Questions tagged [fft]

The fast Fourier transform is an efficient algorithm to compute the discrete Fourier transform (DFT) and its inverse.

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Harmonics below oscillation frequency in the brain

Apologies if this question is trivial, I'm a neuroscientist and would hugely appreciate your help to correctly interpret my analysis. I am recording EEG signals and am manipulating the brain using ...
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86 views

MATLAB: Applying Inverse Fast Fourier Transform to an array of real numbers

I'm trying to understand the difference between applying the Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) and the Inverse Discrete Fourier Transform (IDFT) to the log Mel-filterbank energies as explained in the ...
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54 views

Torque signal fft

I have the following torque signal picked up with a 10.240Hz sampling rate from a testbench. I am studying its fft which I create on Octave with the following code: ...
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76 views

A Delay Between Two Filtered Chaotic Signals

it is a common practice to use a shift of cross-correlation peak to evaluate a group time delay of two signals (chaotic signals are included). Can one synchronously and equally filter these chaotic ...
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98 views

Getting back the original x axis after IFFT-FFT in Python

I have an analitically generated spectrum $I(\omega)$, x axis represents angular frequency, y represents intensity. The spectrum is centered around some frequency value, which is often called central ...
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1answer
41 views

Can the (point-wise) multiplication of two discrete band-limited functions be inherently aliased?

I'm not fully used to the language of DSP, so forgive me if I confuse some of the notation, or if the below is trivial. I'm interested in the case where we want to do the point-wise multiplication ...
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65 views

Why are FFT numbers so high?

My input numbers are close to 10, here is a sample of some: ...
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1answer
45 views

Frequency domain multiplication

I am confused why zero-padding in the frequency domain does not result in linear convolution in the time-domain using the relationship: $$corr(a,b) = ifft(fft(a) fft(b))$$ See my process below for ...
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performing cwt and inverse cwt using fft

I'm currently working on my project related to implementing an speech enhancement algorithm on fpga which uses continuous wavelet with morel wavelet, how can i use efficient fft algorithm to calculate ...
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126 views

how I can use the FFT data to compute the convolution?

First,I have a vector A of length N,through process ...
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2answers
514 views

Difference between bandpass filter and using fast fourier transform to extract power of frequency bands

In signal processing, I have heard of two terms: Using band-pass filter to extract some frequency bands. Using Discrete/Fast Fourier Transform (DFT/FFT) to extract some frequency bands. Are these ...
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Extracting different frequency bands (alpha, beta, gamma) from brain activity data

I am new to signal processing and despite googling about my question, I still couldn't find the solution. I have an Electrocorticography (ECoG) dataset. This consists of recording brain activity from ...
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Why does spectral accuracy of laplacian decrease with sampling size?

We know that for any real-valued function $f(x,y,z)$ whose Fourier transform is $\mathcal F[f]$, its laplacian can be computed from a spectral interpolant as follows. $$ \Delta f(x,y,z) \simeq \sum_{...
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Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) Coefficient Distribution

I have two images : Original Image Binarize Image I have applied Discrete Cosine Transform to the two images by dividing the 256x256 image into 8x8 blocks. After, I want to compare their DCT ...
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Image Transformation Functions to Identify if the Text in the Document Originally There or Just Synthetically Overlaid

I have a copy of scanned ancient dirty document and synthetically generated ancient dirty documents. I want to use Discrete Cosine Transform to characterize noise types existing in the document and ...
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What is the correct input format to perform IFFT on a spectrum?

Say I have response of a band pass $\left(f_1-f_2\right)$ or a lowpass filter $\left(0-f\right)$ and if I want to estimate filter length then I may take the inverse transform of the frequency response ...
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Acceleometer Noise and FFT

Background: I'm fairly new to signal processing and sensors, etc. I'm working on my thesis, which involves the use of an MEMS acceleration sensor as a vibration measuring device (for rotating ...
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2answers
27 views

Discrete-time system: getting the true frequency from normalized frequency

Lеt's say that i have a plot where i can see the spectrum of some discrete signal and let's say that it's x axis is normalized (by normalized i mean $\omega/\pi$ on the $x$ axis). Now, i know that in ...
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1answer
36 views

Given a static time domain signal, why does the magnitude oscillate in the frequency domain after FFT?

I'm trying to: Generate a sine wave in the time domain (locally within my program at 500 Hz). Analyze it with FFT Print the results in the frequency domain. The expected results are that since the ...
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1answer
39 views

Output shape of numpy's rfft function

For numpy's rfft function, the length of the output is about half of N, the length of the input sequence. What is the reason behind this? What are the frequency bins?
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78 views

Phase shifting in frequency domain

I am aware this topic has already been addressed in at least one question here, but despite that I could not find the solution to my problem. Also bear patience with me since I am not a mathematics ...
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1answer
111 views

Fast Fourier Transform for varying period (Order analysis)

I am trying to do a fast Fourier transformation on accelerometer data from a shaft rotating at varying speed in Python. What I have done so far: 1: The original plot was in the time domain, and I ...
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1answer
36 views

Random 2D noise generated in spectrum domain always have maximum at (1,1)

I want to add a noise made of harmonic functions to my 2D matrix. I thought it could be made by adding random amplitudes to modes in Fourier domain. I keep Hermitian symmetry of the matrix so that the ...
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1answer
29 views

How to classify audio files based on their ZCR, energy, and enthropy of energy features?

Let's say I wanna classify the audio files of race car exhaust and normal car exhaust. I attain few features such as ZCR, energy and enthropy of energy from the training set and I wanna build the ...
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Phase Difference offset when measuring phase difference between different FFT bins

In application where two sensors are used to calculate the phase difference of the incoming signal, what is the the phase difference offset which should be added when taking phase difference from ...
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1answer
50 views

Autocorrelation to diagnose faults

I'm attending a very practical course on signals and i have some doubts, i hope to receive answers in layman terms. 1) My prof said i can use the autocorrelation of the output of a process to ...
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65 views

Removing DC Offset (via removing mean) of input and output signals affects their coherence

I have input $x$ and output $y$ signals (fs=10 Hz, length N=10800). I have removed DC offset via the following equation: $x_{normalized} = 100 \frac{(x-\bar x)} {\bar x }$ where $\bar x$ is the mean ...
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64 views

For SNR calculation, should I use FFT|X+iY| or FFT|R|?

I use a demodulator that outputs X and Y quadratures, with the R and Phase which can be calculated. For SNR measurements, when plotting the FFT to find the SNR a signal at a certain frequency, ...
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1answer
232 views

Use of Tukey window and its effect on a graph

I am trying to minimise the noise in a spectrum of a variable. I am trying to to divide the time history in equal parts, to do the FFT of this time history parts and to do an average between these fft....
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1answer
82 views

Zero padding in frequency domain, any tricks to speedup?

there are many situations when one has to carry some operations on spectra, like splitting a spectrum Z wide in two Z/2 spectra, or vice versa merging two Z sized spectra in a 2Z sized one. The only ...
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52 views

Understanding outputs of image Fourier Transform in Numpy

I am trying to understand the meaning of FFT outputs with respect to images. Take a look at the following example: ...
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2answers
87 views

Spectral filtering

I am working with a STFT spectral processing toolkit I wrote in C, now focusing on a module for spectral filtering. In its first implementation, the module simply multiplied an user drawn spectral ...
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5answers
148 views

How to detect overlapping peaks in FFT?

I am working with a modular spectral processing STFT toolkit I have written in C. I often need to carry spectral peak detection and analisys (frequency estimation, peak displacement, etc) but I am ...
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1answer
128 views

How to manually implement convolution with FFTs?

I'm trying to manually implement a convolution using FFTs and it isn't working as expected. I know I'm probably missing some subtlety with padding, shifting, or conjugation, (all of which I've tried ...
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1answer
61 views

Different representations of frequency space of 2D image FFT

I'm learning images processing using FFT. In my test example provided below the input pixel values are clamped 0-1 (0-255), but I do eventually want to process floating point heightfield pixel values....
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Splitting audio into multiple audio based on frequency range in Librosa

How can I separate an audio signal into multiple audio signals based on frequency range? I used librosa.display.specshow to vi
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65 views

How to design FFT for 2000 points?

How should I design FFT with fixed samples - always 2000, sampling frequency is also 2000, memory is external, there is no need to get sorted array. As far I know it may go like factoring 2000 into $2^...
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how to interpret the 2D FFT

I know how to compute the 1D FFT (and interpret values from 0 to Nyq). When computing the 2D FFT, do we compute the FFT of row[1] then the FFT of row[2] then the FFT of row[3] up to the last row. ...
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114 views

FFT Phase interpretation of input signal with non-integer number of cycles in FFT window

It is known that if we take the FFT of a signal at such a frequency which has non-integer number of cycles in the sample window we get different value of phase even if the original signal was at phase ...
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2answers
299 views

Phase difference between signals sampled at different frequencies

I want to know that if it is possible to measure the relative phase difference between a signal that has been sampled at two different locations with different sampling frequencies? Also can that ...
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1answer
88 views

DFT from Fourier transform

I always studied the DFT starting from his formula, but for some reasons I need to do comparison between the FT and the DFT. I found the pdf in this link very useful http://www.robots.ox.ac.uk/~sjrob/...
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85 views

Which (Fourier transform?) processing method to use for time variant audio processing? (newbie)

Edit: I've since been able to understand the how the relvant parts of Fourier transform work and how they relate to my problem / what I want to do. And have come to the conclusion that Fourier ...
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3answers
393 views

why should I scale the fft using 1/N?

I am writing a report, and my advisor asked me to explain why I scale the fft by a factor 1/N (where N is the length of the array). I used to use the scaling convention of multipling the fft by the ...
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SciPy - Distinguish between two group of periodic samples [closed]

First of all, I'm sorry for my bad English writing, plus, I'm new to DSP. Background We have got motion data of 20 cows. 10 cows are healthy and 10 cows are slightly lame. Lameness is an abnormal ...
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49 views

Audio sharpening

I'm working on a project where the purpose is to enhance FFT peaks in a signal (musical instruments), by other words, reduce non-harmonic components and enhance the identified FFT peaks. So far I'm ...
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5answers
629 views

Interpreting the amplitude of signals in fourier transform

I totally understand the concept of fourier transform, but one thing thats bothering me is the amplitude that we plot in the frequency domain. What does that amplitude of each frequency signifies? Is ...
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35 views

DWT vs. FFT for BPM detection

A BPM detection with FFT has been already highlighted on this site. Would DWT do the job as well? I've tried a Python script using DWT but it seems that the output is wrong, that is for the first 10 ...
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2answers
103 views

Why is the carrier suppressed by AM-DSB-SC modulation?

Lets say I have a message that is a sine wave at 1KHz. As I understand it, I can perform amplitude modulation by multiplying this signal with a carrier, lets say 10KHz, and this process is essentially ...
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5G NR standards equation

I'm currently working on the implementation of PRACH decoder for 5G NR. There are certain standards specified by 3GPP and we need to implement our module according to those standards. There is this ...
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2answers
109 views

What's the theoretical bandwidth?

A radio signal is sampled at $f_{s}=5512$ Hz, and $n=2^{14}=16384$ points are used in the FFT to display it as a spectrogram. The frequency resolution is $\frac{f_{s}}{n}=0.33642578125$ Hz/point, ...

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