Questions tagged [fft]

The fast Fourier transform is an efficient algorithm to compute the discrete Fourier transform (DFT) and its inverse.

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1answer
189 views

Band energy and Parseval theorem

In Python, I consider a dummy signal as follows: fs = 512 sig = np.random.standard_normal((fs,)) sig corresponds to 1s of ...
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1answer
216 views

Wavelet transform and FFT using to extract feature power bands with EEG signals

I am using 5 channels [ fz , cz , c3 , c4 , pz] to detect drowsiness of driver My First Question is, what is the right input to get feature power band ( Theta , alpha , gamma , beta ) to wavelet ...
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1answer
284 views

Windowing a signal for FFT

I am actually working on a project involving the cross-correlation of two signals. My cross-correlation code is working fine, but I suspect that I should apply a window to my data set in order to ...
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1answer
45 views

How to Calculate the number of DFTs taken in a STFT

Given variables of window size (W), overlap (O), and length of the Signal (S) (in my case, length of a song) and I am trying to determine an equation that gives me the number of DFTs that would be ...
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1answer
188 views

Phase Modulation and Intermodulation Anomaly ? (Spectrum plots inside - **Updated**)

I have a MATLAB script for modelling a two tone signal (a sum of two sinusoids) going through a non linear transfer function (such as an amplifier). The amplitude of a signal is amplified non linearly,...
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1answer
69 views

psd of an ac voltage signal

In an lab class experiment who's subject of interest was Johnson's noise I measured the ac voltage of a battery. Now I wish to find the psd of the measurement and show that it is constant. 1.Is such ...
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1answer
202 views

Arbitrary Phase FIR design using FFT

I want to design a digital FIR filter to cancel the phase of an analog Butterworth filter (i.e. the phase is smooth) i.e. the filter has unity gain with just an inverted phase component. The ...
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2answers
174 views

Adding phase to a signal that has multiple frequencies

An amplifier changes the phase at different amplitudes of asignal. I am using amplifier data in a MATLAB model. I have constructed a signal that is a sum of sinusoids of different frequencies with ...
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2answers
412 views

pdf of the sum of gaussian distributions using fft Ask [closed]

I am trying to derive the pdf of the sum of independent random variables. At first i would like to do this for a simple case: sum of gaussian random variables. I was surprised to see that i don't get ...
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1answer
218 views

Zero padding effect on a FFT of gaussian noise

I have a gaussian noise $\nu(t)$ with variance $\sigma^2$. After a FFT I get $X(\omega)$. If now I do the IFFT on the $X(\omega)$ can I say that the result is still a gaussian noise of variance $\...
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2answers
84 views

Is there such thing as harmony independent timbre characteristic of a sound?

I was wondering if any of you know about any technique to extract a harmony (e.g. harmony in a shape of a chromagram) independent timbre characteristic of a sound frame. What I'm after is a version ...
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1answer
226 views

Signal squared in time domain

In some publication I have found a formula that for some reason squares signal in time domain. I am analyzing it now. What should be the Fourier transform of a signal that was squared in time domain? ...
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1answer
93 views

Inverse FFT - synch the phase

Is there any way to synchronise phase of output of inverse DFT in each buffer? When I send the output of inverse DFT to the speaker it sounds nasty. Of course I know the „windowing functions” but it ...
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1answer
143 views

Sum of Diracs in Frequency Domain

I am attempting to compute the sum of dirac functions in the frequency domain via the following formulas: $$ ReLu(f(x)) = f(x) * \sum_{i} \delta(x-x_i) $$ $$ x_i : f(x_i) > 0 $$ $$ F(ReLu(f(x)))(k)...
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1answer
122 views

temporal high-pass filtering to approximate phase derivative

I am currently following the algorithm as based on a previously published research article "A Motion Detection Algorithm Using Local Phase Information" by Lazar et al. The basic overview of the ...
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1answer
89 views

Conjugate symmetry Problem

I'm seeing something very curious in the Matlab code below. X = fft(x); Xt = X; Xt( (end/2+1):end ) = 0; xr = 2 * real( ifft( Xt ) ); Xr = fft(xr); where ...
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2answers
890 views

How to “rotate the phase”?

I have problem, not sure how to call it but I think it's something called "phase rotating", but not sure. I make fast Fourier transform on simply square wave, and then I make inverse fast Fourier ...
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1answer
62 views

changing circular shift in hologram reconstruction

I'm trying to write a very simple code for the reconstruction of an in-line hologram of particles in a micro channel (digital holographic microscopy), but I'm getting some results that are hard for me ...
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2answers
243 views

Phase difference b/w two sinusoidal signals using FFT

I am trying to understand how to find phase difference b/w two real sinusoidal signals and then align the phases of two sinusoidal signals using this difference. In the first step, however, i have to ...
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2answers
54 views

What should I do with FFT result array from microphone input? [duplicate]

I currently want to create a small pitch detector and I have to say that I am very new in this topic of signal processing. At the moment I implemented the FFt algorithm and I got an array of window ...
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1answer
174 views

Summing magnitudes of individual frequency bins

I am working on signal analyser and have problem with understanding relationship between display resolution and frequency resolution (range). My frequency range is $ 1-20000\quad [ H z ] $ so to ...
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1answer
255 views

Apply windowing before FFT or after?

I am computing a spectrogram and I've found a code example online which goes like this: ...
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0answers
85 views

Find cepstrum of a function with dirac function

$$x[n] = d[n] + a\cdot d[n − N_p]\ ,\ \ |a| < 1$$ I need the complex and real cepstrum of this function as well as what would happen for $N=N_p/6$ for the DFT approximation $$x_p[n] = \frac{1}{N} ...
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3answers
499 views

real time overlapping buffer for FFT

I am currently using overlap-and-add method for a noise cancellation project. Everything works well so far except that when it comes to the real time, I need to overlap the input signals for FFT input....
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0answers
16 views

What is the best spline to interpolate freq analiser graph

the question is as it is in the topic: What is the best spline to interpolate freq analiser graph? I am looking something simply and fast to implement. I read about catmull-rom it looks it could be ...
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1answer
884 views

Why square-root of Hanning Window

I just studied an implementation (Matlab) of a windowed FFT and saw the following line of code: w = sqrt(hann(fft_length, 'periodic')) and later: ...
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2answers
464 views

Amplitude of signal and PSD peak height

So, suppose you have a superposition of cosines of the same magnitude: $\sum_{i}\cos[\omega_i t]$ When you take the Fourier transform, theoretically you'd expect to find $\delta$-like peaks of the ...
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2answers
129 views

Pitch detection of two following music notes (C0 and C0#)

Hi signal processing community, currently I am working on a pitch detection tool which should work on audio input files (or later also instrumental or voice from microphone) to say which music note ...
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1answer
112 views

Inverse DFT to a real signal when only odd harmonics are present

There is an old paper by L.R. Rabiner, "On the Use of Symmetry in FFT Computation" which describes (among other things) an optimized method to calculate the DFT of a real signal $x_n$, $n=0,\dots, N-1$...
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0answers
164 views

Frequency Domain Variant of Pearson's Sample Correlation Coefficient?

Suppose that you need to find (i.e. acquire) $x_1$, a short data packet with a known bit sequence preamble (i.e. a PRBS BPSK), in $x_2$, quantized samples recorded from the output of an ADC. You don'...
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3answers
471 views

Why does fft require a power of 2 sample numbers? [closed]

I'm a beginner in signal processing, I do not know if I'm right but what I understand so far is if I have a signal of 44100 samples I have 22050 frequencies so if I choose 512 samples for the fft the ...
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2answers
118 views

Higher-order Kronecker product

I am trying to generate a 2D DFT matrix in matlab, which I need for 2D compressed sensing (CS) problems. Lets say $N_1=8$, $N_2=16$, then according to the requirement of CS, to generate a 2D DFT ...
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2answers
644 views

Camera measurement of heart rate - frequency bias towards 50 bpm (0.83 Hz)?

I am trying to develop a RGB camera-based non-contact measurement of heart rate using principles of remote photoplethysmography. I want to be able to measure a range of heart rates I have been looking ...
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65 views

Phase and Gain alignment

I have simultaneously recorded data coming from three pre-amplifiers with same input applied to these pre-amps. After post analysis, i found that there are phase and gain differences among these ...
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2answers
57 views

1D as a 3D FFT - what’s wrong here?

I implemented the algorithm to calculate 2D DFT derived from 1D DFT. It works great, and makes my calculations much more efficiency then regular 1D DFT. But now I want to make 3D DFT derived from 1D ...
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0answers
81 views

1D as a 2D FFT - am I understand it properly

in one of my question about non $ 2^L $ points FFT I got answer with advice to read about that in following book: Rabiner, Lawrence R., and Bernard Gold. "Theory and application of digital signal ...
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1answer
304 views

FFT - mixed radix - bit reversal

I wonder what is bit reversal for mixed radix FFT. Is there any algorithm that compute the bit reversal for various mixed radix FFT? Here should be mention why I want that. For example if I have ...
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1answer
99 views

FFT phase spectrum to suppress noise?

All that I heard so far about phase spectrum - that it is very hard to process. Are there any methods to do that, and is it possible to extract information about the noise from phase spectrum?
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2answers
121 views

How make FFT when buffer size is not 2^L

I still try to understand FFT :) I know I can do something like that: float bufferSize = 500.0f; int correction = log2(bufferSize); bufferSize= pow(2, correction); ...
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40 views

DSP Hardware recommendation or is it even needed?

I'm new in embedded programming. Trying to choose a dsp, they seem very feature rich for my planned usage. I want to analyze 18 signals (simultaneously or near simultaneously) real time. I want to do ...
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1answer
508 views

different solutions in matlab / octave using dft and fft

i am new here in dsp.stackexchange and I am trying to do my first basic steps with fourier-transformation. Some years ago I learned the basic theory in university and also developed a fft ...
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1answer
2k views

Understanding FFT: FFT size and bins

I'm trying to implement an FFT to understand how it works. I'm using a random sound file (so i can't control the size of the signal), with a sampling frequency of 44,1Khz. I'm using this library ...
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4answers
207 views

How to see the amplitude of each frequency?

do you know software that exports spectrograms to images of 500x22000 pixels? all the spectrograms that I know show diffused frequencies and it does not look very good I just want to see the amplitude ...
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2answers
1k views

Real and imaginary part of signal after fft

I will take two sine waves i) 0.1 AMPLITUDE with no phase shift ii)0.4 amplitude with some phase shift 20 degree (Considering Both same frequency). In time domain - If i divide signal 1 by signal 2 ...
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1answer
75 views

FFT radix-2 in audio - resolution issues - logarithmic scale - sample rate VS buffer size

I would like to ask how to deal with audio DSP. Is FFT good at all to deal with audio? I am working on an app, that generates a single impulse, rout it to an EQ plugin, and the output of the plugin is ...
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2answers
1k views

Why is the size of the output of the FFT of a signal is same as the size of the input signal?

I am kind of new to the DSP domain. I was trying to get the frequencies associated with a signal by performing FFT over it. I used numpy.fft.fft for this. ...
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1answer
413 views

FFT implementation with decimation in frequency vs decimation in time?

When using FFT implementations which would be the advantages of using decimation in time (DIT) vs decimation in frequency(DIF) and vise-versa? I have read here that in practice there is not much ...
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1answer
240 views

FFT - radix 2 - decimation in time -frequency range

​ Hello, I would like to ask how to decrease (make it narrow) frequency range for calculations in FFT radix 2 - decimation in time - algorithm? Let me explain what I exactly mean: When you compute ...
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1answer
415 views

1D convolution and deconvolution using FFT

The task: there is some original signal, and there is some response function. I need to convolve them using FFT and then do deconvolution to restore original signal. The task graphical illustration ( ...
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2answers
789 views

Understanding a simple case of fft2 in python

I have 2D arrays representing surfaces. I have created them by scanning some theoretically flat objects and I ended up with what can be called "imperfections", or else, deviation from the perfectly ...