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Questions tagged [fft]

The fast Fourier transform is an efficient algorithm to compute the discrete Fourier transform (DFT) and its inverse.

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How to Know which signal is likely sampled from spectrogarm

I know that x(t) =( 2 pi f t ) And the sampling rate is 1000 and y axis is normalized How can i use these information to know each signal in the spectrogram graph
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2answers
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Understanding FFT size in OFDM modulation

I know that the FFT size is the the number of subcarriers OFDM system have. But I also know that the FFT has to be $ 2^N $ big (in order to process N samples from time domain to frequency domain). ...
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How to classify the movement type of a target into two categories(direct motion or else) by using a doppler radar?

How to classify the movement type of a target just into two categories(one is direct motion which is almost straight line movement and the other is anything else) by using a doppler radar with a ...
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N-dimensional Cooley-Tukey FFT

I am trying to formulate an n-dimension algorithm for the Cooley-Tukey FFT. In two dimensions, it is very clear: $$ Y[k_1 + k_2 n_1] = \sum_{l_2 = 0}^{n_2} \Biggl[ \Biggl( \sum_{l_1 = 0}^{n_1 - 1} X ...
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1answer
25 views

Incorrect dominant frequency from FFT

DATA source: Bearing vibration data FEMTO IEEE PHM 2012 challenge. DATA context: Sample rate: 25.6 kHz Sample period: 0.1 Seconds (2560 points) Motor runs at 1800 rpm Steps taken: Low pass butter ...
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17 views

Spatial smoothing - 2D MUSIC [FMCW MIMO radar processing]

I'm using a 2D Music algorithm for the estimation of Range-Azimuth info in a ULA FMCW MIMO radar. The algorithm procedure is pretty simple as per Belfiori F., Application of 2D MUSIC Algorithm to ...
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3answers
41 views

In case of Complex DFT spectrum, why the x axis range from N/2 to N point mean a negative frequency?

When we transform a complex signal into frequency signal by using a complex DFT, The range from N/2 to N point on the X axis of the spectrum mean a negative frequency... But i cant understand why ...
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46 views

OFDM modulator: Transmission time calculation

I have a problem with a certain task. The frequency of the signal sampling at the OFDM modulator output is 20 MHz. The length of the protection period is 2 microseconds and it is 20% of the ...
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43 views

When we compute doppler FFT, how can we find values corresponding to negative frequency?

I have a question. In case of FMCW radar processing, we compute 2stage FFT. The first FFT(range FFT) is used to find a distance between a radar and a target, The second FFT(doppler FFT) is used to ...
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1answer
27 views

Checking Parseval's Theorm for Gaussian signal by using Scipy

I'm trying to check Parseval's theorm for Gaussian signal. It's well known that fourier transform of $\exp(-t^2)$ is $\sqrt{\pi}\exp(-\pi^2 k^2)$. So I implement it by using quad and simps. I think ...
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1answer
26 views

GCC-PHAT (Generalized cross correlation) always peak at delay=0 on real audio signal

I have studied the GCC-PHAT algorithm to estimate TDOA on audio signals at 2 mics. Here is my MATLAB implementation: ...
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40 views

Method for the Localisation of Impulsive Noise in Speech Signal

I'm sorry if this question has already been answered, but I couldn't find anything. I'm working on a program for noise detection and need to locate the position of impulsive noise. The following image ...
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34 views

Equivalence of ML and FFT peak finding for Single-Tone estimation

My understanding is Maximum Likelihood and FFT peak finding for a single tone produce the same results assuming the ML is restricted to the same frequencies as the FFT. I was wondering if there was ...
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26 views

retrieving complete 2d autocorrelation function from 2d power spectral density function (numpy.fft.ifft2)

My question is at the boundary between signal processing and python. I have a 2d power spectral density function (PSDF) constructed on Nx/2 + 1 and ...
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1answer
24 views

Clarification on the application of window pre-FFT

Good morning, I have a simple question about the application of a Hanning window before performing an FFT. My application is pretty textbook, i'm decoding a 4-FSK signal. Question: why does the ...
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1answer
33 views

DFT of a series of RC exponentials

Context: I'm trying use matlab to apply a single-pole filter to a time-domain ramp waveform that is generated by a sequence of time-shifted "RC steps" that are added together. The time domain voltage ...
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1answer
36 views

Why is the size of results from FFT half the size of the input, while that is not the case in image processing?

When dealing with real data, Fourier Transform produces symmetric results and FFT algorithms discards half of it. An input with 1024 points will yield only 513 points in the output. However, in image ...
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PSD Periodogram smaller segments compared to larger segment

I am calculating the power spectrum of a heart rate variability via FFT and a Welch window. I have a sample of 500 points as the input signal. The signal was broken up into two 128 point segments. ...
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1answer
27 views

real time signal analysis of output from an audio device

I'm writing a test program that can detect pops/cracks/noise (unknown frequencies and duration) in the audio output of an audio device. The purpose of this program is to reduce human error and make ...
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1answer
70 views

Why is this recursive DFT algorithm not equivalent to this iterative method?

Edit 1/30 - Taking @Fat32's edits into account, it seems like there is still an issue with the scale of the frequency axis. While version 2 correctly identifies the response at 1 HZ, version 1 seems ...
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Convolution in the Hartley Domain

The convolution Theorem of the Hartley Transform is given by $$ Y_{Ha}(k) = X_{Ha}(k)H_{Ha}^{e}(k) + X_{Ha}(-k)H_{Ha}^{o}(k) $$ where, $$ H_{Ha}^{e}(k) = \frac{H_{Ha}(k) + H_{Ha}(-k)}{2} $$ $$ H_{...
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Accelerometer signal processing

I'm new signal processing (this is my first pratical application), so I ask sorry if my question is simple. My challenge is to see the displacement of accelerometer when I have vibration too. I do ...
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1answer
46 views

Does dividing the magnitude spectrum of white noise by sqrt(2) give an RMS magnitude spectrum?

I understand that the RMS Amplitude of a sinusoidal signal is around 0.707 ($\frac1{\sqrt2}$) times the Peak Value, but this is not true for noise. However, an FFT of a noise signal indicates ...
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1answer
50 views

Detrend data with no clear secular trend prior to Fourier analysis?

I am completing Fourier analysis on many different time series of sediment particle flux exiting an experimental flume. Data is collected at a resolution of 1 Hz for durations ranging from ~5,000 to ...
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1answer
54 views

Why do DFT frequency buckets need to be divided by sample period?

edit: This is my first post in this community. I'm sure that my downvoter had a good reason to do so, but could someone please comment and tell me how I can better format my question? -- I have a ...
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51 views

Is discrete cosine transform differentiable?

Is DCT differentiable? I.e. is d(DCT(x))/dx defined? I've seen a few implementations in automatic differentiation software packages, so I suppose the answer is positive, but I'm still missing a ...
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50 views

Sampling Frequency, Fast Fourier Transform and some strange results in python

So, I have 2 types of signals - Dirac: $\left[ 1,0,0,0,0..NumberOfSamples \right]$ and Gauss (it's sinus * window_gausian). I need to do some operation in ...
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1answer
25 views

Quantized error in scatter plots for a hamming windowed LTE signal

I have a time domain signal based on LTE standards. Carrier spacing = 15KHz, Symbols per slot = 6, extended Cyclic Prefix = 512 samples FFT size = 2048, No. of sub carriers = 1200, channel BW = 20MHz, ...
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1answer
34 views

Failed to Get Silence in Audio Streaming

I want to detect silence in audio streaming. I've been following lot of answers from any website and i feel like know how to do that. but i doubt i'm on the right path coz the result doesn't seems ...
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0answers
24 views

Resources for learning Sound Processing [closed]

Does anyone know of any resources that explain simply, these are the data objects and variable definitions involved when doing sound processing? I took a class on image processing where we learned ...
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1answer
53 views

number of samples and Amplitude accuracy,what's the solution to this problem

I'm colleceting data samples from a device (temporal signal) in order to analyze it with FFT function in MATLAB R2015b,first i get N=4063 data points with (delta_t=0.000015s) so my frequency ...
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1answer
72 views

Comparing multiple signals for similarity

I have multiple (between 2 and 100) signals and need to determine when a significant number diverge from the rest. We're exploring machine learning techniques, but we also want tackle this as a signal ...
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1answer
77 views

Autocorrelation: numpy versus FFT

I have a series a of values (0 and 1) coming from a Brownian process with drift for which I am studying the autocorrelation. I used two methods: 1) numpy autocorrelation: ...
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29 views

FMCW radar 3D FFT for DOA estimation

I'm dealing with transformation of coordinates after I do the 3d FFT doa estimation. Data below is a car in front of the radar board, and the angle of arrival is "0", 50m. Left image is the row has ...
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1answer
24 views

How to custom optimize cuFFT for a mini batch of multi-channel images?

I am reading a paper, which has the following paragraph. Current GPU implementations of the FFT such as cuFFT are designed to parallelize over individual transforms. This can be useful for ...
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Is it customary to use the period as coefficient when sampling the impulse response?

I have an analog, continuous impulse response $$h_a(t)=u(t)\cdot\sum_{n=1}^4A_ne^{s_nt}$$, and by sampling it with the usual method I get $$h[n]=\Delta th_a(n\Delta t).$$ Now, that $\Delta t$ is a bit ...
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1answer
55 views

Threshold for peak detection of noisy signal in frequency domain

I have a noisy signal (Gaussian Noise) with a known SNR and known Noise variance. This signal contains a number of Frequency components. My ultimate objective is to detect the components of the signal....
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1answer
16 views

performing FFT on Voltage measurments to get Z(f)

I have a csv file containing measurments a system's step response when the step is current and the output is the voltage. output looks something like this and the it's evenly sampled provided I know ...
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1answer
41 views

Performing DFT twice on an image. Why am I getting an inverted image? [duplicate]

I was asked to perform DFT on an image twice as a part of my school assignment. Why am I getting a blurry inverted image when I perform DFT on an image twice? Sorry, I'm new to image processing and ...
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1answer
42 views

Autocorrelation sequence in terms of Fourier transform of the underlying signal

Let $x(n)$ be a sequence of length $N$, which is zero outside the interval $(0,N-1)$. Let $X(k), k=0,1,\cdots,N-1$ be the FFT coefficients of $x(n)$, that is, $X(k)=\sum_{n=0}^{N-1}x(n) \exp\left( -\...
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2answers
72 views

why is my FFT magnitude of real time recording so volatile?

My goal is to do spectrum analysis of a gear motor. I used Python with the Pyaudio package and made a crude spectrum analyzer that displays the FFT as the sound is being recorded. I recorded 10 ...
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1answer
29 views

Best way to resample an OFDM signal without interpolating + filtering?

I am working on a custom transceiver with a sampling rate of 3.84 MHz (256 OFDM subcarriers at 15 kHz, although 56 subcarriers are null). I would like to resample the signal to 5 MHz, in order to use ...
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0answers
27 views

Decoding data hidden using “echo hiding” technique

I'm working on a little project, which centers around steganography. As part of it, I want to implement the audio echo hiding method, but the problem is, I've never done anything related to digital ...
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1answer
36 views

Linear Chirp parameters from a segment of the signal

Edit:" please see the attached figure. The blue part is all I have. Also, you can neglect the noise term. Assume the signal is deterministic. Typical values of the unknown parameters $\alpha$ and $\...
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How to make function in time domain after fft fit with the corresponding function in frequency domain?

For example, I want to use fft to transform the simple function exp(-x.^2) defined in time domain. And the corresponding funciton in frequency domain is sqrt(pi).*exp(-k.^2/4). And I use the upper ...
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2answers
52 views

Zero-padding, energy conservation

When calculating the FT of a signal, and the FT of that same signal but after having applied zero-padding to it, should't the amplitudes of the FT of the zero-padded signal decrease with respect to ...
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0answers
16 views

Use 2D FFT to replace 2D Discrete Fourier Transform (MATLAB)

I met a problem. I ran a code to implement the 2D discrete Fourier Transform, here is the code: ...
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0answers
44 views

Why convolution in time and frequency domain are not equal?

I was writing this Jupyter Notebook. Then, I unexpectedly faced two visually similar output, but their numerical results were very different. This is the code I used for convolution in the time ...
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1answer
31 views

Audacity Spectogram view: how to see exact frequency and intensity under the cursor?

In the Spectogram view, simply clicking anywhere with the selection tool gives a vertical line to the top ruler, and shows at the bottom the exact sample, H:MM:SS, or other time coordinate you'd want. ...
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1answer
77 views

RF demodulation for dummies

Given a signal that's been FM encoded on a carrier wave, what are the individual steps I need to take to demodulate it, and recover the original signal? I don't have a background in signal processing,...