textbook I've read says that it is best to implement any filter of order more than 2 as second order sections. I used <...
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### Where can I get an open source implementation of the Parks-McClellan optimal FIR filter design algorithm?

Background: Often times I am doing some sort of signal processing task that requires a unique filter. Usually at this point I go to MATLAB and generate a new unique filter using $\tt firpm()$. The ...
6k views

### Which IIR filters approximate a Gaussian filter?

So it recently dawned on me that Bessel filters, despite being listed along with the other common types, are really an oddball that belongs in a different "class", and I'm trying to learn more about ...
39k views

### What is the difference between linear and non-linear filters?

How a mean filter is called as linear filter and a median filter is called as non linear filter? I understand how a mean and median filter operates, but I was not able to relate with the term linear ...
25k views

### How to Extract High Frequency and Low Frequency Component Using Bilateral Filter?

What does High frequency and low frequency component signify in an image. How to separate out the high frequency as well as low frequency component of an image using Bilateral filter.
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### Should the input of a Kalman filter always be a signal and its derivative?

I always see the Kalman filter used with such input data. For example, the inputs are commonly a position and the correspondent velocity: $$(x, \dfrac{dx}{dt})$$ In my case, I only have 2D ...
550 views

### Are there any analytic approaches to the design of quadratic polynomial filters?

The following paper describes an application of the Teager-Kaiser energy operator to x-ray image enhancement: Reinhard Bernstein, Michael S. Moore and Sanjit K. Mitra, "Adjustable Quadratic ...
14k views

### What are the problems with designing an FIR filter using FFT?

I'm trying to get an understanding of the relationship between an FIR filter designed from "first principles" using a filter kernel with convolution, and a filter designed in one of two ways using FFT ...
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### A good textbook for designing signal filters

Since a couple of months ago I started being actively involved in the area of control of dynamical systems. In most cases, designing a controller for a given dynamic system will require the ...
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### How can I design Nyquist interpolation filters with the Parks-McClellan algorithm?

We can easily design interpolation filters that obey certain frequency-domain constraints using the Parks-McClellan algorithm. However, it's not immediately clear how to enforce time-domain ...
20k views

### human speech noise filter

Does anyone know of a filter to attenuate non-speech? I am writing speech recognition software and would like to filter out everything but human speech. This would include background noise, noise ...
14k views

### Savitzky-Golay smoothing filter for not equally spaced data

I have a signal that is measured at 100Hz and I need to apply the Savitzky-Golay smoothing filter on this signal. However, on closer inspection my signal is not measured at perfectly constant rate, ...
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### Digital filter design basic principles (IIR/FIR)

Although I have a solid experience in designing audio engines and such, I am fairly new to the realm of Digital Filter Design, particularly IIR and FIR filters. In other words, I'm trying to learn as ...
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### Are there any standard implementation forms for tunable Butterworth filters?

One of the standard ways to implement a Butterworth filter is with a cascade of second-order sections, each corresponding to a pair of complex-conjugate poles. For a fourth-order filter, for example, ...
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### Is a Kalman filter suitable to filter projected points positions, given Euler angles of the capturing device?

My system is the following. I use the camera of a mobile device to track an object. From this tracking, I get four 3D points that I project on the screen, to get four 2D points. These 8 values are ...
24k views

### Why do we use window in time domain rather than do FFT modify the spectrum and than inverse FFT

I thought that DSP would be done by using FFT of portions of a signal, modify the samples that result from FFT (since they represent the spectrum of our signal + noise) and remove any unwanted signals ...
30k views

### Why are FIR filters still stable even though they contain poles?

How come FIR filters are always stable? Since they contain poles, shouldn't they be more affected by stability issues than others?
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### How do I manually plot the frequency response of a bandpass Butterworth filter in MATLAB without freqz function?

I have code like below that applies a bandpass filter onto a signal. I am quite a noob at DSP and I want to understand what is going on behind the scenes before I proceed. To do this, I want to know ...
52k views

### FIR filter with linear phase, 4 types

I know there are 4 types of FIR filters with linear phase, i.e. constant group delay: (M = length of impulse response) Impulse response symmetrical, M = odd Imp. resp. symmetrical, M = even Imp. resp....
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### What factors should I consider when choosing an IIR filter realization?

IIR filters may be implemented as direct form 1 or 2. But how do you decide which form to use? What are the pros and cons of each?
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### Wiener Filter for Image Noise Reduction (Image Denoising)

I'm trying to get my head round the operation of the Wiener filter for the purpose of image noise reduction. In my case I'll have used another noise reduction filter first and will then use the result ...
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### How to Remove Gaussian Noise from an Image without Destroying the Edges?

What is the best filter for removing Gaussian noise without destroying the edges? I am using the standard Lena images with additive Gaussian noise and I want to denoise before applying anisotropic ...