Questions tagged [discrete-signals]

A discrete signal or discrete-time signal is a time series consisting of a sequence of quantities.

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Proving for windowing function

Prove that $1+2\cos(\omega)$ is the same as $\frac{\sin(\frac{3\omega}{2})}{\sin(\frac{\omega}{2})}$ Knowing that $$p[n]=\sum_{k=-1}^1 {\delta[n-k]}=\delta[n-1]+\delta[n]+\delta[n+1]$$ Doing the FT ...
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What is the difference between SFO (sampling frequency offset) and SCO (Sampling clock offset)?

What is the difference between SFO (sampling frequency offset) and SCO (Sampling clock offset)? I think they are essentially the same phenomenon?
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Discrete signal - fourier transform coefficient period [closed]

if I have an example signal in the picture, how can i decide its period?
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39 views

Confused about filter's cutoff frequency in rational sampling rate converter

A interpolator which increase sampling rate by L times is followed by an anti-imaging filter, the filter is said to have a cutoff frequency of Fs/2L. Is Fs here is the frequency before or after ...
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21 views

Applying Wavelet on energy disaggregation as denoising technique to remove uncertainties

I would like to apply Wavelet in MATLAB as a denoising technique on Non-Intrusive load Monitoring data. The data was captured by sensors on each appliance and one sensor on the smart meter (Normally ...
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Deep Learning based NDA Channel Estimation

I was wondering if it is possible to use Deep Learning to estimate the Channel Impulse Response for NDA synchronization? I understand Deep Learning is not normally used for regression problems but I ...
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1answer
51 views

How to Emulate Sample Frequency Offset for OFDM in Matlab?

I am studying the effect of sampling frequency offset on OFDM, and in order to emulate SFO, I have to slightly change the sampling rate of the signal. In order to have a +5ppm offset, I have to change ...
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1answer
59 views

FSK carrier frequency estimation

In the MPSK Modulations, Cyclic Spectrum Density method can give a peaks, for example for the QPSK: But in the FSK signal, this peaks do'nt appear. How to solve it?
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140 views

What is the difference between (Sample Timing Offset), (Carrier Frequency offset), and (Sampling Frequency Offset)?

Briefly, can anyone explain to me what is the difference between (Sample Timing Offset), (Carrier Frequency offset), and (Sampling Frequency Offset)? and is Sampling Frequency Offset (SFO) like STO ...
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1answer
41 views

Simulation of IQ imbalance using MATLAB

I already have the value of Image Rejection Ratio (IRR) in dB for IQ imbalanced modulator and I want to simulate this effect using MatLab. How can I obtain $\alpha$ and $\theta$ to calculate the ...
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55 views

How to convert from Laplace Domain to Time Domain?

I want to convert the following equation from Laplace domain to continuous time domain: $F(s) = \frac{-2 m k v R}{2 m R s^{2} + m k s + 2 k R}$ m, k, v, R are all constants. If I can factor or put ...
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Are discrete time functions expected to be this inaccurate?

I am attempting to test some discrete time functions against their continuous counterparts and I am surprised by how inaccurate the discrete versions are coming out. I am modeling the displacement, ...
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(Frequency Offset): Relationship between Normalized Carrier Frequency Offset (normalized CFO) & ppm in OFDM system

How can I change a normalized carrier frequency offset (CFO) to ppm? And If the DAC sampling rate is 30GS/s, and the clock frequency is 15GHz, then should I use 30G or 15G when I calculate ppm? ...
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How do you get FFT for negative $k$ values?

I am reading a book (am a programmer so I suck at math) and it states that for a number of $k$-values that are symmetric around 0 (for example $k = -3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3$), we need to calculate $$\...
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1answer
41 views

inverse discrete FFT in python, multiple times?

I was wondering what really happens when taking the inverse discrete FFT on some set of numbers, for 3 times? Because looking at it, it looks like we're getting an output that is identically with the ...
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One more inverse z transform … a bit more complicated [closed]

Thank you for all the help teaching me. I am looking at one more inverse z transform and not understanding what to do with it. $F(t) = m \cdot a(t)$ (i.e. Force = mass $\times$ acceleration) $F(s) = ...
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How to do this inverse Z-transform? Is this correct?

It was explained to me here that I need to do an inverse z-transform on a z-based equation in order to get something I can use. That example was quite simple. But I'm not sure how to do the same ...
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155 views

Justification of bilinear transform

I would like to understand the "justification" for the bilinear transform. The basic idea as I understand it is that by integration rule of Laplace transform we have for continuous $y(t)$: $$\mathcal{...
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What does z^(-1) represent here?

I understand that when you have a Laplace function, you can do a bilinear or forward/backward Euler substitution for $s$ to phrase it in terms of $z^{-1}$. In a typical filter, $z^{-1}$ represents the ...
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How modulate and shift in frequency?

I have a 16-QAM constellation, then I divide it into imaginary part and real part. I convolve both by Srrc pulse and multiply by cos(2*pifct) and -sen(2*pifct). Let's say fc equal to 40 MHz Now, we ...
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2answers
59 views

Even and odd signals

We've studied in signal and systems about odd and even signals. But what is the actual implementation or application of this property? like for energy and power signals we know If you're using a ...
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34 views

How to generate Digital Sine Wave? [closed]

I am trying to generate a sine wave digitally. I am using LMS7200m RF chip from Lime microsystems. I want to generate a sine wave of 100KHz. The DAC on the chip has a sampling rate of 640 MHz with ...
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1answer
38 views

Noise amplification with inverse filtering

I'm trying to gain a better (mathematical) understanding of why inverse filtering is almost never the solution for correcting an image. From what I understand, we start with a discrete signal $s[n]$ ...
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103 views

LTI, causal, discrete time system output

Consider a discrete time LTI causal system $S: y = S(u)$, with its impulse response $h:{Z} \rightarrow R:h(n)=3^{n+1}{H(n)}$ with $H$ the Heaviside function. We know the values of input: $$u(0) = 2$$...
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SNR estimation prior to demodulation?

What are the standard ways to measure SNR, particularly before demodulation/synchronization?
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53 views

When is a discrete time transfer function unrealizable?

I don't understand why the following makes sense: Given a second-order mass damper system in continuous time: $H(s) = \frac{1}{ms^{2}+cs}$ Its inverse $H^{-1}(s)$ is unrealizable as a transfer ...
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Block CMA algorithm

The Constant Modulus Algorithm is a common equalization method which adapts at every sample in an attempt to give a filter which produces a fixed power output. Divergence/convergence of the CMA ...
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34 views

Autocorrelation Computation with MATLAB

I have done the computation of the autocorrelation of a sequence (vector), here called "frame", and I have plotted it. Here the code: The resulting graph is: I do not understand the position of the ...
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2answers
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Pulse Doppler Radar: time delay in down conversion

My understanding of Pulse Doppler Radar is the system measures Time Of Flight for the pulse. My confusion is that during the down conversion process prior to ADC the lowpass filter causes some time ...
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1answer
57 views

NDA timing estimation for mutli-level QAM(RC pulse)

What non-data0aided techniques are used to estimate the timing for multi-level QAM? For single level QAM(so 4 QAM) you can use variance minimization or power maximization but I'm not sure these ...
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92 views

Lagrange Vs Sinc interpolation

I was wondering what is the practical difference between Lagrange Interpolation using Farrow Structure and Sinc Interpolation? Both require pre-computation of time offset coefficients using a lookup ...
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1answer
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How to get RMS to Frequency chart for discrete samples of acceleration?

I’m reading a book on Motorcycle dynamics and want to compare the vibration profile of my motorbike against this chart: I am not sure how to get the RMS of acceleration at different frequencies. I ...
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4answers
112 views

Phase difference measurement of a signal sampled with two different sampling frequencies

I am working on phase interferometry for locating a transmitter. The direction of arrival of an incident wave can be estimated from the phase difference caused by the antenna separation as shown ...
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348 views

downsample signal to a specific number of samples in Python

The Python Scipy library provides several functions to downsample signals, but they all have limitations: The resample function is based on Fourier method, which means it assumes periodic signals. ...
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1answer
90 views

How can I correctly plot an impulse_response() of a discrete transfer function?

I posted this question on stack overflow and I think it was the wrong place so I moved it here. Hello, I'm new to python, I just want to use the control library and I'm slowly learning, I did my ...
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119 views

Impulse Response of a Moving Average System

According to Discrete Time Signal Processing by Al Oppenheim 3rd Edition, the impulse response of a moving average filter is as below My question is that shouldn't h[n] be having the dirac delta ...
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1answer
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Detection of “constant” signal

I have the positions of a computer mouse, sampled at a high frequency, with a good amount of noise. When the user stops moving the mouse, instead of going to zero the velocity reported by the mouse is ...
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Understanding and converting Matlab's coarse frequency compensation function

I am trying to understand and convert to C Matlab's coarse frequency compensator the documentation for which can be found here: Documentation Matlab's design itself is based on this IEEE paper: ...
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1answer
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Discretizing a Controller with the Backward Difference Method

In the book "Modern Control Engineering" by Paraskevopoulos it's proved how to discretize a generic controller in the form: $G(s)=\frac{Y(s)}{U(s)}=\frac{a}{s+a}$ where $a$ is a constant. Done this, ...
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Convolution of a non-symmetrical window function by a cosine signal in the frequency domain

A have a time signal: The associated DFT spectrum of this signal: The time signal can be considered as a non-symmetrical rectangular window function multiplied by a cosine signal with a frequency $...
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decouple signal from environmental effect

Sensor signal depends on environmental factors such as temperature, relative humidity. Temperature compensation is relatively straightforward. But I am not entirely sure how to model the effect of ...
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1answer
32 views

To find the impulse repsonse using the difference equation

A causal linear time-invariant filter has transfer function a) Denote the input signal by x[n] and the output signal by y[n]. Find the difference equations for the filter. f) Find the impulse ...
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Cross-correlation, spreading out the error

I'm looking for a method to determine the most likely offset of a measured 1-dimensional signal to a reference signal. The reference signal does not need to be generalized and always has a similar ...
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1answer
53 views

Where can I read up on zero state and zero input response for Discrete Time LTIs?

There seems to be something I'm just not understanding about this topic. Every question I work out that asks for zero state or input I get wrong. Hence I think I am just not understanding the ...
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1answer
694 views

Is it impossible to determine the inverse Z-transform without any other information?

Suppose I give you this as my transfer function $H(z)$: $$ H(z) = \frac{1} { 1 - az^{-1}}$$ With no other information given, is it even possible to determine the inverse Z-transform? The reason I'...
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1answer
34 views

Shifted output of input vs output of shifted input

As I understand it, shifted output means first getting the output and then shifting it. We feed in $x[n]$, and get our output as $x[2n]$. Then we shift it by $k$ to get $x[2n-k]$. This is the shifted ...
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1answer
159 views

What is the time reversal convolution

Given a signal $r(t)$ which is a result of convolution between signal $x(t)$ and a channel $h(t)$ as below : $r(t) = h(t)*x(t); $ what I know, the time reversal convolution can be process as ...
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1answer
51 views

How to describe correlated noise after the signal is oversampled?

The Gaussian noise in discrete signal models is usually assumed to be independent and identically distributed variables (i.i.d.). Does this mean that the signal must be sampled with the sampling rate ...
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29 views

Some confusion about calculating spectrogram

I am new to DSP and i have a question because it is not the same as theory. I need to get spectrogram of wav file and feed it to CNN. I have used scipy.signal to get spectrogram. I know spectrogram ...
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2answers
74 views

The sum part of the formula for a signals power

$$P_x=\lim_{M\rightarrow \infty }\frac{1}{2M+1}\sum_{n=-M}^{M}\left | x[n] \right |^2$$ I have used this formula to find out the powers for different signals, but the sum part of the formula still ...

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