Questions tagged [digital-communications]

Digital Communication is the physical transfer of data (a digital bit stream) over a point-to-point or point-to-multipoint communication channel.

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Dimension of channel matrix elements in MIMO systems

In a MIMO system we have: $y= \mathbf{H} \star \mathbf{x} +n$ with $x \in \mathbb{C}^{N_t \times 1}$ ($N_t$ the number of transmission antennas) and $\star$ the convolution product. For the matrix, $\...
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explanation on the mimo technique

In MIMO systems we have: $y=Hx+n$ with $H$ is a matrix $N_r \times N_t$. But the previous equation is only true for non-frequency selective channels. What is the formula for frequency-selective ...
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314 views

Why are the mark and space tones of these FSK signals reversed?

I'm working on a project involving FSK-modulated signals. I'm trying to reverse-engineer these signals to determine the preamble pattern used, because the protocol is proprietary. Shown below is a ...
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109 views

Frequency synchronization in OFDM

Could you please help me understanding how the null sub-carriers can be used to estimate the carrier frequency offset and thus performing frequency Synchronization at the receiver?
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114 views

Alamouti Scheme. MISO. STBC for real constellation

I have a real orthogonal design for codeword... $$ \begin{bmatrix} s1 & s2 \\ -s2 & s1 \end{bmatrix} $$ $$ s=\begin{bmatrix} s1\\ s2 \end{bmatrix} $$ $$ Y^T=\sqrt{\frac{P}{Mt}} h^T ...
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67 views

Best equalizer for a perfect CSI

Assuming a MIMO system and a perfect CSI (the channel matrix is known), what can be the best equalizer? ZF or others?
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258 views

The number of bits per symbol is less than one

For a channel of bandwidth B Hz and signal-to-noise ratio of S/N, i have used Shannon-formula to calculate the maximum channel capacity C. For transmitting at the nyquist baud rate (2 symbol/sec), ...
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452 views

Flat vs frequency selective fading in MC-CDMA?

I am trying to simulate an MC-CDMA system. I have NXK matrix $S$ which consists of subcarriers ($s_n,_k$ represents subcarrier $n$ of user $k$) and KX1 vector $X$ consists of user symbols. So my ...
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347 views

BER vs SNR for PAM2

Many sources describe the BER vs Eb/N0 as $$ \mathrm{BER} = 0.5 \operatorname{erfc}\left(\sqrt{\frac{E_b}{N_0}}\right) $$ I can verify this relation with (modified from krishna@dsplog.com): ...
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595 views

Normalizing OFDM after IFFT

I had a question about normalizing OFDM transmit power after IFFT across each subcarrier. I have simulated OFDM with BPSK and according to different website I have used ...
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657 views

Confusion in GMSK Demodulation

I'm trying to implement this GMSK demodulator. Is the input to deviator in degrees? do I have to change it to radians? Does the output of the deviator has to be NRZ or Have to convert it to NRZ? I'm ...
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53 views

Difference between MFB bound and ML bound for ISI channels?

I am considering a straight forward simulation setup in matlab. I am transmitting a random sequence $\mathbf{x}$ of $\{+1,-1\}$ over a two-tap ISI channel $\mathbf{h}=[h_0 \hspace{2mm} h_1]$. The ...
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126 views

Resources for modulation/demodulation techniques with example code

So I remember seeing someone recommending a DSP book that had actual code for modulation and demodulation of a communication signal. Does anyone have any recommended resources they could point me ...
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95 views

Bit Scaling Audio Streams

I posted this in stackoverflow but a poster suggested I ask the question here too... Basically, I'm getting a USB audio stream in the form of a unsigned 8-bit integer pointer. I want to convert ...
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24 views

How to decide about length of vectors for estimating correlation matrices

I am optimizing a filter $f$ using mean squared error criterion. $$MSE = f^T*(R_{xx}-R_{yx}^T*R_{yy}^{-1}*R_{yx})*f \tag{1}$$ where $x\in \mathbb{R}^n$ input column vector $y\in \mathbb{R}^m$ ...
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457 views

How to convert the mean and variance of a processed received signal into a SNR or BER?

So I'm trying to eventually get some sort of signal quality metric, and to do that, I'm trying to take the mean and variance of my bit determination signal and use that to come up with a Signal to ...
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2answers
381 views

What is the relation between noise (AWGN) variance and number of antennas?

I'm working in two Matlab scripts trying to simulate a MIMO system using OFDM (downlink) and SC-FDE (uplink). My question is: for different numbers of transmit and receive antennas, what is the ...
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251 views

How to find a know signal in another signal which contains other signals along with the signal i need in python

I am working on BPSK with sound waves a carrier waves. Actually I am modulating my data with some known sync bits along with the information I need to send. So the things I will be having at ...
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16 views

Repeater based pathing

I'm having trouble finding information on the topic I'm interested in, and maybe my problem is just how I'm wording things. So, let's say I have a repeater-based communication system, where one node ...
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89 views

How do we find the capacity of MIMO wideband point to point system?

This question is in the context of digital communication . In many text books (wireless communication), when people derive the capacity of point to point communication system (one transmit one ...
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336 views

BFSK modulation what signal the transmitter actually sends?

I am trying to understand how modulation with carriers works(transmission part). I will express my question in terms of BFSK for simplicity. Let us condiser BFSK modulation with symbols {1,2}. Then ...
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52 views

noise in signal

I am trying to add phase noise in signal. However, when i see the graph in frequency domain the spectrum is not broading. Can anyone tell me what mistake i am making? ...
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54 views

Do we have aliasing with this chip rate and transmission bandwidth

A particular communication system I came across defines chip time to be 0.57 ns and consequently chip rate is 1760 MHz. The transmission bandwidth is 2.16 GHz. I am wondering, do we suspect to have ...
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123 views

Interleaving over OFDM symbols in same transmission

In this question I have asked what are the benefits from interleaving between two codewords over ONE OFDM symbol in packet based transmission made up of more than one OFDM symbol Purpose of ...
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374 views

Matched filters

Working on my communication class right now, and I'm having a bit of a problem with the matched filters. As I see it the matched filters "eliminate" some of the noise. We project the received signal ...
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279 views

Spreading sequence and processing gain

The following has been mentioned regarding spreading using a 32 chip sequence 32x spreading contributes a theoretical 15 dB gain to the link budget, I have no clue, why so? Are we referring to the ...
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State definition in Viterbi Algorithm?

An ISI channel of length 'L+1' $\mathbf{h}=[h_0 \space h_1 \space … \space h_L]$can always be modeled as a finite state machine(FSM) of memory 'L'. For a binary input $x\in\{+1,-1\}$,a state can be ...
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60 views

Parameter selection for log distance path loss model

I am currently referring to the following book MIMO-OFDM Wireless Communications with Matlab in which the log distance path loss model is given by the equation: $P_{LD}(d)[dB] = PL_F(d_0) + 10nlog(d/...
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52 views

Why can CPRI links not be wireless?

I have been studying about CRAN and the CPRI links (fronhaul links) and have observed that CPRI links are always either fiber cable or some electrical interface. Why is this needed? Is it related to ...
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98 views

“Time To Lock” in Bit Timing Synchronisation

In the context of bit timing synchronisation in digital communications, what is meant by the requirement that says the "Time to lock to a sampling point should be no more than X symbols"? There seems ...
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97 views

How to simulate two OFDM Users with low complexity FFT/IFFT?

have two User one of them sending over freq (0-B] and the other transmit over (B-2B]. Both of them are using OFDM and each one has Nc subcarriers. I wanted to simulate the received signal using Matlab....
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61 views

Are there any research value in visible light communication?

My advisor wants me to take the area of visible light communication as my MS project, but I don't know whether there are any research value in this area, it seems most of the tenichnical difficulties ...
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98 views

Best strategy for sending digital signal over ultrasound

I'm interested in sending digital data over ultrasound. My initial thought is that it should be first converted to BMC: And then phase shift encoded (PSK): I initially thought to use a Goertzel ...
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53 views

How does µlaw encoding work with 16-bit signals?

I am new to DSP, so I wan't to know a couple of things. How does µlaw encoding function on a log scale such that you can input 16-bit signals and get the 8-bit µlaw signal output, after compression, ...
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198 views

Line coding for a modulation order that is not power of 2

In case a symbol encodes a non-integer number of bits, how is done the bit-symbol pairing? For example, we have a 3-levels FSK with bit rate of 1Mbps and a sequence 01011001. What is the symbol ...
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710 views

How to encode a byte array to sound file and then convert back?

This question is moved from Stack Overflow. Sorry about this noob question, because I never work with matlab and signal processing before. Here is what I want to do: I have a fixed length of byte ...
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1answer
26 views

interpretation of simulation results : capacity with precoder

I am studying the concept of computation the capacity. I have early asked about the difference between CSI unknown/ known to transmitter here. In the book about Matlab implementation OFDM system, the ...
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80 views

Is it possible the difference between OFDM-CP and OFDM-ZP about 10dB

I'm building basic matlab code for ofdm, but when I change the CP OFDM into ZP-OFDM with sme parameters, I get the performance is worse by up to 10 dB!! Is that right ? or there is some thing wrong in ...
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89 views

Modeling channel response as complex vs splitting I and Q

If I have a communications channel where a digital QAM signal is transmitted, I can either model the channel's impulse response as a complex $h(t)$, or as 2 separate impulse responses $p(t)$ and $q(t)$...
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3answers
142 views

BER Analysis of Dual hop Decode and Forward Relay

I want to perform fair BER analysis between Two-hop Decode and Forward relay communication (S-->R-->D) and Direct Transmission from S-->D. The links have Rayleigh fading. Now for fair analysis 1) ...
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Smooth factor in matlab

I use smooth function in matlab, in this function there is the smf (smooth factor) parameter that get different values. In different applications, this parameter ...
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1answer
42 views

Spatial diversity: symbol error probability, upper bound

I am trying to understand the calculation upper bound that is given in book. Edit 1: I added 3,44 Can someone explain to me how to come from (5.5) to (5.7) ?
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25 views

multi-user communication

For a multi-user communication, I do many signals $s_i(t)$ with $i \in \{1,...,N \}$, $N$ the user number. The bandwith for each $s_i(t)$ is the same. But when I do the Fourier transform of $s_i(t)$, ...
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73 views

bandwidth for a chirp spread spectrum

For a PSK communication with a symbole time $T$, the bandwidth of the system is $B=\frac{1} {T}$. But for a chirp spread spectrum with the same symbol time $T$ and the bandwidth of the chirp is $...
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75 views

Doppler compensation method for cdma

Do you know of effective and simple methods to compensate for Doppler due to movement for the CDMA protocol?
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544 views

Digital signal and frequency analysis

I am generating a digital signal with software. I have defined the vector $$[0,1,1,1,0,1,0,1,0,1,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0] $$ and my sampling rate is 8 million per second. The frequency spectrum is ...
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137 views

How to write cyclic codes?

I am studying cyclic codes. From what I understood of it, a cyclic code is a special kind of linear code with the property that any codeword cyclic shift is also a codeword. Generally, we start with ...
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timing recovery errors in the Rx path dqpsk

For pi/4 dqpsk After RRC i am picking 2 samples/symbol ---> differential decoding----> timing recovery but it is giving error any suggestion. my timing recovery (gardner) has got errors. i am not sure ...

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