# Questions tagged [filters]

In signal processing, a filter is a device or process that transforms a signal by selectively choosing specific frequencies and leaving others with appropriate gain or as it is.

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### Find moments of a discrete process using $\mathcal{Z}$-Transform method

For a linear process relating a variable $Y_i$ to random, independent variables $X_i$ using the equation: \begin{equation} Y_i = aY_{i-1} + (1-a)X_i \end{equation} which has the solution: \begin{...
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### detect what is noise in audio signal

I'm trying to filter noise from an audio signal. The signal was and is going to be recorded in a city environment which always contains some white/pink noise. At this moment I'm using two options to ...
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### Down-sampling a signal after convolution

I was trying to understand more about image compression using the Wavelet transform and I got quite confused about the down-sampling step. I took a picture from here for reference: At each step a ...
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### Origin of the name "Olympic filter" in signal processing

Olympic filter is the name of a digital filter for removing spikes in the data. In the "Image Processing Handbook" 7th Ed., pg 192, this name is rationalized as follows: A modification to ...
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### 1/3 octave spectra from fft

I have got a signal in frequency domain. This is a frequency response function from software, so I can do nothing about it and have to leave it in frequency domain. I want to transfer the data to 1/3 ...
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### log(conv) vs conv(log)

Suppose an arbitrary, strictly positive $x[n]$, transformed as $$x_l[n] = \log(1 + C x[n]) \tag{0}$$ where $C$ is freely chosen. Given the following, where $h[n]$ is a Gaussian lowpass filter (or ...
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### New to DSP and having trouble filtering data

I am trying to make program in matlab that counts the number of times the accelerometer was lifted up and down (a rep counter for exercise). Basically my phone is getting accelerometer data on all ...
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### Convolution of spectra to sensor response function?

I am really sorry if it is wrong place to ask this question but i couldn't not find any stackexchange website appropriate. i have some reflectance values of a material which are measured in 10.5 and ... 563 views

### Wavelet filter coefficients from the Morlet wavelet

How can I obtain the wavelet filter coefficients ( i.e. lowpass decomposition filter, highpass decomposition filter, lowpass reconstruction filter, highpass reconstruction ...
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### Difference between lattice and wiener FIR filter

I know the structure of lattice and wiener filter. But I though FIR filter is always FIR (wiener, tap + delay) filter, But what is the advantage of lattice structure, which in the CMSIS DSP filter ...
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### CIC filter internal register truncation

I try to implement CIC filter with truncation in hardware, but there is some misunderstanding. For some reason the output signal is broken. My filter is N = 6, R = 20, M = 1, Bin = 16, Bout = 16. (...
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### Efficient implementation of spike removal

I have implemented the moving median absolute deviation (moving MAD) and it seems like bit-exact to Matlab's implementation. Nevertheless, I am sure that it is not efficient. The usual median filter ...
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### Kalman Filter for position : introducing acceleration estimates

I want to estimate the position on a 3D environment by introducing only acceleration estimates. Is that possible? If I use the extended Kalman Filter and introduce these estimates will I have the ...
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### Inconsistant Variation in BLE Beacon RSSI Values for Distance Measurement

I am developing an application to estimate the distance to a BLE Beacon using its RSSi values measured from a Mobile Phone. But when I started to collect data I could see that they varied so much that ...
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### How to implement the RLS for matrices

I need to implement the RLS algorithm but it's for matrices instead for vectors, I have made the below code, but still something wrong is not working well, EDIT: The code should be done as below, ...
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### What is the meaning of a inner system/transfer function?

In an academic paper I'm currently reading , the notion of an inner system is central. It is defined as follows A (linear) system $G$ (with $m$ inputs and $p$ outputs) is called inner if it ...
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### Applying Jake's remez exchange algorithm for filter design

I have found C implementation for remez exchange algorithm(https://github.com/janovetz/remez-exchange/blob/master/remez.c) and I want to use this to implement a generic prototype lowpass filter. ...
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### Pre-emphasizing in speech recognition

Usually, in speech recognition, the techniques that are used are based on the linear prediction model (Fant, 1960). Parallel to this, the human speech production mechanism causes energy to drop ...
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### Gain of resonating filters

I'm trying to make a music instrument based on a resonator with a high Q, such as Ableton's Corpus and Ableton's Resonator (I think the former is based on a simple 2nd order resonant filter while the ...
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### Given an output from a filter how do you find the input?

I have the output from a narrow bandpass filter. I know the details of the filter completely. The filter removes noise but also adds some contamination to the output. How can I find the input ...
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### Can you use Fourier transformations (or other) to read multiple superimposed barcodes?

If you printed bar codes on tracing paper/acetate etc. and then positioned several in front of one another, could you extract the individual codes from the aggregate overlaid image? I feel intuitively ...
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### Box ﬁlter approximations for oriented gabor ﬁlters

I'm currently working on a library to generate synthetic fingerprints using the SFinGe method (by Maltoni, Maio and Cappelli) link :http://biolab.csr.unibo.it/research.asp?organize=Activities&...
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### Matlab Simulink Sampling

First, I apologize for the vague title, to be honest, I'm not even sure how to describe my question in a title. If someone would like to edit it so its more reflective of what I'm asking, then please ...
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### Why do Savitzky-Golay filters of degrees 4 and 6 have roughly opposite ripples?

Savitzky-Golay smoothing filters of polynomial degrees 4 and 6 have frequency response with ripples of roughly opposite signs. Thus averaging the coefficients of two filters of degrees d and d+2 is an ...
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### Simulink continuous to discrete question

I'm new to Matlab/Simulink and would like to convert the continuous system below to discrete for eventual conversion to C code. Matlab has a c2d function, but I don't know how to apply it to a ...
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### Blurring in anisotropic outputs

I am trying to produce ideal anisotropic diffusion outputs using the standard lena image. Using the first coefficient , the output is coming somewhat close to ideal ouput but when I increase the kappa ...
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### Deconvolving while suppressing other known signals

Given a known impulse response $h(t)$ and an observed signal $y(t)=(h*x)(t)+n(t)$, my aim is to recover an estimate of $x(t)$ in the presence of unknown additive noise $n(t)$. If the mean power ...
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### N'-band channelizer (filter bank) via Sliding FFT

I'm trying to figure out how to perform N'-band channelizer for SSCA (strip spectral correlation analyzer) via sliding FFT. I understand that I have to take $N$ points of signal in time domain $x(t)$, ...
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### Implementation of Deriche filter

The Canny edge detector is expressed by the derivative of the Gaussian. Its practical implementation involves the Gaussian filter, then the Sobel filter to calculate the gradient in both directions. ...
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### Numerical optimization method for optimal edge detector

John Canny, in his paper "A Computational Approach to Edge Detection" (PDF), finds the expression of an optimal edge detector by first using an analytical approach (Euler-Lagrange equation). ...
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### Ideal low pass filter with cut-off B does not affect a band-limited baseband signal with maximum frequency B

Let $x(t)$ be a band-limited signal with spectrum (fourier transform) lying between -B and +B. Such a signal is not warped by an ideal low-pass filter with cut-off frequency equal or higher than +B. ...
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### Equivalence between the linear phase of FIR filters and the (anti)symmetry of the coefficients

According to the Matt L.'s answer to this question, real-valued and causal FIR filters have a (generalized) linear phase response if and only if their coefficients satisfy (anti)symmetry condition. ...
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### How to read the filter IIR design numericals specifications?

First of all I want to let you know about notations that I am using-: $\alpha_p$=attenuation factor of passband(in dB) $\alpha_s$=attenuation factor of stopband (in dB) $A_p$=Gain at passband edge ...
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### Perfect reconstruction of 2 channel filter bank

I am studying Perfect reconstruction of 2 channel filter bank for using Biorthogonal Spline wavelet for decomposing ECG signal. I am using Wavelets and Filter Banks By Gilbert Strang, Truong Nguyen to ...
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### Gapped-signals.. How to stitch?

Dear signal processing enthusiasts: I am forced to cut off a part of a multi-frequency signal, creating a "gap" as shown in the figure. (only one frequency to simplify illustration). If I inject ...
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### Software based synchronizing of multiple data streams/sensors with slightly differing sampling rates

Situation: I try to synchronize the data streams of multiple sensors (ADXL372) of the same type but with different data output rates. The data sheet states all sensors should have the same sampling ...
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### Digital filter for sharp impulse in data

I am looking for an algorithm or a filter to remove sharp peaks from my data. I am collecting raw data after every 1 second from an sensor through an ADC. The ADC has an internal FIR filter. I use ...
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